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THE 



CONTEMPORARY 
REVIEW 



VOLUME VII. JANUARY— APRIL. 1868 



STRAHAN & CO., PUBLISHERS 

56 LUDGATE HILL, LONDON 

1868 



MPr^i<t 



LOKMUr! 
rUXTKD BT VIBTCK IHD CO.. 

cmr BOAS. 



47 



/ 



'7 S3 S 

u^7i^ oos 




TEE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW, 



A LIBERAL EDUCATION. 



Etaf on a liUml EdHtttitm. KoadM: SEKOiillm 

T^HIS volume is one of a claai whioh hna bocomo rathor a promi- 
•*■ nent feature in the literature of the day, the claw of which the 
"•■isll-known " Ksaays and Reviews " wore perhupen the earliest, as 
liey have certainly been the most conspicuoua, ftpeeimen. The type 
of the class mny be deiienbed as a aeries of esaaya of moderate length, 
written with a polemical purpose by authors whose views of the 
general sabjcct treated of are not indeed ncoessarlly identical, but 
at any rate couvcrgcnt. The " Kswiys and Revierrs " evokod various 
replies written on the some plan ; the RltualLitie party has followed 
the example in the two volumes entitled " The Church ond the 
World." Within the present year this mode of treatment has been 
extended to political questions ; and wo now see it applied to educa- 
tion. Like other literary varieties, it has it^s advanta^ and it« 
disadvantages. Essays by various writers will, of course, want the 
imity, the compaetne<ts, the thoroughness which coiutitule the value 
of a systematic treatise ; but they are more easily producefl, they 
appeal to a wider if a more desultory circle of rcader^i, they 
neutralizo tbe evil of individual crotchetineAs, they give play to 
VOL. viL a 




The Contempwary Reviac. 



fipecial knowledge aod special aptitude, and tbey create sometliing 
of the effect in literature vliich in practical Hie is obtained by a 
party demomrtraficm. 

I hope in the foUowiog pages to vketcb very briefly the ccntenta 
of the Tolume, to examine agtae of tbe particular opioions advanced, 
and to criticize ita general object. My own riews differ considerably 
from many of those expreesed by the individual writers, nor have I 
XQoro than a limited sympathy with the polemical purpose which 
the book is intended to sub^erre ; but there is no reason why this 
flhould interfere with fair and candid criticism, with the respect 
which the character and position of the esiaytets demand, or the 
Tc^rd wbioh most of them claim frtnn me as personal frienda or 
acquaintance. 

'Xlio subjects treated of in the ensay^ are sufficiently various. Mr. 
Parker takes the Iliston.' of Clabsieal Education; Mr. Ilenr^' Sidg- 
wick, the Theory of Cliuuical Education ; Professor Seeley, Liberal 
education in Uuiveniitics ; Mr, Edward Bowen, Teaching by moons 
of Grammar ; Mr. Farrar, Greek uud I^atin Verse Composition as a 
general branch of education ; Mr. J. M. Wilson, the Teaching of 
Natural Science in Schools ; Mr. Hale?, the Teaching of English ; 
Mr. Johnson, of Eton, the Education of the Kcasoning Faculties; 
Lord Houghton, ihc present Social Results of Clusaieal Education. 
Koch writes with a more or less distinct purpose of bringing about 
some practical reform. Mr. Parker's essay, being hiiitorical, stands 
on n different ground from the rest ; yet he wants English laugbt in 
schools, modem languages and natural scienoc encouraged in the 
UnivoTsitics, clrancntary mathematics made compulsory, the educa- 
tion of pu.Hsroen improved, and the study of Hebrew introduced; 
Mr. iSidgwick wants Latin and Greek verse and Greek prose to be 
abandBned in schools, natural science, English, and French enforced, 
and the study of Greek doCenvd, and in many case.4 discontinued ; 
Sir. Seelcy wants to abate the idolatry of the Tripos at Canibridge ; 
Mr. Bowen w^ants to hove boys taught language without systematic 
grammar; Mr. Farrnr wants to abolish Greek and Latin verso as a 
general engine of training; Mr. Wilson wants to have a course of 
natural science taught compulnorily at school ; Mr. Flalcs wants to 
have English taught at acIiuoI before any other language in leanit ; Mr. 
Johnson wanta to have the subjects now taught at school so taught 
as to educate the reasoning faculty, and in particular wants to have 
the French language and literature studied system atically ; T^ord 
Iloughton's wimt4 are less de^uite and detailed, but he may bo said 
generally to want a modern training as a svupplenient to, If not as a 
substitute for, un ancient. We begin to see iilrcady some of the 
advantages of this mode of publication. The mimber of reforms 
proposwl would overweight a single e.'*say, however extensive, and 



ve, ana i 



A hiberal Education, 3 

injare the writer's chance of SBcuring a hearing ; while, on the other 
hand, tho repetition of Ihe mme denwiids by dUTerent thinkers, siioh 
as those for the ahandonment of verees, the leaching r>f nntural 
Kienoe, and the teaching of English, prodncen an cflcct which could 
hardly be produced, nnless under exceptional circumstances, hy the 
Toice of a Bingln pleader. 

Perhaps it will be well that, before proceeding farther, T ehoold 

mdicate my own position with regard to the whole question. My 

belief then 19 thiit. what we want is not the substitution of one theory 

of liberal education for another, but an armngcmpnt by which 

different theories shall be allowed to subsist side by side. The 

prejndicc of which wo require to be disabused is not faith in cInasJcs 

&5 BU eiclusive training, but faith in any training whatever as 

PXcloaiTe. It is the growth of free opinion which is Tindermining the 

BJpremacy of the present system ; it is only by the suppression of 

fimo opinion that any other system claiming to be universal can be 

estuMished. As I read the present volume, I find thot when the 

BMyiflta advocate their favourite branches of study, T can po along 

with them hearlily, even where my own knowledge is not sufficient 

to nuke my sympathy a very apprceiative one. When they de*ire 

tint their studies shall be made compulsory, still more when th*^ 

sttenipt to discredit the studies advocated by others, they seem to 

me io be ventxiring beyond their tether, and I no longer listen to 

tbem with sBtiBfaclion. 1 believe that there are many minds which 

Jft not require the training into which it is proposed to force them : 

1 know that there is at least one which has derived great and 

"hilling profit from exercises which are described as injurious and 

ftitilc. 

this premised, I will make a few remarks on the several essays in 
<lftatl. 

Mr. Parfccr*8, as I have already said, stands on a difleront ground 
Inan the rest. It is not really a polemical one, though a few ])agcs 
i( polemical matter appear at the end as the practical eonclusion of 
* tTBatitm which la rcsilly historicaL Even here the reforms desired 
■n registered etatiaticatly, rather than enforced argnmcntativoly : 
fliey are not cxaininccl, hut prnposCTl as thingst which need examina- 
tion no as to fhmisb a programme, more or less esact, of the di.?- 
fOAsinii which is to follow. But the real value of the essay is as 
a digp?t iif facts; and here I can only wish that it had been longer 
and fuller. Eighty page* out of leas than four hundred are certainly 
■s maoh as could fairly be allotted to one essayist out of nine ; hut 
eighty pages are scarcely Kiifflrirnt for a hi--«tory of the study of the 
classics and the classical languages from the days of the fathers to 
the present time. It is an unavoidable result of thia brevity that 
things are treated conjointly which one would have been glad to 



7lie Contemparary Revkio, 

OM tewtod sepazatoly ; that there Ib an occasional osciUalion of view 
betweon tvo aspi^cte ni* the sitbjec-t. The history ofclusHiual teaching' 
may be uiid to have two portA, intemul luid external, — Lhe history of 
its own developmeni, of the chants through wliieh it htm passed 
in the Kuecespive attempts to work it cfl'ectively. and the history of 
its foreign relations, of the extent to whieh it has encroached on or 
been cncroaclied on by teaching of other kinds. Of these the latter 
perhaps bears more closely on the g^cncral object of the present 
vohimc, OS it has undeniably grown in in^portancc during the last 
century or two, and most markedly during the last forty years. It 
is not surprising then that Mr. Parker, in the latter part of his 
historical sketch, should dwell on it almoat cxclusiTely, feeling, as 
he doubtless docs, that during the period in question the course of 
home administration has depended a good deal, though perhaps not 
09 much as it might have done, on considerations of foreign policy. 
Still, it would have been interesting to hear what the history of 
classical education in English schools and universities boa actually 
been; whether Eton hos always cultivated Latin verses with 
success ; how Greek scholarship was introduced from Cambridge into 
Shrewsbury, and returned with interest by Shrewsburj- to Cambridge ; 
what classical teaching in the Univcraitica was like in the pre-examina- 
tion period ; and a number of other particulars, without which ■we 
can hardly be faid to know how we came to be what wo are. But 
the question after all is not whether we arc told as much as we 
should have asked, but whether the narrator has told us what could 
best be comprised in the limited space assigned to biiu ; and on this 
point I have no desire to break a lance with Jlr. Parker. Most 
readers, I believe, will find much that he tolls tbem both new and 
intcreeiting, and will bo grateful to him for the clcai', pleasant, and 
xmafiected style in which his facta are eommunicuted. 

There is more true discussion in Mr. iSidgwick's esauy than in any 
of the others. Uc bos decided views, but on the whole ho eonnofif 
be said to writo like an advocate ; and he is always thoughtful and 
suggestive. Tho examination to whieh he subjecte the differeut 
defences that have been uel up for the present classical system is 
Bearching, and rarely unjust. No doubt the advantages of hatitt 
and Greek, as at present studied, have frequently been represeniodj 
in far too sweeping language. Yet, if the derenders of ihe elaHaic«^ 
would amend their plea, and contend not that theirs is the only 
training which will realize the objects they have in view, but that' 
it will realize them guiliciently, 1 do not see why they should not still 
stond their ground. And I think Mr. JSidgwick iti inclined to bo 
too exacting in demanding a precise apportionment of meam^to ends. 
When he siiys, "Teaching tho art of rhetoric by means of transla- 
tion only is like teaching a man to climb trcos iu order that he 



A Uheral 'Education, 



nmj be on elognnt dancer," his metaphor soems ta mc rather to nm 
away vith hitn. Mental training is not likn boflily training : the 
moBclos of the mind are proinrntly sympathetic, nnd care bestowed 
on one will oftt'n net immcdiut*:'!)- upon nnotlicr. Besides, no 
one supposes that a hoy who ir taught to tmnxhito will have bU 
rhetonVal faculty insulated to that one pf>int. He will read Ronio 
English at any rate for himself, (ind the shai-pening of his p<'rception« 
by translation will enable him to read it profitably ; and his tntor 
will probably advise him, even for the siite of translation, to try to 
«itrh the ijetuliaritics of different English styles. So again, when 
Mr. SidgpA-ick, correcting Dr. Moberly, says tliat"ejich language 
requirrs its own art of rhetorie," he says what Is trne in itself, but 
for the purpoAe of the argument is only a refinement. Dr, Moberly 
probably means littlo more than ]dr. Sidgwick has just admitted, 
that to master one style is a very great help to m-iHtertng another. 
It lA not necemary to maintain that fjatin is a unique skeleton key 
to language generally ; all that reqiure« to be shown is that one or 
two languages must he selected, from the reat to act, as almost any 
literurj' langixage may act, as skeleton keys, and that there are siwcial 
reuons for choosing l^atiu. Generally, I suppose, the argtinicnt 
for teiiching the classical languages may be said to stand thus. 
It may be eonsidored as gmnled — Mr. Sidgwick, at any rate, gi-anta 
it — that both language and literature are important studies. To 
muter either Cfjmpleloly, it would no doubt be necessary to know 
many languages and many lit^initurps ; but, praetically, some cfanjco 
must be made. There are stiverul eandidutea awaiting tho Holeution ; 
and Hpi^iiking ronghly, any one of th<?in will giro the linguistic and 
litiiniry tniiiiing nt^uired. ThuK the advantages belonging to tho 
study of language and litei-ature belong implicitly to tho Rtudy of 
Ijifin and Oreek, and it would probably bo an intcrminablo busi- 
nt-ss tn diwuBs the question of more or les«. What then aro the 
reasons for preferring the closiriciil laoguuges where so many are 
M|ual P Mainly these : they are poHt, and they have oxoreifUid an 
fonrmous influence on the present. It may seem a jjaradox to prefer 
It dead to a living Isngunge, or a dead to a living Ut^imture, eeterU 
parihtiJt ; but the cause is not far to seek. I^iving languages tmd 
books written in them can take care of themselves : if they aro worth 
•todying, they are sure to be studied ."looner or lati^r. Thoy lie about 
in : if Wi? leave our own country, we come .it onco into contact with 
them: we can attain them, if we plefise, without schooling. Itut 
dead languages, if not learnt at school, will not be learnt at all, 
except bv ii mere handful of studenta: they are remote from ns, and 
if the tradition of them is not kept up, the knowledge of them will 
he TirtimUy extinguished. This is a ground for preference whinh 
every dead language has ; but Greek and Latin have mure. They 




*The Contemporary Rroiew. 



are tlo ouly two languages possewiug ii literature which i 
&cp«nibly t'Utwiaed wilb uDi-Jvut Iiiiitory, Uie Qiily two wliic 
profoundly mfiut^uccd the lil'e unci geuiun of tiiufs fur distaut from 
their own. Hebrew ia excluded by its particular olrcumstanues : 
SanKkrit, the ouly other oacicat language poewsfdng & great litero- 
tuTp, if it has inHueuced the history of later times, has, at all cveata, 
not infiueniel their historical oon^ousues». The student of Greek 
aud Latin gains, in fact, one of the chief advantages which are 
goinnl from the aludy of histor}' : I do not menu that he ocquircB 
knowh^gc of OTont&j though ho does ineidc-n tally pick up eoi 
knuwledgo aven of them, but that he rcaliitcs the fact that there in 
pa«t to tlio world'a hiHlcry, that there have beou states of society 
cultivulud us uur own, but osBonlially dtfiercnt. "I know not bow 
it is,** wiyn Mr. Matthew Arnold, "hut their commerce with the 
ancients u[>pcuni 14) me to jiruiluce, on thubo who cunittaiitly practise 
it, a Hteiidying and comjiosing effout on thuir judgment, not of littirsry 
works only, hut {>( mc-u and eventa iu general." And, if wo may^ 
puM for a moment from uchfiol, there c^an be no doubt that the pro- 
fessed seholur'K work Ia eHseniiidly hJBtorieal: in dtHCOvering the 
meaning of a wuni, or approciating the genius of an author, he haa to 
go through pix'cisely the Mime prooesHes tluit are pnujtisod by the 
historian who wishes to a)M?>ertuiu the reulit-y or etilimate the signifi- 
cance of an event. This i^j surely a great coiubinati'jn of advantages, 
for which it would bo diOicull (I do not tuiy iirtpui^sible) to &nd a 
parallel iu any other study. "Tea," replies Mr. Sidgwiek, "but 
though your tmiuiug hit« umny elements, each element m not (at 
any rate, taken alonej the beet thing uf it» kind, or the thing we most 
want." liere, a< I hare said before, bo seema to me too exuetiug, 
too refining : besides, the wordit included iu liis pareuthesiv open a 
question which i» too importunt to be paused over so summarily. 
Thuae elements aro not alone ; they are combined in one and thi 
same study ; and surely that 18 auoLher udvaiiluge. Boys, so far a« 
my recollection serves me, are not creatures of vei-y iutelleclual 
interests : tf they can excel iu one or two things, it is about us mu 
a« you can hope. It might be well to moke them encyelep^txUe : it 
is more pi-octicable, as it seems to mo, so to edui:ate them that one 
study shall do the work of many. 

On ftome of Mr. Sidgwick's special points, (ho noceesity of a know- 
ledge of uaLural science, the uscJcstaiesa of vcr»e composition, I shall 
hav&a word to say when I come to other essayists, who press them 
more at length. But there is one of his reforms which requires 
Bpeciul notice — the postponement oi' the study oi" Ureek. Jle thinks 
that " if Latin (along with French and Englii^h) was carefully taught 
up to the age of aixtoca, speaking roughly, a gra£p of Grcck^ suffi-, 



n 



mflf^H 



i 




cicnt for literary purposed, might be attained aftcrwarda mucli more 

lily (bail is supposed." Now I do not sny that there may uot be 

irge nnmlHT of boy« who had better not Iwarn Greek at all ; all I 

wImIi in to guard against the seductlro proiui»e o( that word " post- 

ponemeDt." A dead language which is not learat till the u^^ of 

8ixt«<Mi will, I feftr, as a general rule, uot he Ivtmil nt aU. Tliere is 

somrthing in the mastering of gmmmar nnd dictionary dilHculties 

which nutuniUy br-longs to the enrlit«t stag** of instruction, whiiu 

learning iit more or less compuUoiy. A boy who is uonscious of 

miiking real progress in one or two langiMge^ (I speuk f:t>m my own 

achuol ex|)ertenoe>) will be the very person to ruseut must thu drudgery 

of having to carry on, p<mpauu, the low, childish lask-work of another 

tongue. And if tbi» i« true of suy Inuguitge, it id true of Greek in. 

a Very high degi-i.«. The mere straugeuesa of thu character has 

something tf)>«Ilent in it, so that even uuo uhouiu ruud Oreek pretty 

fliu-Qlly (I tiipeak not merely of what X felt us » buy, but of what I 

feel to this day) will often prefer, in readiug on uufiuniiiur author, 

to read him with the help of a Lutlu trautdutiuu. Then, again, the 

fact, noticed by Mr. Sidgutck in uuoliier counexiou, that Ureek bus 

influenoed modern languages so little, reudera it mpeciully difficult, 

and by cont^equence specially repulsive. \\Tio that has groiuu>d under 

the unfumiliurily of Uie Genimii prdlxcs an iiud mU, uUr and unter, 

Wr and zrr, thu force uf whieli it requires such an effort to calculate 

befurehund, can doubt what annuj'aiice a dfver boy of sixteen would 

fod iu contfliuilly harVtng tu turn lo his lexicon to satitsfy himself 

ahout the effect of ii-a^ xara, fitra, and vapu m composition ? Alto* 

gether, I believe that there are few studies whiuh it would be so easy 

to lose OS that of Greek, few which it would be so liard to regain. 

What England would be if the knowledge uf Oreek were to fall into 

comparative desuetude, those whose exporieiioe has familiarized them 

from boyhood with the effect of the two studies cumhiuod can scarcely 

undertake to prophesy. PerhajM those who know lees of KugUnd 

and more of Vronce and Italy will find the prediction easier. 

In what I have Hoid, as iu what I shall say hereal'ter, I am anxious 
not to denote in any way from the advantages of other studios to 
those whose circtmisUncos or natural betit may happen to point in a 
differeni direction. My cose is simply that clxusics, as at present 
taught, hare a loco* atanJi ; and that case, so limited, I do not think 
Mr. Sidgwick's arguments disprove. 

Professor tSedey is less suggcativc and less judicial than Mr. 8idg- 
wick, hut he is very interesting nevertheless. His comploiDt is that 
Uuversityti'dueation is becoming more and more mere training for cx- 
unimition : hHwittbe.'* to see a more geuiulaud natural lovo of learning 
for it0 own sake. This he thinks might exist if the examination 



8 



T/ie Conlemporary Review. 



vere not made, as it is now, the central point of tho Bystem. A 
leampd class, lie contends, may also Imj h cliiss of teachers. England. 
centurieH ago, was known as llie inothor of itloas, and there is no 
reason why she should not bo so again. Many University men 
would doiiblle'« echo his aspirations, if only they could see any 
means of eonvertiug them into rmlities. His own supgcstions are 
three, though he intimates ihut they do not pxhaust the reqiiiremcnta 
of the case : the opening of College Fellowships in Cambridge to tho 
whole University ; the re-orgnnizalton of the teaidiing sj-stcm 80 that 
tutors should lectore not to men of their own wllogo alone, but to all 
comers, and, in consequence, should be able toconcentrate themselves 
on some particular study ; and the nmingemetiit of Ihe names in caoh 
class of every tripos, not by merit, but alphahetieally. Unfortunately 
we in Oxford have two of Mr. Seeley's remedies, the first and the 
thini, in full work as part of our institutions, and yot we uro otill, in 
the main, a University of examiners and examinees. The second is 
desired by many of ns, and may not improbably Im3 eetabliKlied before 
long In some form or other, if indetnl it may not be said (o bo |)nr- 
tiully existing already ; but I fear that, even then, we shall be a lung 
way from the goal to which Mr. Seeley looks forwanl. ftfnny other 
things would have to be brought about before tbe Universities could 
become re illy learned bodica. The question of pasamen is academi- 
cally what the question of a proleturiat is socially and politically : as 
long as it is left unsolved, it is an open wound. The college system, 
valuable if not invaluable for purpows of discipline, tends directly to 
discourage learning; the wealth of the colleges makes them impor- 
tant, so that their heads form a social aristocracy ; and yet a head of 
a college is not nocetwarily a learned raaii. Yet it can hardly be 
aaid thfit the Universities in this respect do not faithfully represent 
the feeling of the country, nor does it «eem likely that any legislative 
reform in Parliament, bo it what it may, will give us an aristocracy 
of teachers. 

On the subject of Mr. Bowen's es^ay, the dewirabilily of teaching 
language to boy« without grammar, I have no opinion to offer which 
wotjd be of any value. It is a practical question to be solved by 
those who have had practical experience. In what he says about 
grammar itself, his assertions seem to me far too sweeping and nn- 
qualified. Tbe laws of language are not fully contained in grammor 
rule«, but grammar rules are useful nevertheless to give form and 
stability to knowledge which would olherwiBo be vagiio and fluc- 
tuating. It is next to impoaaiblc that a boy should read enough to 
make his feeling for language a sufficient guide. Nor la it, T ventui-e 
to maintain, any impeachment of the utility of grammar (though 
Mr. Lowe, in his recent Kdinburgh addreas, appears to agree with 



A Uberal Education. 



Mr. Dovren in tbinking mo), that it was uol knonm at all b;f the oldMt 
of the clussii'iil writers, and only imiterft-ctly knoTrn by tbe tater. 
I Ao not see why u gram ninr- writer n«ed» to be " confouncleil by the 
circumstunce that Kuripidvs wrote exwllerit Grwk without hariug 
heanl of an optative niooel," when he reflect* thai there is au optative 
mood II evert heletus ami tliat tho»e for whom he writes are not, like 
EuripifU*?, unwnsciyusty speaking u living language, but consciouisly 
Ipamiiig a dead one. Here I am happy to believe that I may cliiim 
the piipporl of Mr. Sjdgwiek. who evidently thinks it unreasonable 
when a I'"renrb writer atturks grummuriaus for introducing refine- 
ments which BoKfuct ne>'er knew, "aaif Virgil ever thought of b 
tertiary predicate, or Thoeydides of the peculiar use of 5)to! ^^." 
Mr. Bowen, however, is disjKwtil to go further, and to question the 
value of tboeie qnalifieations which uiakc up what JH called " n bean- 
tiful scholar." I will not follow bim there: the paesagc is too long 
to quote, and it is eo rhetorieally and (Mr. Itowen must forgive mo 
Then I say) intemporately written, tiat it would be Bcoroely just to 
an essny which is in many rejects an intercslinj^ one lo bring it 
into prominent*. I will only notice one matter of fact about which 
Mr. Bowen'a language might lend an incautious resder to form a 
wrong impression. The writer*! of dictionaries and grammars, he 
■ayji, are sure to titt! ck n man of ability and conviction who, in ex- 
pr oa mpg himwlf on fiuhjcicti of public importance, nhows ignorance of 
the olossies. " A man of clas.ti«d education, we nball hear, would 
Ti^xcr have Apoken of the ' works' of Thucydides." The allusion, of 
course, ta to a Rpeecb made by Mr. Cobden some fifteen or nixteen 
yearn ago, in which ho was reported to hnro «aid that, to an Engliah- 
man of the prewnt day, there was more to he gained from a Mingle 
Dumber of the Timft than from the whole of the historjciil worki of 
TliucvdidM. Probiibly too much wa-t made of this lapie at the time 
when it wbr committed ; and no one. of course, would now dream of 
fjiiottng it disparagingly agniuAt a grent man. But the point was 
this : Mr. Cobden wa« not borrowing an illustration from the claa^ics; 
he was depreciating them, as many thought, nwhly and unjustly; 
and therefore it waa fair argument, aa it was certainly tempting, to 
point out that the very form of his dejireciation showed that he could 
know but little of what he wa« depreciating. A living gre«t man 
WM made the object of criticii^m, but he had provoked it by criticizing 
a dead one. 

It ifl not easy to discover whether one who, like myself, believes 
in Qret>k and Latin verse as a training for some boys, but quite 
iulniil« that there ace other* to whom it i* unsuitable, ha« any ground 
of controversy with Mr. Farnir. He apologizes to tlassica! scholars, 
vho may have the teiHure uud the inclination for ttiieh pursuits, for 



lO 



The Contemporary Review, 



aay strong laDgn^« wlitcb hu may ut« about their favourite relaxa- 
tion, anil (liHtiiiutly tUM^rtJi lliut he has in view the i^uHe not of the 
briUiant fuw, but of the modioL-re multiuuie. Yul, uu the other haiulr 
itappeairs tu me that inudi that he says is irreownciluble with t 
limitaliou. ami c-aii only be iiiterpriiteiL on the ^uppodtiun that 
hostility to ttie pnuitice is iuterneuiue. He ooinpLuiiis that " there 
aro U<arneil and able men whn otiU eliug tu a ftjmtem of renie-taaohiQ^ 
which beara to so many luiudt* the stamp of ilemoniitrable absurdity;" 
asks why it is '* that no one*, either in or out of hie senses, over thinks 
of learning any other language by a similar pnH'fiss ; " " numot admit 
that it teaches style even lo a handful who become good scholars;" 
"deliberately and detertainat^ly repeals that in this elegant tritliog 
success is often more ileplorable than failure; " appeals to periods in 
historr where BUcce^fiil cidtivation of style produced frivolity and 
feebleness of intellect ; and end^ by saying that ** we require the 
knowledge of things, and not of tronis; of the truths which great men 
have to tell u^, and not of the tricks or individualities of their style; 
of that which shall add to the treasures of human knowledge, not of 
that wLich shall flatter its fastidiousness by frivolous attempts at 
reproriucing it.i past plcgaucies of speech; of that which is best for 
human souls, and which shall make them greater, wiser, better, not 
of that whicL is idly suppo^ to make them more tasteful and nh 
fine^l." Thesw seutenoes (and no one who has read the eiWHy will aa; 
that they misrepreitent its »])irit) surely apply not t« the iudiBcrimi- 
nate teaohing of I^tin and Greek verses, but to the teaching of them 
at aU. To attempt to quality them by Interpolating in each of them, 
"except in the ease of the brilliant few," would be not to explain, 
but to destroy their meaning, lu fact. ^r. Forrar seems to have 
made a promise which he has found himself unable to keep : he haa 
undertaken lo respect tho liberty of a selected few ■ but when ha 
comes to introduce \iU remtouings, he linds them so clamorous and so 
cogent, that he is compuUed lo ubaiulon even these privileged persons 
to their tender mercies, and to proi^laim a wai* of extenniuation. 

I must then accept Mr. Farrar's challenge, which has indeed 
already been given by Mr. SIdgwiek, and declare that, whethei' in or 
out of my sensos, I should be prepared to recommend the practice of 
verse-writing as a moans of acquiring other languages, il' they should 
have to he taught under the circumstances under which Latin and 
Greek are now taught at schools. We take Latin and Greek (whether 
rightly or wrongly is not now the question) as tj-pical languages, and 
apply to them a minuteness of study which wo cannot afford to apply 
to others; and part of this minute study is the practice of vei-sc- 
composition. ^Uid we choose Terse-coiu]>rM>iliou in partlcuEar, bocauso 
OS a matter of fact we iind that Torse-cuinponition is suited to tha 






>t 



1 



ji Uheral Education, 



1 1 



I 



capacities of yoriog boyiu ^kfr. JohnAon, in a later Msay, luis done 
mp the honour to ret'or with approrol to nn opinion which I cxprciisod 
to the Public School CommiAsioaers, to the effect that whereas a vgko 
is within the gntsp of a boy's uniiorstaniling, a prase aentctice is to 
him an impenetrable mystery. This was grounded on my vivid 
isooUcction of my own school days, and also on the experience of 
lo yt'urs at Oxfoi-d, during which pupil:^ were constantly bringing 
me compoflition in vert* nnd prose. I have often mnuaed mynelf by 
panUteliug indiridiial.> with nutions, and noticing this cumpiirativfly 
late appreciation of the cnpabilitics of prose as a fact in literature, ns 
1 had already oh«crred it as a fact in my own development. Homer 
writes poetical nan-ative when history is still unknown in Greece; 
lIt-*iod Versifies didactics when (hero are uu proof treatises on agri- 
culture. Cut further, i believv that a mau (under favour of Mr. MtU 
as well us of the two e«»tiyi&.ts) will appreciate the artistic part of 
poetn,' better if he wntcs verses hiuiM.'lf. Here, again, I am stating 
what seifuts to mo to be u couulusiuu from my uwu expurieuce iu the 
ludtter of English. It may ur may uu( be worth while to cultivate 
tbt) habit, hut I euuuut admit that it (ails of its object. As to the 
ettreme cases which Mr. Farrur mentions, hoys saturuliug thumsflves 
"itli Ovid iu order to write elegiacs, no one is coucurued lo defend 
tlw3U. It is nut dvsinible Iu be thoroughly imbued with Latin erotic 
poetry ; but nuither m it necessary. A literary police, I retidUy grant, 
is needed for scholars mi it is fur other people. Uut to talk broadly 
about "u iiuical Uue-ludytsm of the iuteUcct ... an exotic wliicli 
flourishes most luxuriautly in tho thin artificial soil of vnJn and 
sfjcond-rate minds . . . the cntbroncmmt of conventionality, the 
apotheosis of self-satisfaction," as the kind of tasto which (ireek and 
I^tin v^^c-writing tends to fost4>r, is to talk unwarrautjkbly and 
uxtravagantly. Huch denunciations aggravate the mischief against 
which they are directed ; they drive opponent* into a defying and 
polemical attitude, and prevent them ivam candidly admitting that 
there arc dangers in their study agamst which they, ussunsiblo mea, 
would wish to bo on their guard. 

I havo not grappled with ilr. Farrar's argument from authority. 
My deeiro has been to record my own individual conviction, and so 
I have brought no compurgators with mo, past or present. Yet I 
tannot help hoping that I might iind some if it wero necessary^ 
though of course it is true that there are great names on the other 
ado. Meanwhile, I think the moderate advnc:a1fs of vcrsc<conipo- 
(ition may Bnd aomo reason for reai>HuKng themselvos in the very 
viiJence of the storm which seems now to be setting in agaimtt them. 
Doubtless their psrty has in its time u»ed expressions of unwariiuilcd 
contempt in speaking of studies of a different kind; and it is no 




12 



The Contemporary Review. 



more than retribution that they slionld " hpar themselves as mnny 
thing^A as they have snid of others." But Nemesis is just, and a 
limit must exist somewhere. There rannot bo much more to be 
said against their study, and then, perhaps, the tide will turn. 

I now come to an essay which T have rend in »omo rctpcets with 
more interest than any other in the volume, I mean Mr. Wilson's. 
It may not be as thonghtfiil n-s one or two others, but it is decidedly 
the most inspiring. The gem of the whole paper i8 contained in a 
few pages, where he givca an account of his own method of teaching 
botany to a class of boys by what he truly calls a fwiieniic proce«e, 
drawing out iutcUigonce before commuuicating knowledge, and only 
imparting fcrmtilus where the pupil's mind has come absolutely to 
yearn for some priucipk' imder which to combine it« facts. Bven 
those who are ignorant uf natural science must feel, on reading these 
pagCH, thot they are in the presence of u really eminent teacher, who 
could hunlly fail to cjtervtBC a pawerful iuIlucDce on any mind ef 
dect5i)t capacity with which he might bu brought into contact. 
Perhaps I may be allowed to mention the effect which their perusal 
had ou myself. It did not make me iwl fhut nuturiU science ought 
to be taught in sehouU less restrictedly than it is ; that I was already 
prepared to concede. It did not make me feel that nuturul science 
ought to be made a port of every hoy's education ; that I fejir I shall 
always be disposed to question. But it sot me thinking whether the 
method employed so successfully in teiiching natural science might 
not he applied to other things in which 1 happen to he more in- 
terested — whether Mr. Bowcn's view of toaching language without 
grammar, to which I was not previously inclined, might not have 
some portion of truth in it. 

What more I have to say must, unhappily, be confined to the 
point on which I differ from Mr. Wilson, the neccasity of compelling 
all boys to undergo a course of scientific instruction. 1 believe to a 
considerable extent in what Mr. Wilson " holds to be a pestilent 
heresy," — ** a theory of education in M-hich bnys should Icam nothing 
hut whatthty show a taste for." I should not myself put it quite so 
nakedly; and I should be ready to have my theory modified (which 
does not mean set aside) by tho praetica] esj>ericnce of school- 
masters. What I think then is, that boys who have a decided tnsto 
for any intellectual study recognised as forming a part of school 
education ought to be allowed to indulge it, to the total neglect of 
some studies, and the partial neglect of others. The IMntonic 
Socrates lays down f whether he is always consistent with himself on 
this, any more than on other subjectfl, I really do not know) that 
" no trace of slavcrj- ought to mi'x with the studies of the free-bom 
man ; for the continual performance of bodily labour docs, it is true, 



A Liherai Education. 



^3 



CExert no evil influeacc opon the body ; but, in the ca&o of tbe iniiid, 
no etudy, pursDcd under compukion, rcnialus rooted lu the 
memory." * Probably many instances might bo quoted to (luipruve 
this ht£t statement ; but I am gui-o thcro ie a great doal of truth tu 
it. "Mule porta male dllabiintur:" what wo take tio iittiTcst iu 
lesming wc aro commonly glad to forget. Tho real thing, it seems 
to me, is to etrcngthcn the lovo of knowlcdgo whcru it exiHla, and 
lead it on continually to frosh acquirciticutfl, £eokiiig corrections for 
one-sidednc»ia whrrc I believe they may generally bo found, in ever 
widening and deepening Wowh of tho nludy itself. There will 
always be out-lying subjects to which the student will have some 
afliniiy, and tbcKe he iimy easily Iw led to pick up; u boy with 
claitsir^ tastes, e.g.f will, as a general i-ulo, with a little encourage- 
ment, take kindly tu English literature. On the other hand, there 
will be studies to which a boy of this kind will be apt to feel a natural 
repugnance ; witness what I may almost call the hereditary feud 
between cla-ssic^ and mathematics. I do not nay that it may not be 
possible, by a long and elaborate course of training, to soften these 
antipathies; I do not say that it may not be in some eases desirable 
to do BO ; but afl^r all, some choice must be mode, and there arc many 
things of which tho majority of cultivated men must, each in his 
ovn tuphcro, be content to remain in ignorance. I am rcody to in- 
clude Latin and Oreek among these, as regards one type of men, 
destined to one course in life. I do not see why I may not include 
natural science as regards another. One class need not know the 
Greek name for the liver, or the Latin fur the spletn ; another class 
seed not know where the liver or the spleen in, unlc»e, unhappily, 
the iiUbrmation should be brought home to (hem ia a practical shape. 
Some ph}»ical facts tbe literary man will re(|uire for the conduct of 
ordinary life, !xn*L he will get them ; some facts about antiquity the 
•cientific man will require in order to understand the condition of 
things about him, and he also will get them. For these purposes, as 
well as for purposes of social intercourse, the broad sheet of the 
TimcK newspaper will supply sufficient common ground. Kor pur- 
poses of mental culture, apart from professional exigences, each will 
find ample moans of refreshment in his ow'n and cognate fitudics. 

HuL it is said that classical men need a scientific education. Mr. 
Parker tolls us that men of science make the complaint which ErQ.smus 
mode of the scholars of his day : " Incrcdibilo quam nihil iatclligot 
hUf-ratorum vulgus." Mr. famday, to a. paper of whose he refers, 
Bpoke strongly to the Public School Commissioners of the delusions 
entertained by cultivated persons on matters of whieh no one can be 
II judge without having hod a scientific training. " Up lo this very 
* Plato, " Republic," book rii. p. ^36 (DiLric* and Vanghu'i Lroiutatioo). 



H 



^he Contemporary Review^ 



day there come to mo persons of good education, men and women 
quite fit for all that you expect from education ; they come to me, 
and they talk to me about things thai Wlon;* to natural scionc^, 
about racMnerism, table-tuming, flying through the air, about the 
laws of gi-avity ; they como to me to ask lue questions, aad they 
insist again»t me, who think I know a little of thutie Ibwk, that I am 
wrong and thej- are right, in a maimer which shows how little the 
ordinary ccurBO of education has taught such minda." No one will 
defend these injudicious querists, who go to consult the oracle and 
then argue ugainst the response given ; though I suppose it might 
be asked whether their belief in their illusions is likely to have done 
them much harm, apart from leading them, an it apparently did, to 
violate good taste. But I m-IU meet the complaint with a counter bit of 
oxpcrieiice. In 1853, not long after tuhle-tumiug came into vo^Pj 
I was acquainted with u perattn who had no KcientiHc knowledge, but 
occupied himself chiefly with the study of Greek plays. lie beard of 
table-taming, und became rather interested in it. He tried it him- 
self in a miniature form, which at that time was fashionable among 
beginners, thu turning of a hat. The hat turned readily. IIo hod 
endeoTOurcd to observe his own movements while the process was 
going on, hut found that the very act of thinking of his fingers' ends 
gave him a sensation as if his fingers* ends did not belong to him, ao 
that ho could not tcU whether they wcro imparting any motion to the 
hat, mnch leas whether the fingers' ends of hia neighbours were im- 
porting any. Ho resolved to snspond his judgment until flome 
physical philosopher should •tpcak. In two or three weeks one did 
sponk, and that was Mr. Faraday himself, in a well-known letter to 
the 7V/«M. My friejid was satisfied, and troubled hira^lfver)* little 
about table-tnming afterwards. What led him to .-"O sane a conclu- 
sion? Tt was simply that he was just tlien begintiing to take a firm 
hold of his own suhjef;t, and, in consequence, to understand the 
authority which special knowledgo imparl.s to its possessor. 

Tint, granting that tt is possible for non-scientific persons to avoid 
forming or propounding rush judgments on scientific subjects by 
attending to the simple rule of minding one's own buisiness, is there 
nothing of importance to all edutate<l men, to appreciate which a 
knowledge of science is absolutely noeea'<ary? My readers will have 
anticipated that I am going to speak ef a matter far graver than 
any I have touched on yet, the issue now pending between science 
and i-evelation. Mr. Parker presses this point iu a few words ; ilr. 
Wilson more at length. The latter thinks that uu one can meet the 
question properly in whose mi'jid religious and scieiitilic ideas have 
not been allowed to grow up side by iside. Now, it is important at 
starting to ascertain to whom or what the duty of coming to a von- 



A Liberal Education. 



>5 



elusion qn tiis quustion is owing. Is it io religion or to science? 
Clearly to the former. I do not say that M-e bare no duties to 
Science : we all of us have duties to it ; those who are led to it by 
nataral beat or circumstances are bound to cultivate it; those who 
are not so led nre bound lo treat it with respect, and to refratn from 
rash and ignorant comments on it. Dut that belong to the part of 
the argoment with which we have been engaged for the last page or 
two, not to the part which we are now coneiderJng. The new claim 
advanced for science rests on another duty, our duty to religion. 
Science and religion are in apparent conflict, and therefore it con- 
cerns all religious men to entertain some opinion on a struggle which 
may aScet religion. It is a question whether we are all bound to be 
Bcientifie ; there is no question, among those with whom I desire to 
claAS myself, that wo arc nil bound to be religious. I am not advo- 
cating any sectarian view ; I admit freely that all truth comes 
from God, and that reh'gion may be injured, not merely by questioncrfi 
who start difficulties, but by answerers who ignore them. I am only 
anxious to put the matter, as regards those who recognise religion, 
on ita tme basis. What wc have to inquire, then, is, how moy our 
duty to religion in this matter bo satisfiod P Is it due to religion 
that all those of us who are capable of acquainting themselves with 
scientific truth should try to do so ? Lot as consider whnt the points at 
iflsiie between seience and religion are. Two of those -moit promi- 
laotitly canvnssed nre the truth of the Mosaic account of the creation, 
ojld the crctlibility of the Oospcl miracles. Would the breach that 
eiistfl with regard to matters like these be hralpd by a general diffmion 
of scientific knowledge? Some hove thought that a profmindcr 
investigation of science would remove tho apparent eontradietions 
"which now trouble so many minds. It may be so ; but is this likely 
to result from a more geneml difliurion of scientific cduration ? If it 
5s necessary to dig deeper than the science of the present day, will 
■not such digging be carried on by the few rather than by the many? 
On the other hand, might not there be a danger, if science were more 
«iiflrusrd among educatcifl men, thot those who are zealous for ri>ljgi(>ti 
'Would broach superficial theories of reoonciliation or confutation, 
as readily commend themselves to partial knowledge, while 
key could not have occurred to honest ignorance? Surely the 
present aspect of the controversy tends to show that men require, for 
"llieir own peace, at any rate, not instruction in natural science, but 
"views drawn from a philosophy of another kind ; news which, while 
fttcepting the statements of science, if need he, at its own ustimate, 
Aall suggest other considerations unknown to science, and produce 
in the mind, not, perhaps, iutellc-ctual wilisfaction, but at any rate u 
contented acquiescence in imperfeet lights, as a condition at once 



i6 



The Contemporary Review. 



warranted by tad aad n^otunitmdod by oiiaLog^'. If, aa I bcIicTC, 
our conclusion must be, &a rcligioua men ulivu to Ihu controversies of 
our time, tliat while, on tbu ouc bund, tiicrc ure iimiiy unsulvbd difG- 
cultius, on the other thoro aro realities lying beyond the range of 
Ibose difHcultics, wliy are wc bound tu eii^nivc the difficulties deeply 
on our minds, so that, turn wlien* wu wilt, they may always confrcmt 
usP Why is it noceasar}' tbaL every cultiratcd man should be able 
to appreciate from his ovcti exjierienco the full strength of the 
reaistauDe which tH;ieiitiric babils of nuiid oppiisc to the reception of a 
theory of supernatural interferem.-c? No one pretends that tho dis- 
pute is really to be decided un that, i^^ue ; !t itt merely one of various 
elements in the question ; and till idl cultivated men are so educated us 
to appreciate all tho elements of the question thoroughly, it is worse 
thiui vain, it U mischievous, to press on religious groumls tho claims 
of any single element to special study. Xo dimbt the study of evi- 
dences is the proper work of the ablest of the clergj', and of such of 
the hiity who fwl tbul from cirtTunistances they are best ablo in (bat 
way to stir\-e tlieir generation ; but it should be a really thorough 
study, neither one-sided nor superBcial. 'Uliat others hava to do is, 
not to solve the problem for the wurUl, but to appreciate its condi- 
tions, which will be ouc way of wjlving it for thomselvea. 

After all, I fear Mr. Wilson will still be unconvinced. He will 
not allow literary men to argue from tbcir own mental experience 
that they do not need a scientific training ; and that, I am afraid, is at 
bottom the argument which is really powerful with aU of xm. I will 
only entreat him to believe that, though a lltcrai-y student may not 
use his faculty of natural obwrvatiou wb^^^n be is out of doors, hia 
mind is not necessarily idle or unoccupied ; he may have thoughts 
which are worth having in tliemselves, and which be could not have 
if hist attention were otUeririse engaged. 

The three remaining essays need not detain us so long. The 
matters for controversy which they open hiiVL- been partially antici- 
pated ; and generally they may be limid to bo lostt controversial than 
most of their predecessors. Two of them, moreover, are compara* 
lively short, those by Mr. Hales and Lord Houghton. Lord 
Houghton's acts as u sort of Cfiiroif, nut going into detail, but 
enforcing the general doctrine of making education more modem on 
social grounds. Like everything wbicb comes frum him, it is 
elegantly and gracefully written, and, standing us it does at tho end 
of the list, it enables us to closo tho volume with a sense of artUtic 
finish. Mr. Hales, on the other hand, devotes himself to a special 
point, the teaching of English in schools, which Le tlunks ought to 
be made the basis of all other linguistic and literary training. Mr. 
Sidgwick had already pressed the same thing, though Z urn not sure 



A Liberal Education. 



»7 



wbotier he would entirely agree with Mr. Ilulea on all matters of 

detail. Their view would have my warm sympathy if I could bo 

quite sure of its feasibility. No one will deny that u knowledge of 

tho English language and litcrataro i^ an essential purl of the 

literary training uf an Englishman. Other modoni languages he 

may neglect with moro or less of impunity ; but to nogloct his owa 

would be absolutely suicidal Tho only question is whether room eaa 

he found for it in tho olaasiiral part of tho preiienc school rurriculum. 

I ain assuming that Greek and l^atin arc to bo retained utt purttons 

of tho early training of hoys edufiated in that department ; and I 

should be inclined to add to them Gorman, for the reason which I 

bintctl in a fonner pagi:, that, while it is ull-important an a key ti> 

modem learning, it is comjiuratjvoly difficult to pick up later, and 

therefore ought, I think, to ho mastered in tho»o early years which 

ure naturally associatetl with Jntelloetuol drudgery. With three 

languages on hand, T confess I doubt whether oven a clever Ixiy 

vould tind room for the Rystematic study of a fourth, even though 

that fourth be his own. On tho othor hand, knowledge of English 

can always be picked up : a boy's ignoraneo of his own language la 

not that kind of ignorance which offers resistance to the acquirement 

of knowledge, and much may bo done without direct teaching to 

make a clever boy a good Knglinh scholnr. Let me nay, by the way, 

that I scarcely agree with Mr. Sidgwick when he doclnrefl that he 

wishes the "occa-sional and irregular training" which boya now get 

"to be made an general and systomalic as possible." One of the 

complaints againnt tho increasing exactingnos^ of modem education 

ia, that it allows hoys no time for reading. Bouhtle&s "o^ that 

athletic taatpfl have become so absorbing, musters may be jcalnun of 

leaving more leisure than necejisary at a boy's disposal ; yet I think 

noet would feci it to he a pity thnt a pupil should receive the whole 

of his intellwitual impressions through tho medium of bis form- 

xnoater or his private tutor. That Kngli»h should be taught to those 

"whnso training is not intended to be classical, I readily admit ; and 

if in a bifurcated school any crumbs from tho wcll-fumished table in 

the modem department could be made to full to the closstcol boyii 

■without entailing the necessity of their sitting through every meal. 

it would be a real point gained. "While I am on the subject I may 

ziolc that the absence of any Professor of Kngliah is one of the moAt 

patent wants of the Knglish Univeraities. An Anglo-Saxon chair 

may throw light on the "diviuc fore-time" of tho language; a 

Poetry chair may do something for part^ of the literature; hut a 

more systematic cultivation of the subject i« needed, and it is a 

discredit that Oxford and Cambridge should make no attempt to 

BTippIy it. 

VOU VII. c 




ilr. Joliuson's cstiuy oomci uoar Mr. Sidgwick's for suggcstivcnc 
and thought, ii' it is not quite equal to it. Perhaps iu i-flt:ot la 
injured to some extent by the form into which a good deal of it is 
thionn. There is uu uutobiugraphical clement in it ; it jirufesiHw to 
record the writer's experiences as a schoolmaster ; and this is not 
unljrequc-ntly done in a tone of cynical beU'-depreci»tiou. The rcKuIt 
ia (hat, though wc have much light, the light i» not always quite dr}'. 
The same vein of individuality appears occasionally in the iUu&tni- 
tions with which he sots forth his arguments. Like motit of his 
coileagaes in this volume, ho pleads for pliysicul science; and oiio of 
the considerutians he advances is the value which the clas&ical wn'toTs 
whom we admire attached to the study. " It in piiinful to miiunci'al 
uU that we leave tmuoticed ; the * natural questions ' which a Seiu 
woidd have asked, which we, the distant heirs of Seneca, eit 
■light or dread. We furoc our pupils to say in Latin verse, thj 
■ciuuda to me almoflt as the voice of the Fairy Queen summoning 
rhymer, 'Happy is he who hath been able to learn the cau&ea 
things, why (he earth Irumbles, uud the deep seas gape ;' and vet 
are not to tell them. Virgil humbly grieved, but we grieve m 
that we cannot rt'uuh those reuinu of wonder. . . . What wot 
Lucretiua have thought of men who knew, or might know, sucli* 
lbiug(>, und were iifniid to tell the young of tht-iii, for fear of spoiling 
their perception of his peculiarities V How would 0\-id flout at u» 
if he heard that we c^uld unfold the boiindloi^ mysteries contuimnl 
in. his germinal saying, 'All things change, nothing perishes* auJ 
paiwud them by tu potter over his little ingenuities ! " Surely U 
IB misleading to talk in this wa.y of the ancients, as though thc-ir 
circumslancea were precisely the same as our own. Know]f<Igc was 
in their days &r Ioh» extensive and multitarious thon it is now, and 
the pnuctplo of a division of studies was in conatx^uence mut-h leea 
ruMguibcd. An ancient student wus necessarily more ambiliouft in his 
nuige of inquii-y than u modern Htudeut either can or ought to be. 
Then there are special circuinhlauues allac}iiug to each of the (Hflcreut 
writers named. It i.s diflieult to understand why wc arc hound to 
loUow in tho »t«p8 of Sonoca ; he in not one of the authors who have 
made our knowledge of t^Ia^icul littirature what it in to us; and tho 
mere fuet that be writes in Latin and was cncyelnpardic is hardly 
a reason why those M*ho reud Latin should be cncj'cloptcdio alto. 
Virgil, if I rea<l him rightly, did not so much wish to be n natural 
philosopher, winch be niij^ht have beeii, as to be the poet of natural 
philosoptiy ; nor is it cleorj even ao, what his wish means. Il uiuy h» 
& graceful way of deprecating companHon with Lucretiu):, to whom 
the whole pauHUge Iti an allusion ; it may be a despairing aspiralitOL 
(liter tlie iuwnnl satisfootion supposed to be given by Epicurean belief 



i 



A Liberal Education. 



19 



cr disbelief. As for Lacrotius, the " nature of thtnga " had a terrible 
jeality to him ; his croed was bound up with his phyiiit.'al theurj'. 
It would certainly be strange if any one should read Ihmugb his 
poem for tho aako of notiug his pcculiaritieb without attempting to 
understand bis philosophy; but is this often doncF My own experi- 
ence would lead mc to think that haixlly any who arc not pre|iared 
to enter into his philosophy read blm continuously, und that 
those who wi^ to observo his peculiarities as a writer read only 
certain ports of his poem, those, namely, which contain Icaal of 
oatural scienoe. Ovid's case is diumetricaily opposite : whotoTor 
he may hare thought of his " germinal Baji-ing," it la in no senae a 
•ample of his poetry ; and those who, instead of tr^'iog to develop 
it6 meaning, devote their time to his prettineeeoe of expression, do 
no more than he appurently wished them to do. Is a reader of 
Pope's " Essay on Man " bound to study the philosophy, which 
is probably secoad-band as well as second-rate, rather than the 
<lictioa and vertuii cation, which arc really what give the poem its 
character f But I must not follow Mr. Johnson further into details, 
though I should have liked tu put him on his defenoe for his 
atatement that " the monstrous fuluities which disfigure .^cbylus 
are coudemued. by the clMir hood of ou AristcphuncB, and con be 
proved to be bod ; " un unmeasured way of talking, from which even 
!2Lr. Sidgwick is not quite free. A disaectiou of un illustration. 
^akes up more room than the iJluntnLtioii ilftplf: slid the more iin 
essayist hoB to say, the mure a reviewer is obligtxl to euy in anawer- 
ug him. I wilt only add, then, briefly, that I cordially agree with 
Sir. Jobnmo's object, tlie education of the reasoning faculties of 
Iwys, and think that he has been ver^' succcs^ul in showing in how 
xnany vay% it may be done without outstepping tho ordinary limits 
of a classical and literary training. To hitt plaii of leaching French 
Byttematically to his cloKsicol pupila I incline to demur, for the 
Ttascm I gave a page or two back in speaking of Mr. ilalcs's essay. 
Throe languages seem to mo tho utmo&t that a boy con profitably 
pursue at once ; and Frcnuh te not, like Gcnuau, a language which 
it is difficult to acquire at a later period. 

I should be sorry if it were supposed that I wished the foregoing 
pages to be accepted as an adequate examination of tho contents 
of this volume. To examine it thoroughly would require a volume 
if at loast twice ita bulk, and a writer far more versed in educational 
^Mstions than I am. All that I have attempted to do is to follow 
t!ie example of the Parliamentary orator (was it Mr. CobdonP) who 
uid it was his habit to step out and join the debate when he saw it 
og by his door. The thread which runs through my criticism 
1 1 have said already, a belief that the question before ua is not 

c2J 



20 The Contemporary Review. 

how to &ame a new theory of liberal education which shall supersede 
the old, but how to construct a Systran which shall give scope for 
different theories, adapted to different circumstances. We are not 
likely to conTince each other ; we have no right to silence or ignore 
each other ; it remains that we should tolerate each other. How a 
toleration may best be organized is a question which I leave to those 
who are more accustomed to grapple with details. The adoption of 
bifurcation in all our larger schools would seem to be a natural 
way of meeting the want in its earlier stages : to satisfy it in a 
later period it would probably be necessary that the TTniTersities 
should recognise from the first that distinction of studies which is 
now conceded, sparingly and with hesitation, in the latter part of 
an academical career. 

John Cosington. 




ROME AT THE CLOSE OF 1867. 



NOTES FBOM WITIUN THE OITV. 



T) 03IE is tranquil. The Holy Father, with the aid of the Chusse- 
•^*' pot rifle, has "made o solitude aad calls it peace." The 
galea of the city arc still barricaded by earthworks and Btagnant 
ditches. The Piazza del Popoio ia encumbered with that ulli/na 
rafio trfft/m, the black -throated cannon. The parapets of the 
Piiiciti aro surmounted by hcavj' earth-bags, with loop-holes for 
rifles, and Rcli^on is cvcrj-wherc armed and in uniform. The people 
uv cnishcti and the priests triumpli. The strocta aro thronged by 
wltliers, nearly all of whom are foreigners, and the Zouave^ aro 
(Specially conspicuous, not only by their dress, but by their strutting 
and imperious airs of ownership. Never, within my knowledge, did 
tti& city look so sad and depressed. There is no life or movement 
anywhere, and even on festal days the (Torso is comparatively empty. 
-Iltere scema to be a diiierent population in the alrceta, and tho focoB 
one sees are dull and dispirited. And no wonder it is so, for tho 
Pupnlini arc chiefly risible. The flower of the Roman people Ian- 
^iahes in prison, or has hwn dri*-en beyond the gates. Besides 
^c prisoners of war and the wounded, no leas than 2,000 men are 
under arrest, imprisoned, aiid awaiting process. How long they will 
Wait no one knows, for suspicion u in thia place ample wurruut for 
wteation, and trial comes on according 1o tho whim of the authori- 
al at any time, or at no time ; and, worse than this, when trial 



22 



The Contemporary R^iew. 



takes place it ie little better than a farce. The priBoiio in Home are 
now so crowded, thtit there is no space to lodge any raore peraons; 
and it is nocee&ary, when now orrcets are mode, to send the prisoners 
into the adjacent toims. 

It is iniposaiblc to obtain any exact or tmstworthy information 
from the public proes as to tho real history of the late rerolution. 
The Osscrvaiore Romano and the Giornale di lioma do not scruple to 
lalsiiy tho known facts, and to miflrcpresent in the groeseet manner 
tiio nishes of the people and tho conduct of the I*apiJ troops. There 
BoemB however to be little doubt that the Zouuves behaved very 
badly during the invasion of the Garibaldi (ms, and that the state of 
siego in tho city was a reign of terror. Kvcn during the day it was 
unsafe to walk the streets, which were thronged by parties of cioldien 
who, on the 8lif»ht*et pretext, and often with no pretext at all, shot 
and huyoneted innocent persona. In repeated inetanoes single men 
were aet upon by «]uads of Zouaves, who, innteiid of arresting them 
for esaminaiion, barbarously wounded or murdered them, upon mere 
BQgpioion that they might bo connected with revolutionary incidents. 
If a bomb was exploded in any piazza, all persons seen neor the spot, 
whether drawn by curioeity to a door or window, or seeking shelter 
onywhere, were at onco fired at. In the attack made upon one houso 
where arras were discovered on one of the floors, and a defence was 
attempted by the band of revoliitionistawho were gathered thMv, the 
whole house was rovaged, tho ftimituro of tho occupants of all the 
floon destroyed, and every article of any value was stolm. One 
pcrsc»i, well-known to the attacking party as a peaceable man, 
entirely unconnected with any revolutionary designs, had the inis- 
forture to Indge in on tipper floor ; tho soldiers broke into his npnrt- 
mont ; he and his family were protected, and no outrage was com- 
mitted on them, except that ho was placed under arrest ; but big 
rooms wore plundered, all his money ond silver plate, and nil the 
jeweller}' of his wife, were taken ; ond the savings of a life of iru- 
golity and toil were lost in an hour. Ho returned from prison in a 
few days to find himself utterly ruined. Another rase wan that of 
u servant of the Barberini fiimily, who had the misfortrino to be 
passing down a streot near by a piaun when a bomb exploded. 
Alarmed by the noise, besought the nearest refugp, bnt being seen by 
a party of Zouovcs, he was shot down, and then Hurrounded and 
bayoneted ob he lay on the ground. Fortunately, dei^pite his 
woonds, he eaeaped with his life; but although there was no evidence 
to show that he wa>i in any way connected with the expIo«on, hewaa 
aentcnc^cd to death, and only saved by the earnest remonsti-ances of 
Prince Bnrbrrini. 

In still another case, a Zouave having been shot by au uaknown 



R^me at the Close ofi'iby. 



23 



person at one of the casinos near the Vntican, party of suWictb 
immediately issued in search of the a^iassin. The street was cmjity. 
Olid finding no one opon whom they eonld wreak thc^i^ Tengeonco, 
Ihcy entered an osteria called tho " Cecchino," whoro soTcral pcrwins 
wore quietly seated, among whom were three ur four old men (two of 
whom wore " vocea morti " employed to corry bodiea to the griiTc), u 
woman, and two or three children ; and though thero were no gromidft 
to inspect those persons of any kind of implication in tho crime, or 
even of any knowledge of it, and although no rGsiatance was made, 
they immediately rilauglitered the whole of them in cold Wood. 
T>uring this period the Zimavrs thronged tho stroet with thmr gnns 
loaded and swung on their shoulders ready for instant use, and enrry- 
ing loaded and cochpd revolvers in their hnndi«, which they nsed on 
the rtlightetir pretenec againut innocent persons. 

Incidents like this were of constant oeenr.'pnce, and tho result was, 

of counw, A unlvenuil state of terror among the poople. Shops were 

partially opened, and wore closed long hofore mnfiot ; the 

treclii were deserted ; no one could piuw out of tho gates ; and tho 

•flenee of tho ppopin was pme.laimed by thn nowspapern of Rome as 

n proof of their nfTection for the Pupal GoTemmenl. Puiihi-lfss there 

19 a largo class of persons in Rome whose sympathie^nro for the 

*op^. Tlie greiit proportion of tho nnhility adhere tf> him nnl] 

'ttphold the present stAto of things. Besides theao aro the employ^K 

of the rfovemmont, who depend upon it for their means of s'ihnnu 

enee, and all thoae who are connected with the churches and con- 

wuts, or ore priesU or fmli by profession. But the great mas-* 

of tho intelligent citizens of the middle and lower class are not only 

'rtppfwcd to tho Papal Goremmi>nt, hot despi*e it. They long (or the 

•^"tiiue when the temp«)nil power shall be OTCrthrown, and Rome 

lecoine tho eapftil of Italy, and the power of the priest'* be cast 

Those who know not tho terrorism of these latter days in 

jme may wonder, if such be the wishes of the majority of tho 

people, why it was that a revolution did not take place when the 

(liirihildians were almost at the gates. But when it is remambpred 

that the people were almost entirely without fire-arms, that the city 

wm 6lled with soldiers and sjpies, that every movement was watched, 

O&t orery person n^n whom a shadow of smpiciou lay was either 

triested or undur surveiUance, that tho^te who had the energy and 

uliilily Ir) orgiiiiize and lead u revolution were in prison ur L>.\ile, that 

nn Di>ws was allowed to come in, and that the threats uf Franco 

ilflrkeni-d oU hopra of ultimate success, the apparent tranquillity of 

tW i»Kiple, interpreted by foreigners into apjithy, and proclaimed 

tij' tho Pnp-tl Government aa a proof of afltvtion, wiU be aeon to 

indicate anything ratber than acquiescence in tho continuance of the 



24 



The Contemporary Rroievj. 



Papal rule, or indifference to Italy, Besides this, it must not be 
forggtten tliitt tlie policy oi* Rome siuce 1848 bos been one of 
proscription, exile, uiid impriaonmcut of uU who were suspected of 
liberal views, so us to deprive the reroluttun of its most energetic 
leaders and foUowem. Other influences are also to bo considered- , 
Desiroits as the people were that Italy should enter and take posaei||^H 
sion of Rome, they feared what might be the consequences of ft^H 
sudden revolution when the city was taken by tlie Ganbaldians. 
These fears were not oti account of the Oaribaldiaus themselves, bnt 
of the bunds of robbers, the refuse of uU Italy, which, driren from 
every quarter, thronged the city, and were ready to take advantage 
of the confuiiioD to commit any kiud of outrage, All accounts seem 
to agree that during those daye u largo number of persons were seen 
in the streets entirely uiiluiuwu to the Romans, and of an appear- 
ance which was not calcuUted to inspire conhdeuce. Still the tran- 
quillity of the Romans was only apparent. A revolution was prepared, 
fire-arms had been secretly obtained and hidden, and the day vas 
appointed for the ritsiug. But when the moment came fur the out- 
breuk, aud the Romans went iu take posseiision of the arms they had 
secreted, every place where ihey had been deposited was found to 
be in pos&e|eioii of the I'apal troops. The whole plan of operations 
had been betrayed by some traitor, or discovered by eome epy and 
reveuled tu the Govemmcnt. Nutwithstaudiug this, risiugti took 
place in viirious paria cf the city. The Romans, unarmed as they 
were, threw themselves upon the patrols, and after drawing their 
fire, fought hand to hand with them and put them to flight. At 
Ara Coeli a tierce encounter look place; and one band of unarmed 
dtizciis took possession of the Porta San Paolo and routed the 
Zouaves wLo guarded it. When, however, it was found that these 
bands were unarmed, strong detachments of troops were cvcrywhoro 
brought up in numbers which it was impossible to resist, and thus 
the revolution was crushed. Who the traitor waa who revealed ihc 
plan of operations and pointed out the place* where the arms were 
Becretly deposited, is not surely known, but suspicion strongly points 
to a certain advocate, 13e Domcnicis, who was the legal adviser of 
the P'rench Legation, and was one of tho " Comitnto Romano," 
and in the secret counsels of tho leaders of the insurrection. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that he sought safety by an immediate 
flight. 

'ITits attempt at revolution it serves tho purpose of tlie Govern- 
ment to gloss over, in order to support the pretence tbat tho Roman 
people were opposed to the entry of the Garihaldians, and supported 
the Pope. But the fact is, that it wan a vcr}' i^erious rising, and 
nothing but tho absolute want of arms and the overwhelming force 




Rome at the Close of 1 867, 



^ 



>f the Papal troops prevented it from being Hucccssful. Aa it was, 
for a lime ibo greatest alarm was felt, and some of tiie geadormes 
li.(;eitated whether they ahould not take the part of the iusurreL-tlon. 
The plau bud been well-arranged, at least six or scTcn thousand penions 
rere pledged to ita support, and had it not been betrayed to the Papal 
Luthorittes, so that the iasurgenta found themselves unarmed, there 
LcwemH to be little doubt that it would have succeeded. Such, at uU 
Its, u Jat as I can gather, is the general opioioa of both parties 

It is extremely difficult is Koue to obtain any exact information 

[of tlie real facts which have occurred, or to determine which of 

I'VoriouB versions of any incident is the most trustworthy ; but there 

' is certainly u strong impresbion here among some of the Liberal 

p&rty, that there was a moment when the Pope, threatened by the 

Garibaldtuns from without, fearful of the ap'tationa within, and 

doubtful of the vacillating purposes of France, hesitated in his policy, 

and was on the point of calling for the support of Italy. At 

all events, it was currently reported hoi-e and believed — and the 

information came straight from the Yaticim and from persons 

■surrounding the Pope — that orders were sent one morning to suspend 

the Works of defence at the gates, and that it was determined to 

call in the Italian troops to preserve order. It is certain that all 

labour on the earthworks was for several hoiir^ abandoned, and that 

'there was a general rejoicing in the city. Later in the day it is 

aald that this retiolutian was overcome by the iuHi-steuce of the 

"foreigners" in command of the Papal army, who declared that 

they camo there to »h(xl their blood in defence of the Pope, and 

"Vlio so earnestly opposed this dcterminatifin that it was revoked, 

aad the work on the fortifications was resumed. On the other band 

it is stated that subsequently a paper was drawn up by the munici- 

J^Klity, urging an acoommodation with Italy, which wojt carried to the 

Holy Father by the secretary, to whit!h ho Tcsjjondcd curtly — 

" ImbeciUi ! " (fools), and exiled the unfortunate bearer. To any 

one who knows the impulsive character of the Pope, these two 

upparcntly contradictoiy stories are perfectly rocorieilcBblc. It is 

lot the hrst time that the order of one day has l>ccn forgotten and 

(lenicd on tlie next. Still it is difficult to believe that Pius IX., 

whose ambition rather points in the way of mortyrdom, and really 

Wieves himself to be the vicegerent of (jod on earth, and specially 

QU^ired in all his acts, and who is a-s vain and unreasonable as he 

^ obstinate, could have yielded to any pressure of circuinstancca ; 

•ad ihe only explanation of such a determination would bo one of 

liuM sudden changes of opinion and returns upon himself and bis 

°l^ ideas, which occasionally a»tonish his counsellors and friends ; 



26 



The Contemporary Review. 



tfT perliaps one of those revelations from Sta Filomena wWch at 
times rule hia conduct. If, in fact, be eveo for a moment bad an 
idea of compromising with Italy, it waa diaaipat^d at once by the 
arrival of the French, whoso assiatanoe, as he satd, he had never 
iittlcMl, Ht)d whoBc presence he looked upon as a special interposition 
of Providence. There is no doabt that the Papal Goremnient did 
not make a demand on the Emperor for nid, and the Ilomans them- 
Hclves were ao fixed in the idea that the French would not interfere, 
that they refiised to believe in their coming until they saw the 
Mjldicrs niBrcliinj* into the strceia of Home. So far from their being 
received with enthuaiaam by the people, as was stoted by the French 
journals, (hey were met by a anllen silence on all sides ; and though 
the Papal party wos strengtbened and established by their assist- 
ance, it was only the urgency of the occasion which made them 
welcome. The Emperor baa no Iriends here on cither side ; and it 
would be difficult to pny whether he were most disliked by the Papal 
party or by the people of Home. 

There can be little question that had it not been for the aid of the 
French in the battle of Menlana the day would hove been gained 
by Garibaldi ; and, despite the Chassepot rifie, the issue of the con- 
flict was undecided at nightfall. Later in the evening, orders were 
Bent to Rome for fresh detachments of troops, who were immediately 
marched otit to reinforce the Papal array, while the Oaribaldians 
through the night maintained their pomtton at Mentana, fighting 
having ceaand at fmir o'clftck in the aftrmoon. Nothing but the 
advance of the French wived the troops of the Pope from utter 
defeat. This is universally admitted here in private, and clearly 
ahown by the public reports of Fnilly and Knnxlcr. The statement 
aa to the snpcrior number of soldiers led by Oaribaldi over those on. 
the (ode of the T'ope at the battle of IVfentana is entirely false. 
"^'hfltcvcr mar have been the entire force under Garihaldi, there were 
under Ji.tKXl of his men in action on that dav. Garibaldi, not anti- 
eiputing an attack, was moving a division of some 2,500 men from 
Wonte Rotondo to join \ieotera at TivoH, when hp was attacked by 
Papal troops numbering, by their own account, over .3,000, and Bup- 
ported by at least 2,000 French ; and it was with this division that 
the butclp was fought. The French officers frankly admit that the 
G]inl)iildinns fougbt with the utmost obstinacy and heroism. Though 
half-armed, and very acautily supplied with ammunition, many of 
thi"m carrying only shot-guns of the most primitive and inpfficieni; 
chfiracter, and wmo of them liaving only sticks, they fought with 
desperate ferocity, never breaking when overcome and pressed back, 
but retreating slowly, and rushing ccmstyntlv on to the well-drJlltfd 
and well-armed battalions of their enemies, engaging with thorn in 



Rome at the Chse of 1 867. 



27 



I-to-hanfl conflict^, and, when their powder was exhausted, OBing 

their giins as clubs agoinet the bayonets of their adTcrsariea. An 

e^re-witnesB, who was present during the whole of the battle, tells 

me that the Oaribnldiaiia were never routed or thrown into confusion 

for a moment ; on the contrar}', that, until the advuncoof the French, 

they had the decided advanta^. From the position he occupied the 

bttttle-Held lay h'ke a mup before him. The Zouavcrs had couie \jO a 

Bftand'Still in a hollow. The Garibaldiana were moving forward to 

encloM* them. Garibaldi bimseli', mounted on a white horae, under 

rover of a hill, was bringin;? round a detachment to attiick them in 

^nnk, when the French seeing that the Papal troops were in a mftst 

dangerons position, advanced in two columns, one on the right and 

one on the left, to save them. Gnrihaldi, aa he moved round the hill, 

camesaddenly upon the column on the right, and then the nipid firing 

of the Cbouepot ritio woa heard for the first time like the fierce con- 

tinnoaa roll of a drum. The fighting was despenile, but vain, and 

aficr a short conflict the QanhaUlions begun slowly to retreat 

bpfoTO the terrible fire, in perfect order, no one ninning. This 

gentleman aUo statM that a-t he advanced he found the ground 

strewn with dead and wounded Ganbaldians so thickly, that he could 

only compare it to pigeona af^r a number of guns had been fired 

into u flock, only the horror of it wa.s that the pigeons were human 

beings in thim case. Everywhere the guns of the GoriboldianB were 

KSttered. about, and be was struck by the fact that most of them 

were snuishrd at the breech, showing that Uicy had bocu used as cluba 

in hand-tO'hnQd lighting. As evidence of the want of ammunition, 

one fact may be stated, coming to mc directly from a Goribaldian 

captain, a gentleman of birth and education, who lies wounded in 

<mr> of the huspituU In Rome. He says that in his company of ono 

hundred and fifty lucn, ho had, towards the clo&o of the battle, only 

three cart ridges, Wlicn, thei-cftire, wo take into consideration that 

the Quribaldians were t-^nKiderably outnuni1>orcd by thu Papal 

tnopfl alone, without the French, that they were very inofTicicntly 

■Tueil, very «c:in( of ammunition, and many of them mere boys of 

fifteen and aisteen yearn of age. I think the notion that volunteers 

no never be op]Kisvd Ui regular troo[]M with any chance of success 

toar W fairly considered as iliispaHed of. Despite the disadvantages, 

die (iuribiildianH, aa I have Huid, would have carried the day hod it 

iwt been for the French, and oven the Chnasepot rifle failed to do 

■Wb tlian bring the battle ti) a Htaiid-still. If this be not the case, 

■<* happent'd it ihat the Papw! and French timi-a, inKti!ad of pur- 

""Dg Ihe tJaribulrlians, remained on the gnmnd nil night, and sent 

*' Hdw rt'inforcemenifl to Rome ? In the h<j«pita!H a fair idea may 

^ibrucd of the men who eompoeed the Guribaldian bands. There 



are to be 1601 a number of hoja of SfteeE or "Trfiff^ jears of agc^ 
ud ■ fair p rop orti on of men whose app e a ran ce and oonTemtion 
ly ■bow them U> be gentlenKn. Ic texre^ tbe parpose of thia 
lOoTertUDcnt to dadan that ther are nkprdv brigaada and Uack- 
I guard*, but there ii 00 fiMndotion for «Kh a statement. Undoubtedly 
anoDg thrto then were ill-conditioned men, aooie of whom wsrt 
guilty In the country townn of ooirage and robbery. Bat the cues 
wliere outrage* were committed or robbery took place were rare and 
exoeptiuiial, and tbey were at onee and eererely pont^od. As a 
general rule, nothing was taken except what wan afatolately nec«- 
aary, and ia aucb c««e« a Umu* wa* given to the perecn* from whom 
Anything was taken. The Gariba1dian« were everywhere received 
with enlhovia^m by tbe pevpU^ and the plebi«ate« were unanimoiu 
&D &Tonr of Italy. Eren over the I'apol palace at Castel GandoLfo 
the tricolor wa« rsiaed, ^H 

The conduct of the Zouave* when they again took powession^P 
■ome of lliu tovriis i«ccupicd by the Garitaldiuu* was character! seed by 
a most ill-judged and unnece^ttaiy ferocity. For instance, in retam-' 
ing to ^Vllnino, though no attempt at resistance wa« made, they chal> 
loDg«d and fired at ttingle persons in the street, and those who^ 
•Uractcd by the Tioii^e.came to the windows to see what wa« going on, 
were immediately shot at, and some of them killed. The same thing 
also took place at Home ; and in one case where a houM was attacked 
coiituiniag arms, an order wan given to the Zouaves Ihat tho windows 
and blinds of ull Ihu houscv udjuccnL should he immediately clusod by 
the occupants. Thoso who, In obodiencu to this loudly-tilioutod order, 
came to the windows to cIoho them, were immediately fired at ; soTcral 
wuri' wounded, and oiiu youug man who had lately been married, and 
wan thi] tioh; sujiporl of his fumily, was shut through the head and 
killMl uu the s|)ol. 

Wc huvc beou told by tlic French pEipcr^ In the official report that 
only one French soldier was killed ut Mtiiilaiiu, But none tho loss 
buvo seen in tho church of St. John Lutcrau, mlemu ohscquios 
id a grand funeral ceremony and mass fur tliu souls of French and 
i'lipul troo]>s who perished there. Over the prinuipul cutxiwcu, as wc 
cntL-red, wo read :— 

Mi I itibas,— d uctoriliUB — ordinnm — 
I'uuU'fici — fit — C^rt// i'i:*—exBrcitiia — 
Qui — pro^apuBtoUco — aede — oecubuere. 
Ordo— Ciumii— c t— KleniB — ^Eccles — Latfiron — 
Piolalis — -Koiiorisquo — CaUBa— 

JtiRta — Fuucbrift— - 

Adostt'^Cives — ■Advenir que — 

Paeem — Adpn^raminor— Viris — Fortiss — 

Quibaa— Kt'Uigio — I>ebet — et — Putrift. 



Romf at the Chse of 1867, 



29 



In the middle of tlie naro of the diurclt was a grcnt cutafulque. 
with 8t«p8 and pedcstaU aurmouuted by liun«, uud adorned by 
four elaborate inscriptions. On tbo top was a co1o»ri1 figure of the 
archangel Michael, traiuplingSatau (the ItulianGoverumi-'Ut) under bis 
feet, und embracing a shit-ld on which was written, " Q.ui« est Doiw," 
and waving a sword, and below was this in&oriplioQ, " Sancto Michael 
archangclc defendc nos in praclio." 

" Tht' injpreB»ion." says the fhvnnlor^ Htmauu, speaking of these ob- 
Beqaitfs. " upon all wlio w*ri3 present wa^ profound, ami the spirit of piety, 
love, gratitude, and holybopemiuhlbe rend in all their fucetf. MHiite praying 
for the eternal peace of the just, for the brave defenders of the holy rights of 
Ihe church, Lhey courted the prize that everj- one felt in his heart liad already 
been given to Ihetn in heaven." 

Though tho Papal perty havo for tho momcut conquered and 
enforced a peace, they are far from buing reasKured or confident of 
the future The people of Home are sullen uud indignant, and the 
prieeta know that the snako is only scotched, not killed. Nothing 
can now support Rome but the hayoneta of the French, A throuo 
of peace cKtablished un bayonets ! The " holiueaa of our Lord " pro- 
tected by cannon ! The '* vicegerent of God " on earth shedding 
blood to support his claims for temporal power! Is all this, ask the 
people, in accordance with the principles of Christ f is this religion 
in practice? Though the priests love not the French, they feci that 
tho safety of the city depends on their presence. When they go, 
ebaoe will come again. Tbo universal question is, What will tho 
Emperor do I' how will he solve tho problem P This problem is, 
first, how to sustain Home against Italy and against the wishes of 
the people. And this can only be done by an armed occupation. 
Beoondly, how in such case to provide for tbo financial necessities of a 
Oovenuncnt which cannot sustain itself by its own revenues and tha 
paltry contributions of Peter's peace, and which is growing bankrupt 
ttnory day. The intervention of France may prop up the temporal 
'power, but bow is it to pay the exp?nseii of tbe Papal Qovemmeut!* 
The solution new ufferud by the Kmperor is, a conferonce of the 
European Powers — a confcrenue to settle a question between two 
parties who will agree to no common ba.sis of compromise, and whoso 
cliums are utterly inconsistent with each other. Happy thought 1 
What arc tbe views of tho Papal Oovernment on this point, may be 
Mon from the following extract from the (hwreaiore Mom^tao of 
Korember 27 : — 

"A confareneo relative to the itituaUoD of the States of tho Pope can only 
vie one point of departure ; tre.itieii can only huvc one object,— the guaranty 
r the temporal sovereignty of the Holy Scat. If from this tho movement 
loes not begin, whore will s solid base of diHcnssion bo found f Will it be 
found upon accomplished fact, npon spoliation, apoo acts of force and 
fraud? " 




30 



Th( Contemporary Review. 



The f«elbgii towards luty may bo swn from the following extract 
from Ihtf same paper :^" The annals of this Government (of Italy) 
may be re«uin«l iii those few word)* — War to God, war to the Church, 
war to property, war to liberty ; war, in fine, to all persona, things, 
except to demagogic suets and to infidel freemasonry." With these 
feeling)* and these ideas, what hope can there ho of agreeincnl? 
Still, the one fixed idea of Louis Kapoloou is a conference. When he 
has gut hiuutelf into an cnluaglcment from which he sees no outlet, he 
calU u conference which cuu Mettle uothiug, and to which not evvu a 
hasia of ugrectueul can be otfercd. lie hits by his blundering thiu 
far thoroughly compromised Italy, and done all that lay in bis power 
to crush couBtit utiuual government between the revolution on one side 
and war on the other. It itt now believed that ho connived ut the 
attack of the Qaribaldians, and the polities of RataKzi ; that he 
desired a revolution in the Papal States, and counted upon it, and 
alluwfd it to be understood that in such case, if the Italian troops 
entered the dominions of the Pope, he would accept the position us a 
/ait accompli, and threaten, but never act against Italy. This, it 
is said, accounts for bis vacillation, for the strengl-h of his language 
to Italy, and the delay of his action for the grand preparations to 
send ti-oop;* to Rome, — for the orders and countermanding of oMers to 
mil. Tt wnuld even appear that an order not to embark the trmipa 
arrived at Toulon only a few houm al^r the firat tnui»port hod 
quit tud the {>ort on its way to Rome, r<i that even at the Ituit he was 
uudetormined how to act, or wua playing a game. The difficulty 
wuM, and it is this which annoyn the Italians, that the King did not 
uudert^tand ull thi» trickery, anil watt himself duped by his purtuvr, 
and w&K VAi much the huiiiLih; acrvaiit iif the " nephew of his uncle," 
that he rcfuacd to uUuw RuLazzi to go on with the game, and thus 
lost an opportunity which will not cosily recur. IVhether this read- 
ing is cori-eet, who knows P It is certainly not on um-eaaonable inter- 
pretation of the Emperor's conduct. It is quite inconceirable that 
Ratazzi and Gaiibaldi should have enlercd upon the plan of the iu- 
Tasion of Rome, aroused all the enthusiasm of Italy, compromised the 
hopes of the Komans. sacrificed so many lives, and placed the country 
between the danger of revolution at home and of war with France, 
without some kind of secret understanding with Louis Na|>(>leou. 
Italy knew that she could not compete with France in arms, aud she 
knew that an attack on Rome, unless supported by her, would shake 
the Oovermncnt to its foimdation. Yet, instead of crushing the revo- 
lutionary movement when it began, she encouraged it, njlowed Gari- 
baldi to enter the Roman provinces, threatened to follow him herself^ 
and placed hcreelf at last betiveen (wo fires. Had the King taken 
pOHeesion of the provinces while Franco was shilly-shallying and 




Rome at the Close of 1 867. 



31 



i licailatiog, it is more than probable that the Emperor would have 
acksowlfKlged the force of accompUMheil facts, aa he did after the 
Uttlc of Ciialcl Fidardo. Indeed, it u'ould have seemed that the 
cJd jtaiuo was to have been played out again, but tbut the King wa3 
too dull to make the move that wa» eixpected. Aft«r France had in- 
tervojied, it was t>jo lato. 

ill. if Italy would boldly take iho gi-ound that tho interventiou 
ranee has set aside the convention, and Ixoed her Irum all her 
igements us to the Uuly See, her position would be betler tliuu it 
while she wax luuupvied with vain proiuiae« and btipuhitioua, 
iid pledged to a diihcult and almost imposttible duty. Louia 
upoleon, by the iufraction of the conveutiou, had aguiu placed 
jX.im6(.-U' iu ihe dileuimu t'mm which he re^j^uired vightevu ycuru to 
extricate hiuuK-li' after hi» previous int«rveulioa in 1849. ^0 
change of feeling wa* effected by those eighteen years of oupprea- 
a;uu of thu iioiuau people. They were the same on the oxiL uf the 
^rciwh troops in i8t>6 that the^' were on their entrance iu I84S, and 
the abandonment of Home was iho signal for a revival of ruvolution. 
Ju fai^t, hoivover, the withdrawal of tbe French was merely nominal. 
They wera still represented by the Antibes Legion, and still ruled 
Bume. The only difference was tbat Itily assumed obligutiuus 
ich it wafl iiii[K>.sHiltk- for her to perform, and which buvu ended 
lireateutug ^ciiouKly bor oxlstencc. When it is stated that 
iribaldi bad nu right to enter thu Roman ti;rr!tory, it is forgutk'U 
tbat by the clearly cipreswd will of the Kuiuuu people, freely de- 
clared, he was created eoimmtnder>in-chief of the Republic of Rume ; 
that the Roman Republic, though o\erthrowii by Freneli uraiB, 
never abdiuuted it« powora, never Hurrcndcrod thoso rights which 
weiL-e ooiiferred by the only legitimate source of power, Uio Roman 
people, and tbat the Parliament merely adjoumod and did not 
l^iaudou its jKiwers. Duriug eighteen years the Republic wua held 
in abcyauce by the French arms, but as the will of the French 
]KKiplu created the Empire, io the will oi' the Roman people crouled 
tbc Republic. If ihe Pope protends that he holds his temporal 
power by the will of the people, let htm prove it by "a plobiacite." 
The undoubted fact is that he only maintains that power by force of 
foreign armfl. 

Thu only solution of the Roman question which seems practicable 
\a the union of Rome to Italy, the indeiHindenoe of the Pope guaran- 
teed by the Catholic Powers, and upheld by on amplo revenue fur- 
niahed by them, and his dominions reduced to the Lcouino city. No 
oth^T solutinn iu cunsiateut with tbc now universally rocugnised 
doctrine, that the right of kings is founded on the will of the jicuple^ 
and cannot supe^odo thair just demands. At present the main 




3« 



The Contemporary Rrvi'ew, 



elements upon which a State can bo properly ostabtishcd are want- 
ing here. There is no civil cofle of Inir, Ihero is no decent adminufl 
tration of juslice, there are no public trialu, no public examinations 
of witnesftes, and no sufficient guarantor of the righta and libortiefl' 
of the people. The pleadings of the higher courts are still in I*tin.! 
The judgpK are priests. Tlie aigtnuent of counsel is made to them, 
separately, and in pri^-ate in their own apartnienla; the testimony ia 
purely by eT parte affidavits, the witnesses never personally Bp]>eariiig 
bctbre fhe emirt, and no cross-examination heJng allowed. There ia 
no trial by jurj- ; there is nnlhing corresponding to the Habeaa' 
Corpus Act. Arrests take place upon mere suspicion, and the 
suspected persons often limgiiish for years in prison with no meana 
of obtaining a trial, and often with no idea of the cause of their 
orreat. And all this is forced upon the Roman people bocaum 
France ehocjses to maintain fhe doctrine that thry have no rights 
which interfere with the arbitrary* domination of the Pope as a' 
temiHiral sovcreigii, and that ho boing the head of the Catholio 
Church, ia authorized to oppress as ho chonaea thai fraction of 
CjitholicA which reaidca in his dominiona. And the ground upon 
which France founds her right of interference in the afiaira of 
another pfMjpIo is that she must maintain "her legitimate influenoe,"' 
whatever that may happen to be. 

Scarcely, however, have the French arrived here than there seems 
to be annthcr change in the mind of the Emperor, and they are now 
rapidly being withdrawn. Whether it ia his intention absolutely to 
abandon Rome, or merely to withdraw the greater portion, leering! 
only a garrison at Civita Vecchi'a, is not tnown to the world, to hia 
officers, or perhap-s even to himself. Probably, as usual, the political 
Micawber is waiting for what "will turn up," and has no definit« 
idea of what he is about. This great state-tmnn, ihis estrnordiuary 
political genius, has managed of late to flounder from one cmbroil- 
jncnt into another with wonderful dexterity, and has generally no 
other solution for the entanglements he makes than a conference of 
European Powers. If he continue to make for the future as eminent 
blunders as those of Ucxico and Venctia, and to miscalculate eventa 
as ndmirnhlj- as he did during the late war in Germnay, perhaps the 
world may come to the conclusion that he is a man of whims and. 
notions rather than of ideas and capacity, and instead of being a 
great politicnl Dnd administrative genius, is a very ordinary person. 
His sudden resoluticn to withdraw his troops from Rome has taken 
the army here by surprise, for they had every reason to suppose that 
they were to remain here for months at Ifnst, and the ofiiceni bod 
taken their lodgings for that period. If other evidence of his 
intention to occupy Rome fbr a longer time be needed, it niuy be 
found in the great quantity of stores and provisions scut here for 



J 



Rome at the Chsf of 1 867. 



33 



the DM of the Frotich troops. But probably he sees that the game 
he w playing i« dangprous, and rory unpoptilar in France, and is 
4le«iroiis of withdrnwing from tt a.<t .toon n.*) he ean. Ry his inter- 
vention in Rome he has wtrlod nothing, and mndn an enemy of Ttaly 
withont snti«ifjring the Pojie. Whether he keep his army at Rome 
or withdraw it to Fmnop, leaving a garrison at Civita Vecchia, the 
result is the 8ame. So long as any nnmber of French soldiers are at 
Civito Veccliia, or so long as he holds orer Italy and Rome a threat 
of intervention in case of a movement in favour of liberty, so long be 
Veep* the people iu subjection to a foreign domination. If be abso- 
lutely abandon Rome, he stultifiee his late enterprise. Either way 
he has burnt hi^ fingen. 

Though the public press of France has been very loud in pmso 
of the Chowepot rifle, the real fact is that it haa proved defective in 
many essential qualities, and the greater portiuu of the guns ujfcd at 
Hentana hare since required to be put in order. It vas found that 
the French troops fired too nipidly, that (ho guns in consequence 
became over- heated, and after a short time not only wtmld not work 
well, but were too hot to bo used. In some cases ihu bullets were 
found wedged, half way up the barrel : and hud ttie contest been 
pruIongiiKl, tt i» doubtful whether the guns would not have become 
comparatively useless. 

It is to the crwlit of the Roman (kivemment that the Garibaldian 

prisoners have been well cared for and troiited with kindness. The 

hospitals where they are lodged are clean, and their needs have been 

attendorf to. A large number of them woi-o sent over the frontier a 

few days ago ; and the moment they were within the boundaries of 

Italy, tliey cried " Viva Italia," and " Morle ai Papa," and avowed 

thnir intention of returning as soon aa possible to renew the attach on 

Rome. Release from impri^nnment was i-ejieutt.'^lly olfered to them 

OR condition that they would pledge thoraselvca not to take up arms 

k^gntn against the Roman Oovernment. But no one was found to 

Plbcept the offer. They look ui>rm their dt-feat as u dt-feat by the 

French, and they only await the retirement of the French army to 

reorganize for a new attack. But there is no reason to suppose that 

ti*is can jKirisihIy take place before the spring. At pivsont all arc 

WTBiting for the opening of the Italian Parliament, when we shall 

prxibably bear hot discuaatons, and a new and more resolute attitude 

w^ill be forecd on the Governments 

UTic Republican party has greatly increased during the last few 
tQcnths in Italy, but this is pmbahly more the re^Tiult of a strong 
roaction aguinst the King, nnd of the inetficiency of the Government, 
tfetn of any real desire to subptitute a republic for a monarchy, Mr. 
nTwrini has little influence and few admirers. A man who has never 
VOI_ VII. i> 




34 



7he Contemporary Review. 



been under fire Liraselt', and who has huil ii givat regard for his own 
personal soti'ty, wLUe urging others into posts of diinger, is not of the 
oaKbrc to make a popuhir hero. Howoror Uarihaldi may bsvo been 
wanting in Judgment, he bns biiuked up hiR principles wilh deoda ; 
he bQ3 taken his place as leader, and conirtiutcd danger, and csposod 
his life in the moat heroic manner, and therefore ho ia a great power, 
though his efibrts have rosultod in dc-tcat. But Mr. Muzzini ia only 
a hero on jjopor ; and, himself in perfect securily oi' life and limb, he 
mert-ly iseuos iuflnnimutory prooUmations from afar, and urges a revo- 
lution which he does not personally join in. He standa on the hill 
out of ahot, and blows the trumpet for othcnii to advance. 

The nobility of Rome as n body is Papal. It has been too long in 
the leading-brings of the ChurrJi to have any enlarged ricw. Ita 
«lucation is prie«tly. Its only t-nrcer is the Cliurch and tlie Guardia 
KobiU, if the latt«r poaition can be colled a career, and it d(X« 
not belong by it» idean to this century. It won this body, united to 
the cmptojfin of the Gnvotnimcnt, who wi-leometl hack the French and 
Papal troops with rejoicings when thoy returned from the battle of 
Mentana. The masa of the people th^^jimelveji took no part in the 
domonatration, but itubmittod to it sullenly. The noblcH liave since 
outdone thonificlvos in baiiquetti and receptions of the French officers 
nnd the Papal troop!*. At tlie Rarberini palace a dinner was given 
in the great hall to the prisoners relumed from Uoute Hotondo, iu 
which gpcechofi wore made in honour of the heroes who fought for the 
principlce of the llurtcouth century, the nobles thcmselyes waiting on 
the guests. And subsequently in the sumo pntocc there was a gnuid 
I'ceeptiou with a suppei' given to tlioFreiu>h officers in recognition of 
their Ht'rvii:eo. Otherdomonstrutionsof a somowbat similar kind were 
held at the Borghoso ])ahic.u and at the Frt>n(;Ii cobino. But tbu ]>eople 
were indignant, and it wafi found neucusary stj-ictly to guard t^otie 
palaces for days, uiid to chuUengc every oub wlio entered, iMt bonibs 
should be exploded in the couii. There \» soai'coly a day passea that 
reports aro not current that this ur that palace hue been mined, or 
that anus and ainiiiunitimi or linmbH have not been found under some 
building, but uU these are ajipiixcntly mere " itiveutiou» of the 
enemy," without any foundation, and liegottim by fear. Still this 
nlunrH how very alight is the conlidonco of the ruling party in the 
present calm. Meantime the triumvirate of Pius IX., Cordiuai Aa- 
tonelli, and the Koman Bank niles as usual. How long it will etm- 
tinnn to nilo is a quMtion that is difficult to answer. The (Horualf 
Hi lionw and th<' O^^erraforp Romano "rage and imagine a vein 
thing." They arc imbedded in ideas of the post, and cannot under- 
stand the present century. They are filled with loud aascrtionsof 
facta which do not exist, nnd with violent attacks upon all who differ 






Rome at the C/ose of 1 867. 



35 



from their ideus. " Lord Qludiitone," as he is called, came ui the other 
day br his share of abuse in a leader from which I tnuiBlate the fol- 
lowing extract ; it is from the Ossfrtxifore of Nov. 25 : — 

" Lea Lord Gladstone, who, in order to promote the guilty projccta 
of rcToLutioo, has lied as no others ever did (hu mcntito quant' altn 
mai), now travetttyuif^ the truth, now inrcutini^ that which has not 
even the appearance of truth, contemplafe the present condition of 
Kngland, and perhaps he will hear sounding in his ear like an accusa- 
tion from conRpirators at home, that motto as fomoua as it is falla- 
cious, launched by him against n peaceful state, of *a Government 
which is tho negation of Qod.* This is the phrase which the agita- 
tors who seek to disturb order in England will have learned from 
Lord Gladstone. He employed it as on incendiary torch against a 
foreign and friendly Government, now internal enemies use it against 
the authority of his ow-n conntry." Again, in the Oss^rraloiv of 
Nov. 22, wc read : — 

"Lord Gladstone is too well known, and from him nothing excites 
surprisD. After having co-operottyl in destroying the legitimate mo- 
narchies in Italy, after having pubtinhed, in favour of revolution, lios 
(tuensogne) which have becomo famous, ho would not reason dif- 
ferently." " The temporal dominion of the Pope subsists, and will 
contiiiuo to subsist, and neither tho bitt«r political discourses of Lord 
i'almerstoa, nor the virulent declamations of Lord Gladstone, nor the 
ire of Lord Rassclt, have overthrown it,, nor will it be overthrown by 
the refusal professed yesterday by Lord Htanlcy to the House of 
Ctjmmona to associate himself with the maintenance of tho temporal 
power." 

The more the priosta tremble, tho louder thoy talk. They profess 
to believo that tho power of tho Pope can never bo overthrown. 
" No ! " soya tho Oiomale di Roma, " tho Pope knows how to spend 
to tho last coin his money, knows how to toko the road to exile, 
knows even how to die ; but his supremo authority, but his venerable 
Bccptro, shall never owe its sxisttmcc to the tiiiscncs of this earth, bat 
only to tho onmipotoncc of that God who demands it with an ira- 
mortal power, of a power that coiiqucm its most rabid enemies, and 
Bgunst which the gates of hell shall not prevail." 



n'^ 



•<^l 



■T^ 



iC 



SitfrvS^ 



iJ£i}JniifiSJaSUaiS^s^S:iiZC^!SZS^S^S^iriS^Jj\ii 



ilUSIC IN ENGLAND. 



I. 

ENGI-jVND is not a musical country — England is not an arliatic 
country. But the English ore more artistic than musical ; thai 
is to say, they havo produced bettor artists than mu&icians. A country 
16 not mu-sical or artistic when you can get its people to look at 
pictures or Ite^u^ii tu mudic, hut when its people arc themselves musi- 
cians Slid arlisi*. It csuinot ho affiniied that Engliahmcnare.orever 
were, cither one or the ofhcr. 

Puiniing i» older, iind lias had a lunger time to develop, than 
music Thei-e have beou grout English painters, who have painted 
in the Dutch, Italian, and Spanish stylps — there lias even been a 
really original who<jI of English laadncajie poiutors — and tjiese later 
years have witneniseii fiome very rernarkablo and original develop- 
ments of the art- in England ; but the spirit of it is not iu tlio people 
for all that. The art of onr common workmen is 8terenl)^d, not 
R|Kmtaneous, When our architects cease to copy they become dulL 
Our houses are all under an Act of Uniformity. 

Music in England has always been an csotic, and whenever the 
exotic seed has escaped and grown wild on English soil, the result 
has been weeds, not flowers. The Elizabethan music (1550) was all 
Italian; the Restoration music (1650), half French ond half German. 
No one will deny that Tallis, Farrant, Byrd, " in tho service high and 



Music in England. 



37 



utbcnn clear," — Morlcy, 'NV'ai'd, Wflhyc, in the niadrignl, made n most 
flrigmal ufo of tUcir materials ; but the materials irere forfigri, for all 
that. At thu Restoration, Pclliaiii Hnmplireys, vhIIehI by Pepys "an 
■faaoluto monsieur," in as really Frt'iioli as T)r. Stemdale Bennett is 

Ily German. Purcpll, a verj* Mtwnrt of liU time, was largely 

sncb. allhougli hpHei'mi'd to Htriku groat tap-roots into the older 
KlixalK-tiuin jii-rioil, just a;; Mrmlelssohn stnirk thpm deep into 
S. Bacb. IJiit all these men have one thing in common,— 'they were 
oompositn in Eiighmd, they were not English composcrR. Tboy did 
not write for the people, the people did not care for their music. 
The music of the people was Iott ballads — the music of the people ia 
still low balhuls. Our highest national music vibrates between 
"Whon other lips" and " Champagne Charley." 

The!*? ballads of nil kinds are not exotic : they represent tlic 
nnttonnl miisic of the Knglish people. The people understand music 
to be a pleasant noise and a jingling rhythm ; hence their passion for 
londnesB and for the most vulgar and pronounced melody. That 
music should be to language what laugTiage is to thought, a kind of 
subtle expression and counterpart of it ; that it should range over 
the wordless region of the emotions, and b&oome in turn the lord and 
minister of feeling — sometimes calling up images of beauty and 
newer, at others giving an inexpressible relief to the heart, by 
dotbing it« aitpirattons with a certain barmonious form ; — of all 
this the Knglish people know nothing. And os English music is 
jingle and noise, so the musician i« the noisemakcr for the people, 
nod nothing more. Eren amongst the upper classes, except in some 
ft'W cases, it has boeu too much the fashion tu regard the mu-sician as 
a kind of servilo appendage to polito society- ; and no doubt this 
treatment has reacted disastrously upon musicians in England, so 
that many of them are or become what society assumes them to be — 
Uncultivated men, in any true sense of the word. And this will be so 
Until music is felt here, as it is felt in Qcrmany, to be a kind of 
OeceBBitT — to be a thing without which the heart pines and the 
CRBOtions wither — a need, as of light, and air, and fire. 

Things are improring, no doubt. When genius, both erealive and 
executive, has been recognised over and over again as devoted to 
Bousic, even ii llritish public has had thoughts of patting the gods on 
tlie back. There is u growing tendency to glvp illustrious muaioians 
the same position which has been granted in almoflt every age and 
country to illustrious poets and painters. J/pt us hope that refined 
musicians, even thongh not of the highest genius, may ere long raoet 
with a like honourable reception. "Why has this not been the cjiso 
hitherto ? We reply, because England is not a miisieal country. 
The first step is to aiiaken in her, or force upon her, the appreciation 




* 



The Contemporary Review, 



o£ mu&ic as an art. That is the stage wo am now at. The second 
stage is to create a national scbool of coniposera — tliik ia whaG 
hope to arrivo nL 

TIu] oontraat bctvoca indigenous art and exotic art is aluray 
mKrkod. When Lba peoplo !ovo spoutauoously, there is entfausiaan 
aw revorenoe for the artist and bis work. Where or when in this 
country will ever be scon a multitude liko the crowd which followed 
Cimubue's picturo of the Mudunuu thruugb Lhc btrect« of Kloruncc. 
or the luouriiful pruccMJou IbuL iiocoiupiuiied. MeudolBsobn to hia 
grave P 

"Wlien art has to be gmfled on toEDfttioD, it is received fostjiiiously 
at finil — thu old tree Ukc» not the taste of the new itap. WUt-'n the 
graft succcedfi, and the tree Ijrings forth good fniil, the peotde 
pluL-k it and eat it admiringly, but ages Huinetimcb cdapae before it 
bi?coines a stuff of life to thnrii. But let urL be indigenous, us in 
Qreece of old, in modem Italy, in Germany, even in France, and 
every mechanic wiU carve and sculpt, every bonr will Htng and 
listen to real music, every shopman will Luvu an iniuittve taete and 
arrange liis wares to tlie best possiblo advuntuge. ^ii India ike 
oommone'it workman will aet colours for the loom in such a maimer 
as to ravish the eye of the most cultivated Kuropcon artist. In the 
German refreshment rooms of the recent Paris Exhibition, there 
w«ro rough bands workiug steadily through thu symphoniee of 
Mozurt aud Caydii, whiUt the public w^ro never fuimd so iut«nt on 
saner kraut and sau&ages as not to applaud vociferously at the end, 
and sometimes even eucore an adagio. Fancy the freq^ueuten* of 
Cremome encoring Mozart's Symphony, No. Op. ! 

However, the people have their music, and it is of no use to deny 
it; and the marks of patronage bei>towed Qpou boUad-mongera,, 
oue-e^'ed harp&r«, luitbrnatic Euies, grinders and bunds &om " Vatci> 
land," are BulHcient to inspire the sanguine observer with, bopei 
for the future. 

When a man cannot feed hiraself, tho next best thing is to gei a 
friend to do it for him. It oanoot be denied that the English of oU. 
CJaBaoB hdve shown great Kbcrality in importing and paying for all 
kiada of foreign miuuc as well as in cherishing Buch scanty germs ai 
thero happen to be around tbem. A luusician uf any kind is less 
likely to starve in England than in any ctlh(T cjimitrj', from the 
organ-griader who loungc-ti with hia lazy imi>erturbiiblti smile before 
the area railings, ss who should say, " If I dun'c get a ooppcr hero 
I ohall round the comer, and no mutter," to tho euhlimo maestro 
(Beethoven) who, abandoned in tho hour of turkuesa aud ptnurt^' by 
his own countrymen, received upon his death-bod an honorarium of 
i!200 from the London Fliilharniunic Society. 



N 





Music in England. 



English maDBgera «'era the first vho introduoed the scale of 
exorbitant sBlariun uuw paid 1o opera siugera aud a lew of the host 
instrumentiilists. We believe the systeia began with Malibran, but 
Pugniiint was m well awuro of our extruvagaut fuible, that he 
doubled the prices of admiesion whenever h<> ptayed at the Opera 
Hmwe. Jt is t:fae old story — humming birds at the North Pole and 
iee in the tropics will be found equally expensive. 

We have uuw said tho worst that can be said about tnnsio in 
£ngWul ; all thu T^ai shall be in uiiligation of the above criticiiim. 
'• May U please vour bigbness," soys Cjrifiith, in Jlnnrif VJJJ., '■ to 
bear HID sp«ak bLst good now." 

u. 

^^b It it oertainly true that if we do not sow the teed we prorido aa 

^^tdmirable soiL I^t the EngliAli ponpio onoe receive an imprewion, 

and it will be held with u surpriaiing t4>iiacity. Wlien Madame 

Grid, at the age of one hundred — beautiful for ever but perfectly 

inaudible — cihaU advance to the footligbtntotalcehcr furewoU benefit, 

thow of ua who are still alive will flock to we her, and strew her 

path with flowers as fadeless aa herself- But let a muuiciil seed of any 

kind but once take root, and it will spread with an amazing mpidiiy. 

Firty-five years ago the old PhiUianncnic was without a rival. 

Every year some new ch*ifti' autre was produced, and at each con- 

oert the EnglutK public wiis taught tu expect two long ftyniphuoiee, 

besidfv classical tnnoertnfi, relieved only by a bong or Iwo as a kind 

of inuaiuol salts to prevent downright collupso. This diAtipline 

VIS thought by sornu to K- Uiu Hrvore ; but a little knot of oon- 

umseurs maintained that in the K^mpbuuira of Haydn and Mozart 

vera to be found the mofit precious trea.sures nf music, sud peoplu 

hitherto only HcruKtutned to iustrumontal music us an ucuoinpuni- 

mcnl to voml, Itpgnn to listen with a growing interest to purely 

orohestral |)crfurmance». Haydn and Mozart suou became poi>ulBr, 

1mi( Bnoihovan wss lim^* u Htunibling-blook, and although held in greot 

veneration, and ut all tiau» most liberally treated by the Pbilhur- 

xnonio Sm^irtyt yet even that udvunoed body took sorae time to 

unnivol the myBterius of the greati C minor, and for years after 

Acethuven's death his greatest orchostnil worki^ were tu a large 

xnsjority of English ears us sounding brass and tinkling eymbal. 

It is impossible to ovfrmte tho influence of the old Philliannonio 

vpon musical taste in England, but it did not long stand alone. 

A. gold mine may bo opened by a solitary band of diggers, but the 

TtMid Imding to it soon becomas crowded ; a ihouiiand other breaohea 

ore speodily made. We have Men during thn latt it w years the 

swarms oS daily papers which have sprung up round the Timt% ; the 



40 



ic Contemporary Review, 



Bune remark applies to the crop of quarterlies Brouud the E<iiMhurgh ; 
the cheap magtizines rouud the ConihiU ; ejthibitions pound that of 
18i)l ; and, we may add, orchestral societies lonnd the old Phil- 
hiumonic. 

We niay fairly dato the present wave of juiwical progress vu this 
country from the advent of Mendflissohu. It is now more ihmi thirty i| 
years ago since he appeared at the Philharmonic, naxA, both 9A \ 
condactor aud pia:iift, Utvrally carriwl all hefore him. Tie braught I 
trith him that reverence for art, luid that high eteuse of the ariiist'^3=^ 
calling, ivithcut which art is likely to degenerate into a uttn> I 
pastime, and the arti»t himself into a charlatan. The young ccna- 
poser read our native bands some useful teesoiis. Himself the che- 
valier of muoic, — sans pciir cl sant repnche, — sensiUvo indeed, to- 
criticism, hut etill more olive to the honour of his art, be coidd not. 
brook the elighteat inKult or slur put upon music. Gifted with a raro- 
breadth and awectncss of disposition, his iro began to be dreaded as. 
much as ho himself wa.s admired and beloved. 

At a time when Schubert was known hero only by a few scmgs, 
Alendelssohu brouglit over tbc magnificent symphony in C (lately per* 
formed at the Crj'Mal I'alaceJ, together with his own Iln'jlilaa overture 
in 31S. The parts of iSchuhort's sjinphony were distributed to the 
bond. MendeLjBohn was ready at his desk,- — the b&ton rose, — the 
romantic opening was taken, — but ai^er tlie first few lines, signs of 
levity caught the master's eye. He closed tho score ; — the gentlemen 
of the bond evidently cmisidorcd the music rubbish, and, amidst some 
tittering, collected the parts, which were again deposited in tho 
portfolio. 

" Now for your overture, Ilerr SlendelsRohn \" was the cry. 

"Pardon mo!" replied the indignant composer, with all calm; 
and taking up his hat, he walked out of the room. 

RtHj Bha went back to Gcmmny, but the lesson was not soon 
forgotten. 

AfU'r living amongst us just long enough to complete and produce 
his master-piece, the UHjnh, at liirmingham, he died (1847), leaving 
behind him nn illuatriouH school of disciples, of whom l)r. Stcmdald 
Bennett may be nomed chief, and to that new school, as well as to 
the old-e»tftblisbf<l Philharmonic Society, may be traced the rapid 
increase of orchestral societies aud orchestral concerts in I'lnglaud. 
In looking back through tho last Qfteeu years, the difficulty is to 
choote one's examplea. 

The growing jwpidarity of the orchestra is a sure sign of the 
popular progi*ess in music. Ballad singing mid solo playing, in 
dealing with distinct ideas and UL-centtnl melodies and by infusing 
into the subject a kind of personal interest iu the performutoe. 



depend upon many quite unmusical adjuncts for tbeir success ; but 
orchestral plaving, in deiiliug chiefly with hanuony, brings us 
directly into (he abstract region of musical idetie. The applause 
which follows " Coming through tho Kye," is just us often given to 
a pretty face or a graceful tigure as to the music itself; and when 
people encore Bottesini or Wicniawski, it is often only to have 
another stare at the big fiddle, the romantic locks, or the dramatic 
sang-froid of these incomparable artists; hut the man who applauds 
a sjTuphony, applauds no words or individuals, — he is come into tho 
region of abstract emotion, and if ho docs not understand its eovo- 
rcigu hmguage, he will hear about as much as a colour-biind man 
will see hy looking into n prism. It is a hopeful sign when tho 
people listen to German bands in the strcots. A taste for penny k-gs 
proTce that the common people have a glimmering of tho straw- 
ry creams which Sir. Ountcr prepare* for sixpence; anil the 
uent consumption of gingiT-pop and calves' head broth, indicate 
a confinntMl, though it may be hupoli^K, pastjioiL for chumpaguo and 
turtle-soup. No one will say that the old Philharmonic in any sense 
sopplicd music for the people^ but the people heard of it and cltimoured 
for it, and in obedieiicn to tho spirit of the age the man arose who 
was able to give them aa near an approach 1o the loftier dejiart- 
menta of mutiio as tlie muHHes could appnHn'ate. 

The immortal Mons. Jvixntit, who certainly wielded a most 
magical white btLioii, and was generally understoud to wear the 
hrgost white waistt^^it ever won, attracted immense, eut-biisia^lic, 
lud truly popuhir crowds to bis truly popular concerts. Knowing 
le about the science of music, and glad, says rumour, to avail him- 
of more learned scrihes in arranging his own malcbless polkas 
and quadrtllen, he had the siiignlar merit of finding himself on 
all occasions insj>ired with the most uppro]jriHt4? emotions. From 
the instant he appeared before a grateful pul>lic to the moment 
•when, exhausted by more than human efforU, bo sank into hJs 
golden fauteuil, Monn. Jullien wax a sight ! The very drops upon 
iis Parian brow were eo many tributary' gems of eutliURiHsm to 
"the cause «f art. Not that Mons. JulUeu ever lost Ium person- 
ality, or forgot himself in that great cause. The wave of his silken 
yocket -handkerchief, with the glittering diamond rings, seemed to 
eay, "There, there, iny public ! the fire of genius consumes me — ^but 
1 am yours ! " 

But without further pleasantry, it must be acknowledged that the 
irresistible Jullien took the Knglish public by storm, and baring won, 
he mode an admirable nee of his victor}-. Besides hiii baud in 
London, detachments travelled all over the country, and spread far 
Bad wide currents of the greot control fire that blazod iu the 
^^^tetropolis. 



H^' 



J 



42 



The Contemporary Review. 



ThooB grnml triumphs at the Surrer Gardeas, wh«i the JnOien 
onheatra, ovorlooking the artificial lake, nm^ throagh the Bummer 
oTftnin^ and si'iit its GchoettroTcrbcraling through the mimic foi 
of Gibraltar, iirtbonia^iti i-avea prosriitly to bt lit upbv forty thoi 
additional lamps ! Hapjiy huum ! we remnnher thetu iu the days of 
onr early youtb ! No Biimmrr <>Tpning8 in tbo iipcn air eccm now so full' 
ofeoHtasy; no firvworks explode wiili such repal and unpreoedcttted' 
splendour ; must it be confessed ? no music ran oomo again wit& 
such a weird charm as that which filled the chiW*e ear and ravished 
the child's heart irith a new and ineffable tremor of delight. But it 
was the music, not the aoenory, not the tireworks alone^ It «m- 
hardlr a displnr of tirevorks, assisted by Mon?. Jullien'n band, — ft 
was Mon5. Jullien'a band oecompanicd by fireworks! It would bi* 
wrong, liowcver, to imply that these concerts were !*upported merely 
by big drumti and skyrockets, 

Wo do not think Mons. JuUien cTcr got dne credit for the large 
mass of good elasicieal rontic he was tn the habit of introdnemgji 
Itesidcs the fine^ German oTei-ture,--, we have heard movcinents frof 
Haydn, Mozarl. and Beethoven's sviuphonics admirably executed by 
him ; of eourse without tho repose and intellect of a classical con- 
ductor, but without ofiensivQ j«nsationalism, m\A with perfe 
accuracy. 

Upon the shoulders of the late lamented Mr. Meu.os deacended 
tho mantle of Mon<!. JuUien. If McUou's concerts lacked the romi 
aad unapproauhubk" fir*' that went out with the brilliant Frenchman^ 
thoy retained all that (rould bo retained of his sy&tem, and gave it 
addititms whicli his iKTsevcranw had made possible, but which he- 
bod prifbobly never cunltfiapluted. We notice tho Niuie care m 
providing the fir«t *oloiiitH. 

BorrEsRsi, whose mdodiea floated in the (jpeii air over the Surrey 
Oardone, and UUcd the ivurld with a new wonder uud delight, wa*' 
again heard ujider the dome of Cowiil Garden. 

M. SrvoRr — the favourite pupil of Paganini, who aeeias to have 
iuhcritMl all ih.v flowing Kwoetnera of the great magician without a 
spark uf biH demoniac fury — apjK^red, and filled those who Temcin- 
berod the muster with ti utrange feeling, as though at length, 
■' Above oU pain, vet pityinji nil ilisti-i'As," 

the master's nouI Ktill flung to eurtb iuiut frugtnenU from tho choira.^ 
thttt (iliiiue 

" After the ctuming of tJio otomat spheres." 



Mona. Levt, on the cornet, and Mons. Wienhwski, on tho vioHn* 
are the only other real instrumental sensations that hove boea pro-t 
duood at these concertsj 




^STlnne uistnimenlul genius is rare, uxtd of the numbers who are 
£rst-rute,oal}r a few feel equal to stilling the noisy, haU'-tr&iued audi- 
eooes asuoily found at promenade concerts. When we hava numtionod 
Chopin, Liaziy Thalberg, Mendebtwhn, Madame Schumoun, Madame 
Qoddard, itubinatein, and liall^. on tho piano ; Do Iki-iot, P&f^aniiu, 
Knut, Vieaxtemps, Wieniawski, and Joftchim, on the violin ; Linlcy - 
and Piatti on the vioUncello ; X)ragt>netti and 13ott«sini ou the contra- 
loKO ; Konig and Levy on thecoruct, thondlof soIo-ijutrumeutuUats. 
during the lost liily years nmy very nearly be cloaed. And of Ihft 
above men, Mimo, IJko Chopin, Ilitlli:, and Joachim, uover cared to 
faoo, strictly speakings populur amlumccs ; but tlioao who did wcra 
tunally soonrod. by tho popular orchcitraa of Jullion und Mellon, and 
by tho givers of those intoloruhle horaa called moioitcr concerlK. — 
we need only Biiecify Lbc annual concerts of !lteBsr». liunedict und 
Qlover. 

ui. 
Tho inunomiti advance of tho pojHilur mind is remarkably illua- 
Iratetl by lh« change in tho ordinary ori:ho8trul programme. Wo 
have now SXozurt nights, und Bet'th^nuu nights, and Mendelssohn 
nights. 24^ot bits of symphonn.'!!, but entire works are now IJi^tmied 
to. and movementa of them acv tmcurcd by audiences at Covont 
Garden. We have heard the Scotch sj'mphony and the " I'ower of 
Sound" received with diBnriminaiion and applause. A certain critical 
^lirit is creeping- into those andiouccs, oning to tho large infusion of 
retilly musical people who are on the look-out ibr good prograinmeB, 
and invariably support them. 

The old and new I'hilharmonioe, the London Mnsienl Society, 

JuUien. M<?llon, Arditi, and last — und gi-eotest of all — tho Crystal 

Palace bond, have no doubt supplied a wont, but they have also created 

ona They have taught tliout^atids to core about g(x>d music. They 

have taught those who did care to be more oriticul. Ilic time is 

gme by when the Philharmonio biul it all its own way, or when 

only the wealtliy could hear Bno music, or whon tlie public generally 

was thankful for imiall merciea. The uant of tho public have grown 

ahari>. Allien musii'al amateurs now go to hear a sjTnphony, thoy 

luiow what they go for, and they know, too, whether they get it. 

They hear the Italian Symphony by the Crystal Palace hand on 

Saturday afternoon, and on the following Monday ercning at 

^Ufillon's, and by-aud-by at tho Philhiirmonic, and tiiere is no possi- 

liUity of evading a damaging compariMn. The members of tho 

Crystal Piilace band, from plaj-ing every day all the year round 

together uiuler the same admirablo conductor, havo achieved an 

caullence hitherto unknown in England. 

Tht> office of conductor is no sinecure. The position of the four - 



42 



The Contemporary Review. 



Those j^rand triumphs at the Surrey Gnnleno, when the Julliwi 
orchsstra, ovorlooking the artificial lake, rnn^ through tlie Bomnier 
ovriiinpfl, and stiit itsochoce roTerhurntiiig tlirongh Ihe niiniic forlreflB 
of Gibraltar, or ihfmiigic ruves presently tu he lit up by forty thoiwaDii 
aHditioTiftl lampa ! Happy boura ! wo remnnbor tiiem in the days of 
our enrlv vouth ! ?fo summer ovcnings in the open air seem now so full 
(rfecstaay; nn fireworks eiplodc with suoh refpil niid unprpccdmlod 
splendour; must it be oonfMocd? no munic i*an come agaia with 
such a weird chami as that which fillofl thf child's ear nnd ravj-.hHl 
the vhild's heart: with a new and tnetfal)!*" tremor of delight. Itut it 
\rvi» tho iuuj»c, not the ecwiier)', not the fireworks uliine. It wa« 
hardlv a display of tirewoi-kn, assisted by Mons. Jttllien's band, — it 
vrvas Moos. Jullieu's band autompiiuiod by fireworks! It woiJd be 
wrrjujf, however, to imply tliot thew,- cuncerta wer« supported merely 
bv big drums and Kkyrmdcota. 

Wo do not think Mons. JulUen erer got duo eredit for the b^e 
maait of good el:ii<L<rieal music he was in the habit of introdticing. 
Besides the finest Gennan oTertures, we have heanl movcmenls from 
llajdn, Mozart, and Ilcetlioven's srinpbonies admirably executed by 
him; of course without tho repoao nnd intellect of a cloMieal con- 
duclor, hut without oflensivo sensation alt»n), and with perfect 
accuracy. 

Upon the ohonldors of tho late lamented Mr. Mki.i.on dMerndcd 
the mantle of ATons. JuUieo. If JfoHou's concerts lacked the romnnoe 
and unapproachable fire that went out n-ith the briUisnt frenchman, 
they retained all that ctmld be retained of his syBtem, and gavo W" 
additions which his perseverance had made poMible, but which h» 
had probably never contemplated. Wo notice tho same care m 
providing the first soloists. 

BoiTEsiNl. whose melodies floalod in the open air over the Surrey 
Gardens, and tilled tho world with ii new wonder and delight, wa* 
again heard uiidor the domo of Coveut Garden. 

M. SivoRT — tlie favonrit*! pupil of Paganiiii, who seems tw haw 
inherited all the flowing Kwcetnesa of (he great magician without a 
spark of his demoniac fury — appeared, and tilled tliofio who remem- 
bored the master with a strange feeling, a« though at length, 

" AboYu oU pain, yet pitying all distrLiM," 
the master's soul still flung to earth faiut friigincnts from the olu 
that chime 

" After tho chiniuig of tiio ctonuil q>hci'3>i." 

Mons. LuvT, on the comet, and Muna. WiKNt.v^^'SKi, on fho 
are tho only other real iu^trumeutul aeosaiions that have b 
dooed at these concorti?. ■ 



fttsic in Engiand, 



43; 



ly time uutnunentel geoius is rare, and of the numbers who aro 
j.only a (ovi foel equal to stilling the ruiisy, half-traincil uu<li-. 
kdually ibund at promenwio concerts. When webnTenioutioned 
I.iiazt, Tbalbcrg, MondclMohn, Madame ScbumaQn, Madame ' 
1, Kubinsteiu, and TIalle. on the piano ; De Boriot, Paguniui, 
' Vieuj,t«uip», Wicniaw^ki, and Joachim, on the violin ; Liiiley 
iatii un the vioUncello ; Dragonetti and Bott««ini on th« voutra- 
Konig (Uid Levy on tho cornet, the roU of ftolo-instrumeutulista 
I tiie la^at tifty ycarii may very nearly be vluft«l. And ot tin 
icn, eomc, like Chopin, Uullc, uad Joachim, never cared to 
ly spcakiug, jjopuliu- nudit-ucM ; but thoao who did were 
'80crorod by the pupulur urcUc-i^tru of Jullieo and Altdlon, and 
^ givers oS thoau iutolorublt* hores called moiuUrr conoerte, — 
only fpecily thu aiiuuul euiicerta of lUecrs. Benedict oiul 



ui. 

immense adTance of the popular mind is rem&rkably illus- 
, by the i^hange in the ordinary cdrcheitral prognuume. We 
>w Mozurt nightA, and Beethoven nighta, and Mendelssohn 
Kot bita of symphonic^, hut entire worka arc now listened 
muvumenta of them arc encored by audiences at Covent 
m. We bare heard tbe Scotch aymphony and the " Power of 
r roceived vith dianriminntion and appluoBc. A certain critical 
k eneping into theoe uudinuces, on-iiig to the lai^ inlwoB of 
i>wi»<»Mi people who are on the hwk-out for good progiammesj 
l^anably :nipport them. 

\ old and new Vhilhamioniiy, tbo London Mtiaical Sociely 
D, MpUou, Arditi, and last — and gnntest vt til — £fa« Csjvk^ 
fband, have no donbt aapplied a want, hm they IiAVe aiao-cnaftW 
ley hare tuught thotuands to care about good tauulr. Tlioy 
jhl thodo who did care lobe more cnlimt The timn ig 
when tJie PbiUuurnwnic had tt aU il» tmn way, or vhra 
veahhy could hear fincmunc, or wlim tAr ptblic g«ti«raHr 
ful for email mercka. The aan </ tJwpabfa'o hire groira 
Wben musioaJ amat«ur« now go to htar it tynphoDy, ther 
rhat th«y go for, and they hww, U)0, iriiatlwr licy ^-^1 il 
tlie Italian Sj-mphooy by tJic Crytl^ Palace band m 
mttenooa, and oo (he foUtmof Hoaiay ereu'me ^ 
" by-and-by at the I^hiihaaaun wd t/jurp is un va^ 
ig a damaging eonip«HBiL The mt-mbcTs o(* 
Palace baod, from playit^ way day ell the voar j^ 
I' "mam Mdminbte amdmtor, have ai-hiev^^ 

C aaiflBMu Thajumtion of If^ 



X6^ 



w Contemporary "Review. 



should be guarded agniust. Mendt^lssohn uwd to suy, " I inaice a point 
of writing cyery diiv, whellier I have any ideas or not." but his cnrc 
to write ofton was fiurpseeod by bis enre to withhold trhnt hn had 
written. A clever caTr;io8cr cim tilways turn out f^ilt g-ingcr-brpjid 
to order, and soino wUl take tho glittor for golj , d the cake for 
wholcsMnnc food ; but, after all, it is better to bo ■ ") to seem. As a 
com'pofler, Mr. Hulliran can be almost whate^c..' no chooscfl to bo; u 
a conductor ho ou^ht to bL>comc the first in Enghind. 

Mr. W. Q. Ci-5(Ns Qt the Philharmonic iron great favour last 
wasoii with thftt critiosl audience. The care which He bestowod 
on rehparaaUt, tho careftil Ihouph quaint selection of hia' programmes, 
tiie noble soloirtfi {^-fj., Herrcn Jitochim and llubinatein, and Madume 
Schumann), and tho new ehef-H'teuem which he produced, made but 
«en0on altogether one of the most brilliant of mom}' brilliimt prede- 
oeewrfl. 

We hare reserved the name of M. Oosta iinttl now, that we might 
«peak of him in conneetirm with iht^ opera and omtorif). Abont the 
progresa or decadence of the opera we Khnll say but little. We regard 
it, musically, philoHnphically, and ethi<*al1y, f^ (in almost unmixed evil. 
It« very constitiftion sepm-i to mh ftilne, and in Germany, cither tacitly 
or avowediv, it has always been fflt to be «o. 

HoKArt no doubt wrote oppran, but the influence of Ttaly was then 
domiiuuit in music, and determined its form even in Germany. The 
CHntettta Ui Tito in its feebleness is a better illuatiation of thiK than Ihn 
•/nan in its groat might. Sohubcrt in Affmwo nnd Es/retia broke donii, 
bopole»8ly humpured by stage requirements. Spohr's Jrxmniia was 
Aover successful, and lie abundonud opera wi-iting. Weber singularly 
AOmbinud tho lyric and dnimutio elements, and succeeded in mutdng 
his opems of Obrrmi and Drr hyritrhufz almost philosophical without 
being dull. Mendelssohn avoided cqieni with a koou instinct, and 
ibuleciod the truer forms of oratorio, cantata, and occasional miisic^ 
iif which take bb Bupr(-*me csanipleR, tlu- Jifijrrh, Wnipiirgix Narht, 
.Inligonr, and Miiisuvtinvr N^ujIiCn Dnum. Wugncr in despair has 
Ijocu du^tm, ill TtmnhdN^r and Lofuntyrin, into wild (hiwries of opem, 
devoid, as it ecenis to as, both of Ilalinn naivrff iind sound Oerman 
philosophy. Schumann, avoiding all scenic effect, found in Para/liae 
iiiui the Peri a form as charming and appropriate aa it is true to the 
tirat principles of art. 

lleethoven wrote the best opera in the wtirW simply to prove that 
Ire could do everj'thing, but the form was even then a concession to 
what was least commendable in Germnn taste ; and the overture was 
written four times over, with the colossal irony of one who, although 
he would not stoop to win, yet knew how to compel the admiraiiyn 
of the world. 




The tnilU is simple. Tho opera is a mixture of two things which 
ought always to bo kB{jt disttnct — the sphere of musical emotion ami 
the sphere of drumatic action. It is not true, under auy circum- 
stances, that people niag songs with n knife through them. The 
war between the stage and uiuslc is intemocinc. Wo havo oiJy to 
glance ut a lirs' ' ^ librello. c.ff., that of Clounod's Faiisf, to see that 
the play is mi»o. j Bpoiled for the music. Wc have only lo Uiink 
of any stock opem (o'^ that tho music is hampcrod and iiTijUKlcd iu 
its development by the play. Controvcrsj- upon this aubjcct will, of 
aourw.% nigc fiercely. Meanwhile irrcvcnible ju-iuciplch uf art must 
be noted. 

Music expresses the emotions which attend certain characteia and 
situations, but not the characters and situutionK thomaelvos; and the 
two schools of opera have arisen out of this distinction. The Italian 
ficbool wrongly assumes that music can exprosA situatinns, and thus 
gifCB promiuencc to the situations. Thn tionnaii Holiool, when 
opera bos been forced ui»n it, has titriveii with the fallaoy inTolvod 
in its constitution by maintaining that the situation must bo reduced 
and made Bubordinute to the emotion which uroompanies it, and 
which it is tho business of music to cxproHs. Thus the tendency of 
tho Gcmian opera ii* to muko the scene us ideal ua possible. 'Xlic 
more unreal tlio sccuo, the mure phiI(xsoj)hical, because the contradic- 
tion to common-sense is less allocking in what is professedly urmial 
tlian in what professes to reprtmint rcnl things, but docs so in an 
unnatural manner. Weber was impelled by a true instioct to select 
Ml unreal mue-en-tcinc, in connection with which \w was not able to 
express roal emotions. Oberoti aud Dcr JPreixchufz arc examples of 
this. 

la ever^- drama there is a progressive history of omotioa. This, 
and not the uulward event, is what muiiic is fitted to e-^press, and 
this truth hav been seized by Germany, although iu u spirit of com- 
promiAO. In tiie Italian school tlie music is nothing but a series of 
situations strung together by fJIom' orchestration and coaventioual 
tvcitatives, as iu (he Sonnambuia. 

In tho Oerman and l<'ranco- German schools of Weber, Meyer- 
beer, unil Gounod the orchestra is busy throughout developing the 
history of the emotions. The recitatives are as important as the 
irias, and the orchestral interludcss as important as the recitatives. 
Wagner, in his anxiety to reduce the importance of situations and 
exult (hat of emotions, borcaTOM us of almost all rounded melody in 
the iMhtHgrin. Wober in Obcron works out hts chorusos liko 
liassiial movemcntB, almuNt indi-']>ciulcnlly of situations. Meyerbeer 
greatly reduces the iiriporluucc of his arias in thii Prophile ; and 
bounod in fhuti runs such a power of orchestration through the 



42 



I'he Contemporary Review. 



Tlitwe gTftnd triutnphA at the Surrey Gardens, whto the Jallicn 
orchestra, overlooking tho nrtificinl lake, rnng throagh the 8nram< 
ovenin^ and Brntitsochftea rererbfimting through theiuimio fortreiB" 
<rfGJbraltar,orthcmagiocaTc«pre*wnt]_vtobrIit npby forty thouHund 
additional lamps 1 Hnppy hour? ! we retnpmb*>r tliem iu the days of 
OUT early youth ! No siimmor ovrnin^ in the opon air srctn now so full 
of eeetAsy ; no fireworks oxplodc with such regal and unproiCcdentMi 
splendoar ; must it be confeeeod ? no muaic can come ngutn with 
such a wuird charm as that which filled the child's ear and ravi^heJ 
the cfcild'a hwirt »-ilh a uvw imd iui.'fluble irtmior of delight. Hut il 
WU8 thu muMC, not thu wener}', not the fireworks atone. Tt vu 
hardly a display of lirtnvorfcs, assisted by Mous. Jullien's band, — it 
vnas MuQ«. Julliuu's baud uccompainL-d by firewoi'ks ! It would br 
irrong, however, to imt^y thai thew concerts were supported tDerely 
by big drunitt and ^kyrofkt>t«. 

Wo do not think Mons. Jullien ever got due credit for the large 
mufis of good clasML-al muaic he wae in the hulnt of intTodurtng- 
fiesides thu fiuyst Ourman ov^rtTirec, we iiave heani inovemenl^ frtun 
Unydn, Uozart, and Keethovt-n's sviiiphonies adminibly ejtecutwl by 
him ; of eourw without the repose and intellect of a elansical cod* 
ductor, but without offensive jfensationalism, and with perfect 
accuracy. 

Upon the shoulders of the late luinentod Mr. Mru/>n descended 
the mantle of Modb. Jullien. If MeUon'a eoncf^rtB locked the romonor 
and imapproa«hublo tire that went out with the brilliant Krcnehmsn, 
they retained alt that oonld bo retained of his flyntem, and gave it 
additions which his perspvornnee had made pnssiWe, but which he 
bad probably ncvL*r contemplated. We notice tho same care in 
providing the first soloistx. 

BoTiKSiNi, whose nM^odies ffnut^ in the open air over the Surrev 
Gardens, and tilled the world with n new wonder and delight, was 
again heard under the dome of Covent Garden. 

M. SivoRi — the favourite pupil of Paganini, who seems io how 
inherited nil the Bowing swootness of the great magician without a 
spark of his demoniac fury — appeared, and filled those who mncm 
bered the master with a strange feeling, as though at length, 

' ■ Abuvtt Jill pain, yet Jiityiug till lUetrcsa," 

the master's sout still flung to earth fiiiut fragments from tbo chairs 
thai ohimo 

" AIUt tbo cluioint; uf Uio stomal aphiei:o»." 

VoOft. T'KVT. on the comet, and Mone. Wikmiawski, ou thv -naftii^ 
aio tlM only other r^al innlriiDioutul seiuoliuus that have been pnH 
doood at tbeae conont*.' 



H 



Music in England. 

At any tnno mstnuneutiU. genius ia rare, aticl of the numbcTA who lire 
first- rato, only a few I'cel cqiuU to stUling- the noisy, hBlf-trainwl audi- 
ences usiiitUy found at promenade concerts. When we have mentioned 
Chopin, Lifizt, Thalberg, McndoIaAohu, Ibtodnme Schumann, Madame 
Qoddnrd, Rubinstein, and Halle, on the piano ; De Betiot, Paganini, 
Brntt, Vicnxt<*inps, Wicninwski, and Joachim, on tlie vtolio ; Linley 
and Piatti on the rioLincello; Dragonetti and Botleeini on the contra' 
bas9o ; Konig and Levy on the cornet, the rollof 8olo-in«trumentaltBt9 
doriiig ibe last filly year« may very nearly be closed. And of the 
aboT« men, some, like Chopin, Utdle, and JoacUiui, never cured to 
face, strictly sj^akiug, popular audi^ice^ ; but tboM) who did wore 
uvually secured by the popular orchestras of Jullieu and Mellon, and 
by thv givers of thoM> iutolorable bores calle<l moufiter coucerte,— 
wa B«ed only specify the EumuuJ cuncorta of jklessrb. I^euvdict and 
GloTcr. 

ui. 
The immenao adranco of tho popular mind is Temarkably illus- 
trated by the chanfi;© in the ordinary orchestral programme. Wo 
have now Jlozart nights, and Bot-thoven nights, and Hendelssohn 
nil^ta. Not bits, of symphonies, but entire works are now listened 
to, and movements of them are encored by audiences at. Covent 
Qardes. We havo heard the Scotth 6)mphony aad tho " Power of 
Sound " received with discrimination imd applause. A certain critical 
spirit is crc(>ping into thoite ^Ludiences. on'iug to the largo infusion of 
really mu^^ivul people who are on the look-out for good progrumiues, 
aad inTuriably support them. 

The old and new Phiilmn^onic^, the I*«ndon Musical Societj', 

Jullieu, Hullon, Arditi. and lost — and greatest of all — tho Crystal 

Pklaeo band, have no doubt eupphod a want, but the}' have also created 

QUO. They hare taught thoiuands to care about good music. They 

bave taught thoao who did uaro In be* more eriticul. The time is 

gma by when the Philhannonio hud it all its own way, or when 

only the wealthy couhl huar iinti niusii?, or when the public generally 

froB thankful for ainolL inunues. The ears of the public have grown 

aliorp. When musical amateurs uow go to hcor a 8}'mphony, they 

kjiow what tJiey gf> for. and they know, loo, whftber tht-y get it. 

Tlicy hear the Italian SjTnphony by llu; Crystul Palat* band on 

^viLurday aftemo«m, and on the fiillnwing Monday oTcning at 

QkXuHon'fi, and by-"nd-by at the Pliilhiinnniiir, and them is \w poasi- 

■->Aiity <jl' evuiliug a diituiiging comparimn. T})n in(*mlwn< of tho 

ICJiyRtal Palace band, from plajnng every day all ilie year round 

t^»gether under the same udniinible conductor, ha.\t achieved on 

3uellenoe hitherto uuknowa in Kngland. 

Tile c^u:e of oanductor is no sinecure. The position of tho four 




7 he Contemporary Rtmew. 

There is one other branch of strictlr popuJar music which jswids to 
be (!on(4idered beneath the ottcntion oi' serious critics; but uotbing 
populnr should be held beneath the attention of thoughtful people — 
we ulludo to the Xegro Melodiirts oow represented by the Christy 
Miniitrele. About twenty years ago a huad of cnihusinats, aome 
bloek by uature, others by art, iuTodod our shores, bringing with 
them what certainly were nigger bonca and banjos, and what pro- 
fessed to be negro melodies. The sensation which they produecd 
wiis legitimate, and their sucoefis was well dcAerrod. The first 
tneJodioA were no doubt curious and original ; they were tho ofispring 
of the naturally musical organisation of the negro as it. came in con- 
tact with the forms of ^Kjncrico-Kuropcan meJody. The negro mind, at 
work upon civilizod mu-iic, produc&n the si\mQ kind of thing as the 
negro mind at work upon Chri*itian tbeologj'. The product ia not 
to be despised. The negro's religion is singularly childlike, plain- 
tive, and emotional. It is also singularly dlKtinct and cliarocleriMie. 
Both his religiou and his music arise partly from bis impuluve 
nature, and partly from his servile condition. The negro is more 
really musical than the Rnglishman. If h« has a nation emerging 
into ctvilizution, his music is national. Until venr latdy, as bis 
people arc one in colour, so wore they one in calamity, and singing 
often m«rrily with the tears wet upon bis obouy cheek, no record of 
his joy or sorrow is unnccompanied by a cry of melody or a wail 
ol' plaintiTo and harmonious mclaucholy. If wc could divest our- 
seWes of prejudice, the songs that float down tho Ohio i-ivor are 
one in feohiig and character with tho songs of tho Hobi-ew cap- 
tives by the wotera of Babylon. We find in them the Hame 
tale of bereavement and separation, tho same irrcfparablo sorrow, 
the some simple faith and childlike adoration, tho same |)a&- 
BJonato sweetness, Likn music in the night. As might have been 
supposed, thcparody of all thii^, gone through at St. James's Hull, do«H 
not convey much rif the spirit of genuine negro melody, and thnmann- 
facturc of natitmal music carricrl on briskly by sham niggers in Eng- 
land is as much like the original arHdc as a penny woodcut 10 like a 
liuL* engraving. Still, such us it is, the entertainment is popular, and 
yet, beam some impress of its peculiar and romantic origin. The 
scent of the roses may be said to hang round it still, ^^'e cherish 
no malignant fer^Ung towards those amiable gentlemen at St. James's 
Hall, whose ingemtius fancy has jminted them so much blacker than 
they really arc, and who not unJrequently betray their lily-whit« 
Dationnlity through a thin though midorific disguise ; wc adtoil 
both their popularity and thr-ir idctll ; but we are boimd to say 
that wo miss even in such prf^tty tunes as " Beautiful Star," 
and such tremendous auccosaee m "Sally, come up," tho distine- 



i 



Tusic in Eng/anti. jr 

tive tharm and original pathos which chnracterised " Mary Blane " 
and " T4ucy Neal." 

V. 

tWe ciintiot rinse without aHuding to one other chws of TDU-sic. 
Aa opera ia tKo most irrationnl and unintt-llcctiml form of mnsic, 
w> that oloM of cabinet mnsic callwl stringod qimrtott-j is tho most 
intellpctnal. The tnio mnsician ontprs as it wer** the rlomestic 
auictunrv of music, when he sits down to listen t<», or to take part 
in, A stringed quartett. The time has gone by when men like 
Lord Chesterfield could Hpeak of a fiddler with contempt. Few 
people would now inquire with the languid fop, "what fiin 
there is in four fellows sitting opposite each other for hours and 
Bcmping t.'atgut ; " most people imderstand that in this same process 
the cultivafod musician Uuds the most precious opportunities for 
quiet mental analysis and subtle contemplation. 

The greatest masters wrote their choicest thoughts in this form — "it 
is uuc so eitaily cuiumanded and so satisfying. The three varieties 
of tho same instrumeat—- violin, viola, and violinceUo — all possessing 
comniou properties of sound, but each with its oVn peculiar quality, 
embruct! an almost unlimited compass, and an equally wide sphere of 
musical expression. 

The quartett is a musical microcosm, and is to the sjTnphony 

what a vignette in water-colours is to a largo oil-painting. The 

greut quartett writers are ooiteinly Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 

Haydn is tho true model. He attempts nothing which four violins 

cannot do ; the parts uro exquisitely distributed, scrupulous justice is 

done to each instrument, and the form is perfect. Mozart's qoartett 

ill equally perfect, as such, but much bolder and mure spontaneous. 

Beethoven carried quartett writing, as he did eveiy other branch 

of mutde, into hitherto untrodden regions, but, with the sure instinct 

of the most balanced of all geniuses, never into inappropriate ones. 

Fnacinating as arc the quartetts of Spohr aud Meudeissohn, as 

quutetts wo ore bound to place them below tho above great models. 

Spohr jwldom distributed his parts fairly ; it is usually first violin 

ititU titringed accompaniment. Mendelssohn constantly forgets the 

iiraits of the legitimate quartett ; orchestral efi'ects are constantly 

bring attempted, and wo pine at intervals for a note on the bom, 

irhiUt the kcttledrmn is not unfrcquently suggested. Schubert can 

Wander on for ever with four instruments, or with anything else — 

meJJilluous, light-hearted, melancholy, fanciful by turns. When he 

ifjta half-way through, there is no reason why ho should not leave 

"IC and when he gets to the end there is no reason why he should 

'"'' So on. But in this process form and unity are often both lost. 

e2 




52 



The CoiUemporory Review. 



The charHcU'ri'stice of Si-.hutnami ri'i|uii'« wi'iKirate atteutioii. TTnder 
the general liciuliiig of quartult niuflir wuuld be comprised llie adiU- 
tion of the piuiioforte iu trioe, quartette, und quintette ; us also Uie 
addiltuit of a lioni, a fliitf, or clarioin't, iu sestetts and octetts. 
Variety is iilwHyh ploaHaiit, but uuiio uf these cumbintitioii^ equal tlii.> 
slriiigcd quartett in beauty of form or real power and luUiuive of 
lexpreKiion. The piuiiu in u (riu will eke out a good deal, but il 
TiMially re^ullH iti tlie islriiigH act^onipanyiDg the piuiio, or llie piano 
sccomputiying ihe etringa. Mendelssohn's two trios are amull urchmtntl 
whirlwinds, and quite itnic|ue, but the form might he sei'ioasly 
qucstionod. 

On the other hand, one feels the pianoforte in a quartett, or even a 
quintctt, lis u kind of interloper— a sort of wasp in a bee-hive — 
u sort of cuckoo in a hedge-sparrow's nest. Ouo would rather sec 
the natural bird there j one woidd rather have the second riolin in 
its place. Again, in OL-tetta and Bcsfetts, splendid as are some of lliese 
compositions, we feel the ortbcstrnl form ia the one aimed iit, and 
consequently the poverty of the adopted one is constantly making 
itself felt. Space compels us to speak most generally and without 
even neccssanr' qnaliticaiion on theac points, and we (wss on to the 
qiiartctl playing that has of lute years como hcfoi-o the publie. 

Mysterious quartetts in hack rooms and retired countrj'- houses 
becuming more and more frequent, the exijerimeut of pnbtic 
quartetts was at last made; but they were to be for the few. The 
lliusival Union under Mr. Ella was the first society which providt-d 
this luxur}' e^ery seaijon. It »uon met with a formidable liral in 
the quartett concerts at Willis's Rooms, imder Messrs. Linton, IliU, 
Piatti, .and Cooper. But the man und the hour were still to come. 
The concerts were too select and too eipensive. Mr. Ohapptdl ilew to 
the rescue with a chosen band of heroes, foienioet amongst whom must 
ulwuys stand M. Joai'him. 

M. Joachim is the greatci^t living WoUuist; no man is so nearly 
to tbo execution of musio what Beethoven was to ita com- 
position. There is something massive, complete, and unen-ing 
about M. Joachim that lilts him out of the liut of great living players, 
and plact^ him on a pcdc&tal apart. Other men have their speciali- 
ties ; he bus none. Otliers rise above or full U'low thcniKelve.s ; he is 
always himself, neither less nor more. Ho wields the sceptre of hiM 
bow witli the eaiy royalty of one bom to reign ; ho plays Bt>ctli(iven's 
concerto with the rapt infallible power of » seer delivering biii 
oracle, and ho takes his seat at a quartett veiy much like A|>oUo 
entering his chariot to drive the horse» of the aun. 

The second violin of the usual Munday Popuhn- quarlett is Hetr 
KieSf masterly and unobtrusive. The tenoi', Mr. Blagrove, wh(/. 



Music in England. 



53 



though an niimtrablc &rst violin aud a great orche»tnil leader, Iciiown 
liow to »(hino anywhere, adorns llie post of prima tmorc ovcupied 
hy the Into lamented Kr. Hill. Sigtior PiHtli, ihp <jiily vio!<jiicello 
iho puhlio can Iwar lo liM«n to ua long; aa he lives, completes the best 
catit ever heard iu England. 

Oilier player* corwlaiitly appwir of various merits. Lotto, Wil- 
helinjj, aud StrausH are the beat siibotttutes which have been pro- 
vided for the great Wieniawski. "Why Mr. Carrodua has never been 
"elected w© are at a loss to coiijofture. His late peri'ormances have 
been c]uitf rt-markable euouirh to justify u trial. 

Mr. Charles IIull^ is UHUuUy seated at the piano, aud us long as he 
is there the presence nf a muster is felt and acknowledged by all. 

For one shilling any one can get a seat at l]ic»e concerts, wliere 
be can hear perfectly, and enjoy the finest classical muidu played 
in the finest style. 

The crowde*! and attentive audience which assembles every Slouday 
night throughout the season at 8t. James's Hall is the latest and most 
det'iFive pnmf of the progress of music in England. When an 
audience numbering some thousands is so easily imd frequently found, 
it matters little where it comes from. No doubt many connoissoura 
are there, but many others also attend who have cultivated, and are 
cultivating, a general taatc for certain higher forms of music, 
hitherto almost unknown in England. 

We hail the omen. Wo believe that even,' branch of art has a 
high mission of ilit own in the constant regeneration of society. We 
believe that so great a power as music cannot remain for any length 
of time inactive — must either become the minister of degraded tasto 
and feeling, or a lamp of life and tho pure recroator of the liuman 
heart. 

H. R. Hawrts. 



■i^^ 



M 



THE IRISH CHURCH ESTABLISHMENT." 



rpiTERE aro many objections to the title which I hav« placed at 
-*- the head of this estiay* I ^"i^h I could Irnvi? found a better. 
But the phraito Iri^h Church is ambiguous. You ivould all uuJer- 
stsnd me to mean the Church which is in comuiuuiou with tho 
Church of Eughuid. But you might not like to think that that 
OhuiX'h, by it* very nature, excluded the Irish Romanists. Ycm 
miffht not like me to uuy that thin Anglo-Irish Church, being Pro- 
testant, is not a branch of the Catholic Church. You might not like 
Xne to say tliat, if It {« a branch of the Catholic Church, it can be 
destroyed by the votes of the British Parliament- At all etreata, I 
should not Like lo maintain any of these propositions. 1 therefore 
resort to the phraw Iritih Church- or Irudi Prote^it-iint-l^tablishmeut. 
The words are familiar to us. They are used by atatesmea and. 
writers of newspapci-s of all schools — by men who scarcely agree on 
any poHtical or religious quuation. If Home coutusiuna utUich to 
them, wo may hope that, in the course of discussion, their meaning 
may becumc clearer. 

One xjoqilosity does attach to the phrase Kstabliahmeut or Esta- 

* This OMuy wua read |o ■aociet}' oFclnrgymiin in Noniintmr, 1865. Th» nUnaioiiS 
in R tu tine (ivenU of liikt yosr luro ituL Iicipti altervil, nur Imw 1 sdd ud any ntetvact to 
iba«U['){ul i>pintoi» of Uvu Imh Kinltopi on Uiq anhjoot of cndowmanU. Ku roceot 
flTnts or cDOtroTenuiB Lure, I think, ^IFcclod tho ^inaciplce irhiah 1 hnve ondcarxmnxl 
iaaaaeii. 



The Irish Church JLstabiishmmt. 



55 



blisbed Church, wTiioh, I think, tliiH application of it will help to 
removp. It is ofton suppo.'ied to bo sjTionyiiions Tpith the phm»e 
Kntionitl Church. " Tlie Catholic Church," wc are ol'ttn told, " has 
a diviuc fuuiulai ion. It fitsnda od nD iuiperishRble rock. The moment 
the id(yi of a Nation mingle* with it, wo find our»e!v<« in the uiidBt 
of toniponil armngemcuift, ptcuuiarj' provisions, claiiDS of dominion 
by srculnr rulors." I hold thin opinion to bo utterly at vmianco 
with historical evidence. But it has taken such root, even in the 
mitubi of tUuughtl'uI Mud curious men, thut I could not hope to shake 
it merely by prwluciug this evidence. AVe need some striking, pal- 
poble iustuuee in vrliiub it ici impossible to treat thette two expix-issioas 
a« ideuttcol, before- we eau bopu c&'utunlly tu exhibit the difference 
between them. Such au iustuuue In.>laud ofl'ers. Seurcb the world 
m-er, and you will scarcely lind au i-xample of a more splendid 
MlablJEluueiit thau the one which the English SuTOreign and Parlia- 
xueut set up for tbu iurtberauec of the FruLe«taut religion in that 
country. It is an estublishinenl which appeals to our sympathies as 
supporters of tlic reformed fuitli, as metuben of the Sojlou race, aa 
2ealoacr for the conversion and ciTiHxulion uf a race which we con- 
sider inferior to ours. But will any one renturo to hpetik of this 
establishment an a National Chuiuh 'f Whatever else it may be, it is 
not that. Whatever titles it nuiy have to our reverence, whatever 
gnat work it may bo doing, wc cannot bestow that name upon it 
without being conacioua of un absurdity and a contradiction. 

If wo clear ourselves of this impi-ession, wc shall, 1 think, do muoh 
greater justice to the Protestantism which we profess, and be mm 
hotter able to judge whether the machinery of tho Irish Establiah-' 
mcnt U likely to aid it or to injure it. 

Tho Protest of the nisteonth century was against a hierarchy which 
profcnsc^ to bind alt Christendom in one; which really trampled upon 
dw existence of each di<ttinet nation of (^hri^tendoin. It was a 
protest on behalf of the sacredness of tlio national languages aguinai 
that whi<;h assumed to be the proper language of worship, and of tho 
divine oracles. It was a protect for German life, Rwim life, Nether- 
land life, English life, Scotch life, against a universal system whic 
was crushing life iu every one of its manifestations. It was no pre 
ftgnittst divine gorernmeut or order, but for divine goTommcnt and 
order. It said, *' The divine government has been superseded by the 
government of priests. We appeal from them to the righteous Lord 
whom lUey profess to serve, and who they pretend has let^ the Cliurch 
and the universe lo their keeping." The lleforniers were not setting 
np secular rule ; they conceived that no rule was so utterly and 
emphatically secular as the PapaL In attaching Iheuiselve)) to thoir 
own sovereigns when they refused to acknowledge the supremacy of 



The Contemporary Review. 

Climl's Vicor, tbey w<ro rolurning to tlie uiitliority of Christ Him- 
wlf ; (lioy wcro rt'CGg»i»iijg Him as Uie King i>f kings and Loixl of 
lunis. So far as secularity is aswicialcd, not witli doinitiion, but witU 
inowy, tliey "Wtre uven nmre conscinuAly and directly at war with 
eeculnrity. TheRefuruiattoiiljeg-auwiiLdcuoiiiiuing thciiKJMtborriblo 
of all )Sii(iriiiL-4tf that hiid bu-n made, ur coiJd be mude,at tli(> t>briuo of 
Muinnioii; uud the tcsllmuny n^inst the ti^c of indulgi'iices woa 
only an example and pmijbec.y of the warfare with the m-potisiii, 
flimony, practicul vmhelicf in any power hut gold, which bud its 
oentro in tbe Court of Komc, and which had infected the occleBiasUcal 
(gralt>m of every counfTy. 

This figlit for the existence of nations, for the actual dominion 
of Ood, for spiritual forco against tho force of money, was earned ou 
succc.MfulIy or un sue ccs?^ full v in nil the nations of Kurope. Il ia 
the struggle of CoUgny against the power of tho truif^c faction and 
the French Court, of William of Orange against Philip li., of John 
Knox against JUary Stuart. In every one of these cases it is the 
conflict of weakness ngninst phy^iical sircngtb. When the weakness is 
gi-catcst, aa in Holland and Scotland, the victory ia most decisive. 
In Fngland the circumstances are different. The monarch ultimately 
letids tho buttle ng(iinr.t the I'ope. lint he learlti because he repre- 
sents tho nation. His protect, more strictly than that of the Qerman 
princv5 after the Diet of tSpiers. is a national protest. When under 
]idwnrd VI. I'lotcstantism assiunca a dogmatic shape, it lows its 
moral st reugth and vitality. They can only be recovered by a period of 
downfall and persecution. Protestantism reappears under a soVEreign 
who cares little about opiiiitinti, who rather dislikes the opiuioua 
which bear the IVotcstant stamp, but who is determined to pivt««t 
ou bybalfofherowa authority, and i« obliged to make that protest one 
ou bthulf of her people. Protestantism under KHzabeth was in tbe 
stricte»t wnse English^ — a struggle for England against the CathoUo 
league and the Society of Jesus, The arguments of divines against 
Papal doctrines went for very little, except so far as they appcaliKl 
to the heart of the people against what they felt to he a system of 
foreign tyranny — a tjTanny which kept them from trusting in the 
Qod of their fathers. 

Thai being thceasc in this age, ono fe^ls what an enormous change 
il: xnudc in the substance of PrntctitAnfiNin, \\n aceidcntti remaiuing 
tile Bame, when it is used a& an intitruiitciLt for mibjccting the Irieli 
to the joke of England. 

I would not speak lightly of tbe many arguments which may have 
induced the statesmen uiid the ilivini.-» in the age of ElLiiabelh to hiok 
upon this work both as a political necessity and hs a moral and religious 
duty. There were tribes in Ireland which England through the 



The Irish Church Rstablishment^ 



m 



whole l*loataj5onet period Imd been seeking to bring into some order — 
whieh were »tiU turbulent, Tbey were evidently open to spiritual 
influenecs. Learning bad tlourished among tkciu. It was Low that 
tbey rcaifitcd ; tho worth of ibat they appeared unable to appreciate. 
Kouio had ollcn interfered to bring their clerg}' into ccclesiatrtical 
order and something b'ke moral discipline, apparently with littlu 
mc<:es>>. But Ireloiul might bo used as oiio of the Jesuit inBtruinnitA 
for disturbing or recovering England. Wliat phm eo plausible as 
to establish tho Anglican reh'gion by the sid« of ihe Anglican. 
Gorernmunt, 1o irouiilenirl the iiilliionoes of the nativo rnltit; pHeet- 
tiiood by men who would preach obeilience lo Ijaw and Qovemmeiit^ 
to countortrnt the effects of the Romish hierorehy by a more wealthy 
hicrurchy wortiitg in hnrinony with thi* Court and Parliaineut of 
Westmiustrr? What conversions might not be wrought by the 
, splendour of Ruch iiu eHtnbliflhmcnt \ It must have neemed to prudent 
' and practical people a nimph', or perhaps a double^ rule of three num. 
If fjoutlaiid had been revolution ixnl in (he course of a few years by 
the efforta of a few poor men. in what spju-e of time might Ireland 
be ix^voluttuniKCfl it' the force of England were devottxi to the tjwk 
of giving it a Protestant character!' At tho beginning of the 
.oentnry a great portion of the lands of Scotland were in the hunds 
[of ecck-jjiasties. All their power was gone. The country wos now 
governed to a great extent by the Presbyterian ministers ; the nobleti 
bowed to their yoke if they demaudccl a portion of the spoils M'hich 
had been torn from the old hierarchy. The CVlt had a less stubborn, 
more impressible nature than the Lfowlaud Scot. He was not at 
an less open to arguments from self-interest. If he percoived 
that Protest3uti<im was reiilly in ihe at»c«ndHut, if it look an 
imposing form, one appealing to both his imagination and bia 
COTetOusness, why should he not accept it, and so become a dutiftd 
Bemuit of the Duglish Crown i* Why should not the settlers and 
the natives under this fusing power become really one people 'i 

Beautiful calculations! In-e^istiblc aiitbmctie ! How puzzling 
to all wise men who bclievo in Money as the Lord of tho Universe 
that they should have been utterly disappointed for three centuries! 
The Celtic race has not fallen ; Protoiitantism has not triumphed. 
We have to ask ourselves in the reign of Victoria, just as men asked 
Uiemselvca in tho reign of Klizabeth, If the tiiumph is desirable, 
how is it to be achieved t How can tho faith which has done so 
much to make us u nation ever become tho faith of Ireland f Or 
supposing the object bo not the religious ono of conversion, but the 
political one of attaching to I'^gland tho inhabitants of a country 
which is in elosfst proximity to it, by wliicb it is atfoeted for weal 
or woe in so many points, how may that attachment bo secured ^ 



58 The Contemporary Review, 

In trying to answer these questions, or rather to find out how they 
are likely to be answered for ue> I would speak first of the experi- 
ment of these three centuries in Ireland itself; then of the illustra- 
tion which the subject receives from the circumstances of Scotland ; 
then of the degree in which the fortune of the English Church is 
linked with the fortunes of the Irish Protestant Establishment ; 
finally, of the probable efiects on Protestantism, and on the Church 
generally, if that Establishment shall cease to exist. 

I. In reference to the first point, we cannot say that the experi- 
ment of establishing a religion in a country which professes one that 
is hostile to it has not^been fairly made. There has been a succession 
of Anglo-Irish rulers, each of whom has brought some wisdom of his 
own to the solution of the problem — each of whom has had' some 
lessons from the failure of his predecessors. If there has been a 
sad monotony in the story, there is also a variety in the schemes 
which have been tried and in the instruments which have worked 
them. There has been coercion, there has been conciliation ; bishops 
have been sent over who have devoted themselves ably and un- 
scrupulously to the English interest ; bishops have been sent over 
who merely cared about their own interests ; bishops have been sent 
over who had deeply at heai-t the interest of the Irish people and 
of the Church of God. If Protestant Ireland has had some of the 
worst bishops to be found in any country, it has also had some of 
the best ; names that are dear to English theology, to English 
literature, to English philosophy, stand out in the list. Usher, 
Taylor, Berkeley — can one easily find parallels to these in our own 
episcopacy, or in any episcopacy of the world P The succession is 
not broken ; the Ireland of the nineteenth century has had its full 
share of accomplished, generous, devout fathers in God. And the 
result is, what? If next to nothing for the Celtic popidation, for 
the Irish as such, something surely, it will be said, for the English 
settlers. Unfortunately, if you find them at the moment when their 
Protestant zeal and courage are at the highest pitch, it will be of 
Cromwell and his sweeping measures that they wiU speak ; it will 
be the immortal memory of the Dutch Calvinist that they will toast. 
To these, and not to the establishment with which neither of them 
was surely in much sympathy, the Orangeman traces his descent. 
The utmost which that establishment can boast is that it has done a 
little at certain times to curb his fury, to keep him from darting 
with sharpened teeth and claws against the foes of his holy religion. 
And yet how questionable is even this boast I How many of the 
clergy have whetted rather than soothed this fierceness ! What 
denunciations there have been against the want of heart, the cowardly 
compromises, of those who have interfered to abate it ! The examples 



The Irish Church Establishment. 59 

of meekness and charity which have been presented by some on the 
bench have seemed to be — of course they have not really been — 
thrown away ; every word which has gone forth from it against the 
doctrines that are accepted by the majority of the land has been a 
warrant for doing some violent deeds in defence of our own. I do 
not undervalue the real strengfh and energy of the Orangeman ; I 
am sure he has qualities which might bo directed to noble ends. 
I only lament that he has not found the director ; that he has to be 
restrained by the sword of the civil magistrate from hurting his 
fellows; that the parsons have no voice to keep him from falling 
into the barbarities of the race which he scorns, and which it is his 
business to elevate. There are some who do not believe that the 
Romanists are to be put down by violence — who are eager by all 
means to convert them. On such men one might hope that the 
influences of the Establishment would operate beneficially. If 
Hume's pica for religious establishments has any weight whatever, 
we should expect to find the proselytizer more calm and wise, less 
fanatical, in a countrj' where ho has a great force of material wealth 
on his side than where he goes forth unprotected to defy an advcr- 
sarj' in high places. I believe the experience of every person who 
walks through the streets of Dublin will overthrow that anticipation. 
He will read placards on the walls challenging Koman Catholics to 
come forward to prove the truth of such or such an ecclesiastical 
miracle ; offering rewards of ten or twenty pomids if they can con- 
vince a meeting called together for the purpose of turning it into 
ridicule. There may be numbers of the proselj-tizing clergy and 
laity who would disclaim sucli brutal appeals to the worst tempers of 
a people as these — such attempts to build up Protestantism on the 
destruction of reverence ; but they illustrate a habit and tone of 
feeling which a learned Christian establishment that has lasted three 
hundred years has not availed to cure. And till it is cured, while Pro- 
testantism goes forth with such weapons, I do not see how we can 
wish it success. It is not that one laments the use of bad means 
for a good end ; the end must be as bad as the means. A conversion 
80 effected is a conversion to the devil, and not to God. 

That is what I meant when I said that the substance of Protest- 
antism is changed when it takes the form which it has taken in Ireland. 
From being national, it becomes anti-national ; from being a witness 
against secularity, it learns to rest upon wholly secular influences — 
that of money thrusting itself in even unconsciously, even ridiculously, 
as in the instance of the offer about the miracle, because the reve- 
rence for it is so profound, because no other power is felt to be so 
effectual for spiritual objects. Finally (which is the root of all the 
other mischiefs), instead of being a witness for God against all 



66 



The Contemporary "Revienv. 



reli'gio^is iwhemci and drviccs of men, Pmtest«nti«m bocornca a rival 
religion to » morft popular rclijjion, with whirh it is to stniErglo Trith 
lair nrmrt or foul till one destroyo the otlier, or only tho BmsllcRt 
remnant i« left of Dithrr. 

Tho quotient, then, from the rule of thmcv sum htts turned out to 
1)0 nil. How has that bappenod •' Since it i-ested <m tho results of 
tho Scotch Ilefovmntion, let ub next turn to thofip. 

II. Prot^'stnntism in Sofltliind was a dircet nppcal to the national 
heart ; a direct assertion that tho nation is not n secular body, as the 
Koiiiiitii.'<t ufliiined it to be, bnt a body formed by God, and npholdea 
by Him. There was its strength from the beginning ; this hiis beea 
the secret of its Birengtb in all generation)* since. Tt held much 
moi'O t<p the Old Testament than to tlie Xew, becaiwe the Old Testa- 
ment i(t occupied with the history and bte of a nation. Tt was, to a 
degree ia which Knglish Protestant ism never was, anti-Calbolic. A 
universal Church might souiftinies occur to John Kiiox or to the 
Oovcuwutcr of the next century as a possible dix'uin ; it never waa 
])nrt of his actual conscious faith. Scotland was to be a godly 
Xalion. It lived to denounce Po[KTy and Prelacy. It lived t« pro- 
claim a Kirk of which Christ was the only ICing. Of course thafr 
ivirk, with its machinery, soon becjimo the most sacred of all thing* 
in the eyes of Ihow? that In-longed to it. To rMahltsh the Kirk in 
Kngland, to reduce that country to tho Presbytorlau model, was the 
^jTcat, duty of godly men. A time came when there swrnwl to be a 
poBsibilily of fidtilliiig that duty. Tho Westminster Assembly, having 
the grouiui well desired of bishops, could set up the Scotch eystenii 
U was a wonderfully Pi-otestant system, but it had milbrtiinately nO' 
hold upon the lULtional mind of England. The Independent rebelled 
ngainfitit; t'romwell saw in it n miscnible attempt to realize the 
Covenant by dci^troyiug the very principle of tho Covenant : Milton 
found it mliouB tj-ramiy. The Iie*tiiration came. One test had been 
afforded of the fotisibility of any experiment to establish a systeni 
which does not appeal to the national feeling hut seta it at nought. 
Charles II. was to supply another. Acting on the maxims of his 
father and grandfather, ho would establish EpiBcopacy in Scotland. 
He wonlfi, hut he could not. He, too, sent able, even saintly, binhops 
to the reluctant land. He had the armies of Claverhouse. The one 
were as ineifectual as the other. \\'hv they should fail woj* a problem 
which neither the wits nor tho divines of the Court coidd solve, That 
they did tail was a fact which could not be gainsaid by either. When 
the Revolution came, that fact and many other facts were recognised. 
The recognition might, perhaps, have l>cfn a more frank one. The 
old Camoronians protested against all compromise. Tho principle 
for which they bod fought, they Miid, forbade any aecepttinee of 



I 



J 



The Irish Church Estahlhhmtnt. 



graiite from the State — everything that made their direct ullegianw 
to Christ anihiguoiiK. Such a position Mnifk the statesmen oh dan- 
gerous. Oiif? cjiiiiiut lihimu- Ihwij for tliiiikiaj;; it bo, or for trj'ing to 
te a Concordat with the eccIeHiaRtics. NeverLfaelesB. I think they 
Itmight havi' Im-hii wi!«'r if they had suflered the Scotch people to work 
'oat the pmhU?in for themselve*). interfering with ihem no further 
thttn to Becuro the toKTHtioii of uU EpitMropuliaiin nnd others who 
difwnted from their ciMuinmiiiMi. liy Mich a course they might have 
avoided some later i-oiilmverwies, espetMiilly the one which has bo 
much puzzled and tormented them in our days. Thc^' wotdd have 
left the consicionces of the Scofrh a grenfcr freeilora ; they wonld have 
avoided certain perplexilicj< and anomalies which oKivw disturb the 
minds of Knglishmeu. However, it is eas}' to make theite remarks 
alter the events. The course actually taken, if not the best possible, 
at least hod the great merit of tenniniLting a course of policy which 
wa:i vuiti and hopeless ; the union of legislatures, accepted by the 
last of the Si unrfr*, was n confession that the efforts of her predecessors 
to form a united Cliurch had been abortive ; that bishops und o litwg}" 
could not bo] thrust upon a nation which saw no meaning in them, 
bv » l«_'{»i-'l«ture. With all the defects of that union in its»?]f, and in 
the ran'tUods by which it was accomplished, it ccrtJiinly had the cft'oct, 
by it« omissions even more than by ita enactments, of preserving 
Scotland through t«'o rebeUions. One can hardly imagine how much 
the opposition to the i'ret^uder would Iiave been weakened if there 
had been an alien estubliahmeut in the mJdat of the land. The X*ro- 
testaiits would then have been divided ; the attachment of the High- 
lander to his Prince und his on'u religioux traditions woidd have 
OTcrborno their feeble i-esistance ; English, anuiea might have been 
sent in vain. 

Such are the lessens which I derive from Scottish hiHtory. If 
they ore fairly deduced, they corrobate very decidedly the evidence 
which arises from our Irish experience. 

III. iJut if wo give lull weight to this evidence, are we not 
ondangering the KnglisU KstabUshDient ? Ib there any logiciil di»- 
tinetiou between our circumstances aud those of our brcthr^'n on the 
other Bide of JSt, George's Channel t If their edifice falls, can ours 
Ktand ? This is the next point which 1 propose to consider. 

We arc assni'edlv to apply no maxim to our neighbours of which 
we will not ctidnrc the full opplieutiou ourselves. iUI I have said 
ifl not a condemnation of our neighbours, but of ourselves. The Irish 
KHlJiMiMhincnt is an English work. It is an attempt of the English 
SalJoiuil Church to extend itself beyond the Uniila of England, to 
impose itself upon another race. That attempt, I thinks bos failed 
in Ireland aK it. failed in Scotland. It has failed bceause the Xutionul 



6z 



The Contemporary Rniew. 



Churcb has ammied u position vliich is itot national. Say. if yrtu 
pipasc, that you cannot di^iccm & nution in Tit^Iuntl, that the Cells 
never faave been one, that the Saxona never have been one; that 
they cannot, then-fore, make one together. Ton may Iw Hfjht; but 
that [iroves, 1 think, that the Anglo-IriHh Esfablinhment has accom- 
pliflhwl nocnd wliiyh jiiHlifies itH existence. If it has not etilled forth 
u nation out of thcw element^), if they are atill disitracted, warring- 
elements, if secret sooieties of Kibhuiimen and Oraiigi-men have pnc- 
ccedrd to the clanB and septa of other days, what has the Chnrch 
done, vhat proof has it given that it pa't^esses the functions and 
power* of a Church ? 

Tn this reappot it stands in the most direct contmst to the bod^ 
■with which it is in fnllowship. The English Church ha* passed 
throuj>h many Ticissitude-i, h)ia fallen imder many tyrannies, hna 
been giiiltr of many crime.'*. Hut from the {lay that the Roman 
monk* first wing their litanies in the Isle of Thanot, there grew 
up in our country a spiritnal force which appealed to the sense of 
domestic order and of royal authority, that had dwelt beside the moat 
turbulent passions in the mind of the Saxon. It went on to fiue 
the different warring tribea into a common England. The Church 
having become weak and enrnipt in the eleventh ecninry, felt 
the oriiahing power of the Norman ecclesiastics as well as of the 
Jforman princes. But the better ecclesiastics of the conquering 
race became themselves helpers in the elevation of the lower race; 
by degrees the iSaxon life came forth tu new vigour ; the secular 
clergj', the jNirsons of the towm>, representing it, as the dignifiedj 
clergy repre;^ented the Normnn asecndeDcy. as the monks and friars] 
reprcaenlcd the Latin Bishop. Those opposing influences worked 
together for the formation of ii people. At tho Kcformation it come 
forth asserting through tho sovereign its own dignity, disclaiming 
any foreign jurisdiction, vindicating lay tribunals and lay legislM 
tion, not as the concession of a religious principle, but as neeeasftryl 
to the support of it. Tho Puritan elemcut, tho Roman Calholici 
oiement, working in the midst of the nation, each on ditferent 
grounds suspected the Church so far as it was national; each in 
dift'crent waye contributed (o make it mere national; ciieh in dif- 
ferent ways testified that besides being national, it must be a [lortiou 
of a larger society. Whenever it has given iliielf the air« of au 
earthly e>lahli(*hmont, standing upon iti* wealth and il.s fashionublo 
supporters, it Iioii been reminded by some givat movement like that 
of Wesley and AVlutefield how feeble theiio sujUMtrls are, how neccs- 
snry a (umdition of a ehnrch it i.s that it shall have a voice which 
shall roach the lea^ wealthy, the least; (hshionuhle. Whenever ii 
has assumed to bo an exclusive society, the champion of n rival rcli- 




The Irish Church Establishment. 



gion to tbf rrliginn of the Fitntana or the Rnnwtimts, it hns huil to 
bear (ihocfcs from both, to find JUel.'" weaker than hoUi. Here ore 
toketifl, it fiPcmA to me, of a society which Go<l has cstabtiFihrd, anH 
not' man, which is alwaytt liable to forget the gr'>un(l of its own 
8trcnf*tli, the bond which unites it to tho wholo land, hut which hns 
been again and again brought to repent, imd to claim its true pa<«ition 
«ad difrnity. 

rV. So I poM from consriderations drawn from the history of the 
past to the poesibililios of the future. There I, of course, am bound 
to speak wi»h much more hesitation. If I were forced, in ray igno- 
rance of Ireland, to ofter any plans for the cure of it^ anomalies, my 
presumptioQ would eoou be exposed by th<5«e who have h've'l in il, and 
who know how coraplicjited and deeply sealed those anomalies an: 
Ko plaus that I havo heard of ooiomend themselves to my coiucioiu!« 
or juilgmeut, though I am satisfied that we learn aomethiug fipom 
ereiy sogg^istion proceeding from any honest or able man. Tho 
jira|iOBal to use the funds ot the Church for purposes of education 
ehanges tho name uf tho diSiculty — does not lessen, the reality of it. 
Education \a just now the battle-Held between the two purtiw. Tho 

, pnipOBul to ondow the Irish priest, i.e. 1o have two estabUshnieutu 

^insleiid of one, seems to me nut more saiisfuctory. It is defended 
on the ground of juatice to a majority. It could not be accepted 
i^ the majority 119 jui^tiee. It is defended on the plea that it will 

'nake the prients loyal. Tlie lUsloyid priests would probably find 
their interest in declining it, and appealing to thoir tlm^ka ag;iinHt it. 
Xlifwe irho became the >S(ate penHiimern would be those upon whose 
allngiancc you could depend iilr(!.-i(ly. 1 nppn-heud this scheme would 
shock the consciences of English and IriHh Prolestaiits ; would not at 
all conciliate Hnplish or Irish Romunistit. I may be quite wrong ; hut 
while I hold thi-t opinion, ,Riul tbl^ also which I have idready 
expressed respecting the precedent in Hootlaud, I certainly could 
never urge this as a way of breakuig tho fall of the l*rote8tant 
J^ablifthment. I look upon that fall as iuevitahle. How it will 
take place I can as little divine as any one of us could buve divined 
six Dionrh^ a^ how Yraiice wua to break loose from Austria, how 
^e amazing physi<Md force of tlie Q^utdrilateral waa to coUapee. The 

\mQiMBMt^m ad homiftem, " You do not see your way," ia not an arffu- 
tnfuhirtt ad Deum. This is not a year in which we can snfclv venture 
predictions about events. Jiut it is a year in which one may affirm, 
with more than usual resolution and constancy, that what has not a 
foundation in the nature of thiugs and the order of God, by whatever 
power it it* iipht4d, wbat^^ver plausible reasons may he alleged for its 

I continuance, will come to nouf^bt. It is a year in which, more than 
in most years, one is led to meditate on. the divine vitaUly of nations. 



64 



The Cotttemporary Review. 



antJ the poril of using auy plea, ecclesiastical or otlicr, for ki?oping 
tliomin (leatli. Tt is a y«ir in which Protestants should feci a |xir- 
ticular drcnd of leaving Bounnist-s a pretext for the chargi? that we 
only talk abont the «aci-c<lncj« of national life, when we waut to liiidi 
opportuiiilies for nltacking it, 1 am not sony, certainly, that thoir 
logic should ho spoiled, and thoir htsirts wanned, by their interest for 
Poland and Trtluiid ; I am not sorry that those of tlieui who hate 
nationality, act most. Roiutrth prelates do, should bo obliged iu these 
exceptional case's to become champions of it. But I am Borry whea 
Itomunists like Moutuk-nibLTt, who do not hate nalionul liberty- 
nay, who even lovt* Jiiigland for the uiko of its imfiunuL liberty — 
should be strengthened by one uf tlicso iiisluuces iu llieir eouvictioa 
that we owe it to anything except our Protestantism. Theae luri 
bewildering results of the Irish Establishment. They may not he' 
reasons why wc tdiould lift a hand tu throw it down; but they nniy 
bo very good reasons for not iniLulging iu bitter himentation, for not 
fancying that a cause which is dear to us will sutler for the change, 
when the decree of the watchers and 1 he holy ones goes forth, " Hew 
down the tree and cut off its branches — scatter its leeres." There 
may be, there must be, something Tcr}' awful in that decree, whcn- 
i>Ter it sounds in our ears, by whatever instruments it is executed. 
lint it need not awaken in us any desi>ondenc\-. The stump will 
n*iurcdly remain in the ground ; that which God IHmaelf has put 
thei-c will abide, and will germinate again. Protestantism, ceasing to 
put on its falfio aspect of a rivat religion to Catholiciem, may become 
in Ireland, i\» it hn.'^ been in KnglonH, the witness against that which 
has dcfltroynd Catholicism. Tlie Anglo-Irish minister of the Qoapel 
may remind the Pomanist that his Credo and hia Paternoster ore 
tnie and living words ; that they iLisert a real fcdiowsbip for him -with 
the Chureh in I'jirlh and in Heaven :#Thnt the City of the Unseen 
Father is not afar off, like the City of the viftiblo Father ; that there 
is B real entrance into it for the pooi-cst peammt. Without nrtificinl 
effort* to keep alive the old harhiLrnus s])eoch, — whatever may be the 
t«nporarj* value of it, and the wisdom of using it among those to 
whom no other is equally deJ»r,- — this common human " language wiU 
make itself intelligible to the hnman beings for whom it is intended. 
Stripped nf the accessories which have caused them to be regarded a« 
the emifl-iaries of foreigners, the signs of subjection, the Pishopfl of 
the reformed failh may do more than civil magistrates to cultivate the 
sense of order in a race disposed to reverence priests; they may 
have a moral influence over the Waxon layman which ihny have 
never had while they have been chiefly regarded as witnesses of 
his superiority to those who frc-queut the Mass. If we may judge 
from the example of bcotland, the union between the countries will 



The Irish Church Establishment, 



6s 



be more real, loss pKcarions, when tho effort to compel a rolij^ous 
union, or tho nppcanmec of one, has bocn jriveii up aa hopeIa». 
Nay, is it not possible that the Church, coming; iw a messeuKor of 
peace and health, not of strife, may fulfil the idea of those who said 
that a mcro union of Irginlaturcs could never be satisfactory, ibac 
there must bo one of n-ills and offectionH ? There has Iwen much talk 
of our continuing the Churrh of St. Patrick. We «ny do that if 
wo continue thr works which tradition ascribes to St. Pntricfc. A 
church which goes forth healing and bWting, driving venomous 
eerpentA out of the land, changing hrute« into men, will be recogiiitiM 
as working miraclet, the namo in kind as those with which the early 
erangelizers and civilizers yf ihe Isle of Saints are credited- They 
will bo miracles which will not glorify the men who perform them ; 
they will not appeal to that belief in luck wbich is fostered as much 
by the money charms of tbe nineteenth century as by tho araulet-* 
and holy wells of the eighth. They will bu received as signs from 
Him who is constant in His purposes and wondorful in His opera- 
tiows Vr\xQ is the some in every uge. 

F. D. Haurice. 



■VOL. TU. 




f<^^'^^^^^<i^ ■ 'W¥¥W¥¥<^^ 



MAX MULLER ON THE SCIENCE OF RELIGION. 



(faffnm a Ctrmn* n'onUb^/-. Bjr Max Mifu.rn. U.A.. Fellow 
dl AUSaaUCidlegr.OxforJ. Uavlati Loaipaaam. IMI. 



'^piIEUE is strange atlractiou, one might almost say a strange' 
^ foscinaiion, in the idea of a Science of Religion. It secuis to 
offiT to iLo perplexed inquirer a solution of the darkest and most 
difficult i)roblcm presented hy the history of mankind. And yet 
it i«, I believe, open to question whether the religions of the world 
lire capahie, In the strict sensy of the word, of becoming the sub- 
jact-matter of a scieuce. The work of Bcience ia to classify phe- 
nomena according to their true af&jiities; to uvcerttun by oWr- 
yation, if possible, by exporimynt also, excluding or importing 
condltion& the absence or the preiseuee of which helps u3 to check 
the concluftions draM'n from phenouieua us (hey commonly occur, 
th« laws of sequence : to refer theso laws of sequence, when so 
a«oeilainc<], to some higher genei'alization. Wlieu it* victorj- baa 
thus been won by submission, and it presents itself as the minUtrr 
rt iuUr/»\« luiftirfT, it assumes a twofold prophetic office. It sets 
before meu the primal Luws which huve httlicrlo been as mysteries 
" hid from nge^i and generations," and points to u Diriue order iu 
the midst of what hud seemed casual uiid chaotic. It looks into tho 
fului'o OS with the upon vision of a seer, and prt'dicts, eitlior, us in 
BStionomy, the actual succession of phenomena in the years to come, 
nr, as with most other ]}hysical sciences, the rcsiilts of this or that 
combination of them. As yet, it ia only as regards the great cosmical 



Max Muiler on the Science of Reltghn. 

toA&t whicli sun'ountlfl as that the higher knowledge hna been 
attftinefl. "Wo sopm Aomrtimcs on the verge of rcnching it in 
meteorologr, and Tall Iiack batfled by tho infinite complication of 
the conditions with which we hare to donl, compelled to be content 
with a fenblo prognoftticaiion within the narrow range of a Tow hoora 
and a few degrees of latitwle. 

Bnt alike in the higherand in the lower stages of scientific knowl^ge 
we pattulate or we nscertJiin this nniform suocesuion of j>henomena. 
"We do not believe in any disturbing forces beyond those which we 
ean elituinnto or calculate, and in either case this diMtarbanco ceuaeii 
\\o affect the certainty of our laws or ihe truth of our predictions. 
'le it w likewise with the pheuomeua nhich have thuir uourtje in the 
thought and will of man 't Do these too run in grooves and obey 
^iftws, 80 that here, tw well as in Nature, there is an iurariablu suoces- 
? Here also, [roni diffoi'ent <juarter»> an anitwer i» given in 
the aflirmatire. Observers of the school of the late Mr. Buckle point 
to statistics of crime, marriage, population, the price of food, as ehow- 
iug with what constaucy even l-he impulses that eeem uiottt cupricious 
ftre conditioned by surrounding circuiuetances. The gi'eat prophet of 
the newest philosophical religion asserts, as the rei*ult of a method 
of inquiry that excludes all d/>norf assumjitiou, that iho nations of the 
world have passed, ore passing, and must of necess^ity pass through 
the throe stagtJS of bnowUMlge, theological, inclapliyKiwil, poKitive, 
which havf) become the catch-words of hia BVsteiu. The school 
of which Mr. Max MuIIht ih a distinguished represi-ntativc points 
tvith a legitiinatp jpride (o wliat has been achievinl witLiu the laat 

f-oeuturj' in liugiiistii' Kludies. "Here," they say, "the tusk 
of Science has been uccomplishod. It has detected the latent afBui- 
ties of langaagCH that seeniE^l Mtpamtod from each other by im- 
paaettblo barriers. U hiis tmctnl the rtvors to their suurcii, has 
led the long-divided sisters lo reeogniso a common [larentugo. U 
has aacertained, uh in the ca^) of Grimm's rule of the changes of 
conaonunts, and in thoHc which guvcni the growth and dogeaera- 
tion of inflections, that variations that scented nrbttrary und unac- 
countable are goTcrued by u law which acts uniformly. Languages 
which cannot even he referred to a common btock arc seen to 
ortoh at the same processes of abbreviating the expression of their 
thodghts, at the name analogies lM>twecii the acts and sensations of 
man's body and those of his spiritual con^iou&nesB. If it has done 
this with what is the utterance of man's thoughts in their most 
shifting and variable form, why should Science heaitate to ehwn 
that other region in which man's thoughts are clothed partly in 
•words, partlj* also in acts, in the euUm of sacrifice, procession, dance, 
colours, dresB, architecture, as well as in the prayer, the hymn, the 



^ 



f2 



68 



the Contemporary Revie-w. 



legend? Does not the study of language lead the inquirer of 
necessity to those inner depths of man's liie out of which speech 
and niftu* have alike flowed Y Does not one supply the key to the 
other ? Does not philology show that mi/lhs the most groteaque or 
repulsive origiuuted in the free action of man's imagination upon the 
facts that impressed themselves on his senses, the whiteness of dawn, 
the glow of sunset, the dew, the clouds, the ahowersP Doeo not the 
study of the religions of the world show that thetse myths, which wo 
find in their primittvo form in the Vedas of our Aryan forefathers, 
tend, olikc in the Theogony of Hesiod and in the /end- AvestA, to lose 
their rapport to tho facte from which they start{K^l, to assume new 
forms, to become the sport of fancy, playful or prurient — ^tho hoBea 
fimt of imaginative epics, and then of imaginary history? May wo 
not hope to trace in like manner the ffpitms of nil religions, the laws 
of their growth and development-, the laws also of the corruption and 
decay which are not less inevitable ? " 

In this spirit Mr. Max Miiller lookit forward to the possibility of 
a Bcionco of religions. lie reminds us of the extraordinary accumu- 
lations during the last fifty years, of " new and authentic tmitcrJalH 
for the study of the religions of the world," the opening to tho 
scholars of Europe of the Vedas, the Zcnd-Avcstii, the Tripitokn, the 
"canonical book^ of the Itrahmins, the Zoroaetrians, the Huddbi«ts;" 
the fuller knowledge which has been gainwl during the same periods 
nf the old TeligiouH aystema of rhopnicin and Carthage, aTul Rabylon 
and Nineveh ; of the religions of Confucius, Laot-sc, and Tiuddha 
(under the scarcely rpcogntsablo form of I-'o) in China. He speaks, 
indeed, an a true scholar would do, with a diffidence which contrast* 
strikingly with the dogmatism of Comte and llcgcl. He doubts 
*' whfther the time has yet come for attempting to trace, after tho 
model of tho science of language, the dettnitc ontllnca of the ncience 
of religion." (I. xi.) Rut he in not Ihe less enthusiastic in his 
belief that such a scieneo will come, and is glad to be among those 
who prepare the way for it. He chiims for it, with all the fervour 
whicli omediiEvnl thinker would have Invisbwl on the Theology of his 
period as the "queen of sciences," a high prerogative: 

*' The science of relif^ioa may he the Inst of the sciences which man la 
defltinciT tn elaborate ; but when it ip elnhornted. it will change the aspect 
of the world, and will give a new life to Chriatiauity itself." 

* 4> * « A « 

"It will, for the first Ume, Msign to Christiftnity its right place iUQO::t' 
tlio rclipons nf tlie world ; it will show, for the tirat time, fuUy what wiw 
meant by the falness of time ; it will restore to the whole history of tbu 
world, in its uncoDHcieiis progress towards Christiauily. its tiuc uiid sacred 
character." — (I. xix., xx.) 

Mr. Max MiJlIcr enters on his work, aa those worda will show* ia a 



Max Miilier on the Science of Re/t'gton. 



69 



spirit of profound earnestness and rcTorencc. Ho beliovos that to 
help men of other roUgiona to see in their otph luicicnt records tho 
truths whifb Chriatianity recog^iiaca and embodies will muko the 
*' choice between Chriat and other maatcrs far more easy to many a 
truth-seeking bohI." From the tendcney of other religions to 
degenerate, as by q natural law, ho warns tho Chriatian teacher in 
noble worda that he, too, must go back to the fountain-head of the 
troth which ho professofl; that — 

"The C'hri^tiftnity of the nint>t«entJi contnry is not the Chmtiaiiily of 
the Middle Ageti, that the Chriatianity of ths Middle Ages was uot that of 
ibc fiirly Councils, thnt Hit- ('hrintianily of tW early C'onncil>t wati not thftt 
of the ApoHtlds, aiid that what has b«eu said by Christ, that alone was 

Well SlWll." (I, XXTl.) 

Ho appeals to the boldness with which Clement of Aleaandria 
Bcknowled^-d that philo)4ophv had been to the Greek tifi a " school- 
'nuiBter," as tho Law had bceu to Israel; and Augu»^tiue assorted that 
Plftto had been a witness of the truth,* as recognising his position 
that there had been a IHvino work of edueation going on outside tho 
limits of Israel. He has learnt to count no roli^on, whatever may 
have bean its con'uptiona, as, from tho first and altogether, "common 
and unclean." 

There in much in all this with which, I need not nay, many Chrif^ian 
thinkers must profoimdly nympathtze. But it holds good, T believe, 
of these genPTali7fltinna, os of othera that are more hasty and super- 
ficial, that while they arc applicable, more or leas, to the genem of a 
religion as the result, in act or language, of the feelings which 
pervade a nation, and are modified by tho influence of race, climate, 
intercourse with other nations, while they hold good also of the reaction 
of those feeling* and influences on systems that hare had another 
birth, and so help us to understand their develojmient and their 
corruption, they fail to take into account two elements which wo 
have not yet brought in any degree within the limits of ascertained 
laws. They leave out of eight (1 ) the influence of great men, and 
(2) the actual apocalypse of truth by the will of God to the mind- 
of the seeker.f 'ITie religion of the Tedas and of the Greeks is trace- 
able to no one prophetic or philosophic mind as it^ creator. Tt 
seems to spring up, as language sprang, a>s by a spoDttmeous action 
and reaction of nature on mind, and mind on nature. It expands 
into an endless series of myths of which we know not the inventor. 

' )Ir- SIjix Miilltr mi^ht have included JuJtin'ii recognition of Soorates and Tlem- 
datoa, and men WVc tlum, as *■ Chriatlana, theogh they won collod alheiatoi" nn'l uvua 
ToloUian'M " loiUiai'utiua auiinie Mtwra'i'f/p CbriaUaniu " amon^hta ^toeoaoa. 

t It wQl ^e seen ftirthor on tlint Mr, Max MiiUei doai in on«, and tbatacrnutal 
incUnov, iw!ogiii«B both of thme furr's. But Um c^urkUciii whether tbat recognition is 
compatiblfl with a perfect Kiouco of rcligiotui is alilL opca to discuuioD. 



70 



The Contemporary Review. 



It VM not primarily the " rcligiou of A 1>ook," as recording a real or , 
profeosed revelation. KreQ lionier and Hesiod, tliough iii one senso! 
the former became almost an the Bible of the Oi-eek«, wi-Te but the 
late collectors of legends Uut had hwt their life aitd ttigniiicance, and 
were tending to depravity. The religion of the Papuus and other 
fetiche worshippers, in like manner, may be explained from the 
spontaneous action of the terror and the wonder of tbe wivuge before 
the iinknowa lbrce» of the tiniver»e. But with the greater, nobler 
rolif^ions of the world, which have come acrops tlicse »ycl*ms, modi- 
fying or sweeping them away, or have run their courBe indejieiideutly, 
the case has been otherwise. They havo had their stiirting-point in the 
thoughts and struggles, often in tho sutferings and death, of iiidi- 
vidual men. Abraham, Moses, Mohnraiiicd. Sakyu Mouni, Confucius, — 
from the inquirer's point of view, we need not shrink from adding 
the Name which we hold oa greater than them all, — -these have been 
new elements, new ibroes in the world, whoso rise eould not have 
been foreseen, whose orbit could not have been calculated. And 
within the limits of the religions n'stemn whieh they severally repre- 
sent, personal intlueiiee, as little within the gcnomliziitions of science, 
though less startling in its results, bus been mighty also in chang- 
ing and expanding. Preaehej-s, interiireiers, prf»pheta, a]K)Btles, each, 
in like manner, with hiR onu incommunicable peraonality, unlike all 
others, huve brought about revolntions that have afiert«d the creed 
and tho lite of millions through a long succenKion of ages. What 
science of religion can aecount for David or Isaiah, for Vanl or John, 
for AthanasiuB or Luther P 

And yet further, it must be added, if there be in the history of 
the world's religions more than the record of the attempts of men 
to *' aoeli after God, if haply they might feel after Bim and find 
Him ; " if, over and above nil the many voJee* with whieh men hare 
mode answer to themselves, the (_hje Voice has B|>oken "at sundry 
times, in divers manners, to the fathers by tbe prophets," and to ns 
" by his Son ; " if through the darknew in which men grope their 
way up the "world's great altar-stairs " a hand is stretched forth 
to guide the aeekers, and bring them under tho wings of God—' 
then wo have a series of facts so exceplioual that wo need more than 
the study of the records of one world to bring them at ull within tho 
region of ascertained law. " Nothing but the histonr of another 
worhl, seemingly in like circoimstances with our own," would, as 
Butler says,* " be a parullel case." A complete inductive basis for 
the scieueo of religion in this its higher aspect would r<<(|uire the 
histoiy of many euuh worlds, as ttithin iln narrowest limits it requires 
the study of the religions of many races. Without this, it muat 
* Analoxy, part ti. cb. iL 



Max Miiilfr ok the Science of Reiighn. 



7' 



eontent itself with acknowledging ihat theee two elements, tht' 
greutoess of individual minds, and the Divine will a« the giver u'* 
that greattieM, lie hoyond its ken, are foives which it can trace in 
their working, but cannot rt'fer to any higher causation ; or else it 
muirt end h^ denying the existence of the latter, and representing 
tho former as tho creatures of the conditions and circumstance* which 
they have changed for the better or the worse, or swept utterly away. 

Mr. Max Miiller, as we hove fleon, docs not profess to lay down the 
DUtlincs of ?m'h a Bcicnce. He is eonBcious that to make the atti-mpt 
now would he to inrur an ahnost inevitable failure. lie docs what is 
for better, and gives us aomo of the results which have been attained 
by one who ha>! ntudicd tho rclifrionfi of mankind in tho sjHrit of a 
pcientifip, and therefore dcrout, inquirer. Wo may regret that the 
work (u collection of oaaayH and rcviowH priiilod at intovvala sinoo 
1R5^ shoidd at mice attrju^t us by tlio writi-r's mar\'i'llouB extent of 
knowlcilgo, keen iuRight, and reverential syitipathy, and disappoint tig 
Ijy the fragmentary form, and oft<^n fantalizingbrevity of the articloa. 
Aa n rule, such mlh-j-tinns need a carrfVil sifting rmd revision, and the 
■bsencc of such a process is sure to lead sometimes to a needless 
repetition, mmetimes to seeming inconsistonc}'. In the first volume 
nt theee essayfi, eg., the Tcligioas statistics of mniikiiid are given no 
I«M than three times (pp. IZ, 100, S15), and the olemoniary facta 
connected with the iD}*thology of the Yediw meet us again and again^ 
vstil they become as familiar friends. But when we recollect what 
has been the writer's main employment, that these " Chips of a 
G«rman Workshop '* represent the leisure half-hours of one who«o 
dsT-work huB l)een to edit and translate the Ve<laa, we can but look 
on them with ever- increasing admiration. As "tho gleaning of the 
grapes of Ephraim" was to " the vintago of Abiczer," so are these 
" Chips" to the whole stoek-in-frade of many a timber firm enjoying- 
B high reputation in Knghmd, France, or Germany. 

The inquiries of which wc have tho result in tlicsc volumes carry 
as over tho same ground as Mr. Maurice's noble and suggcgtive 
lectures on the Religions of the World, as the more elaborate work of 
ArcKdettoon Hardwick, " Christ and other Mastors." They will remind 
some reaiicrs also of im able Borien of papers by M. Emile Ilurnouf 
on " I^a Scienri! den Religious," in the Hrrnp de^t Vt-ux Mondet for 
1864. It is in some degree less complete than these in form. That 
defect is tnorp than coinilorbnltmced, hon'cver, by the authority which 
tho writer may well claim whcnc\'(>r he speaks, as in the paporon Com- 
parative Mythology (reprinted from the Oxford Essays for 1 8-56), tho 
litetun* on the Vcdas, and the Kssay on Caste, frnm the fulness of his 
knowli-dgo in the region which he has made prc-omincntly his own, 
and by tlic wide mngc of reading in other kindred studies which 



7* 



The Contemporary Review. 



Mwblaa Kim to pkco the inquirer au courant of tho very latest 
researches, and of tho results to which they huvo led. Tlicro i&, too, 
we TnU8t notft in parsing, a refrcnhing contnist to the tone in. which 
workers in the tuune field of Hcholartthip too o&jpn speak of cuch othor 
in the way in which Mr. Max MiiUer i-ecogniscs tho lahoiira of those 
who get commonly but little recognition from the wide common- 
wealth of readers. When he dwells on the process by which 31. 
Stanislas Jullien succeeded, after sixteen years of labour, in identi- 
(ying the Sanskrit oi-iginaU of Buddhist names and phra«e8 under 
the strange disguises which Ihey had assumed as manipulated 
by Chineee tramlators (Buddha appoarlng as Foto, Nirvana o« 
Niepan, Brahma a« Fanloumo), or that by which Qrotefend, Bumouf, 
Ijasaeu, and Bawlinsou have interpreted the cuneiform iu^riptione 
of tho AchaHueniaji dynasty, he suyii, wilh all the glow of euthu- 
uastic sympathy, that they " deserve to be clas^^od witb the 
diflODveric» of u Kepler, a Nowtou, and a Faraday." Ho in hardly 
lu8ti warm iu his acknuwLedgmout of the meritK of the great Zend- 
AveatS echolartj, Spiegel, Westerguurd, and Haug. This id, of 
Course, quitu compatible with tho free utturuucu uf hits own judg- 
lueut uu points ou which be huds him»clf at issue with other schohirs, 
and some of tho must interesting papers iu these vulumuii are those 
iu which he diaciwsefi such poiut^s of controversy. Hi& historical 
instinct, r.tf., leads liini to protest aguiust the hasty gimeralizatiou 
witli which M. Kenan speaks of the Hcmitio race as essentially 
juonotheistic (I. 341); against the fantastic conjectural combiuiitiou 
by means of which Spiegel, identifying Arraa, tho name which 
appears in. the Zoud-Avesti as tho home of Zoroaster, with the Haran, 
or Charmii of Abraham's jouxno}', asaumett tLo Father of tho 
Faithful and the servant of Ormuni to have met thoro^ ond so 
csplaiiis iheiwiutswhich the two systems have in common. — fl. 150.) 

The relations in which tho great religions of tho East stand to each 
other, aud the characteristic feoturea of each of them, are bi-ought 
before us by Mr. Max Miillor in somewhat of tho following order : — 

I. The Vedic hymns present tho earliest records of the worship of 
tho Aryan race. The date which is assigned to these is from 1500 
to 1200 B.V. Tliey indicate primarily an elemental worship. 
Agni, the lord of fire (Ignis) ; Suiya, th<' mm ; Miii-ul.s, the atonus ; 
rrithivi, the earth ; Ap, the waters ; Ushas, the dawn ; Varuna, the 
heaven (nvpavtn), — these are the (/cm*, the bright, the divine ones to 
whom they are addressed. Below this seeming polythei-sra there is ft 
sense of unitj-. " That which is One, the wise coll in divers manners." 
" Wise poets make the beautil'ul ^viuged, though ho is One, manifold 
by words." — (I. 29.) The hynms themselves are for the most part 
prayers for earthly blessings, for rain, . siukshino, harvest, wealth, 



Max MiU/er on the Science of Re/igion. 



73 



ccnqaest, often wcaribomo iu their niouotocoua ra]>clitioD. SomotimM 
Uiey expand in glowing adomtiou of tho attributcB of the Qod 

iToknL, tho "Ouo King of the ljrfiiiliin;> out! uwiikoDing world," 
'**'vkoAe greatiietw the sno^ry muuntainit and the t>oa proclaim," 
" wboee fihudow i& immortality." [I. p. 29.) Soniotiinos they embody 
.the oonfcsHioiiB of tho jitmiUMit crnviiig for forf^ivcncHa. "Through 
want of strength, thou atron^'- and bright (iod, have I gone wrong ; 
have meny, Almighty, have moroy." (I. p. 30.) "Whenever we 
men, O Varuna, commit an offi-nce before the heavenly host, when- 
erer we break tlie law throngh thongfatleBsness, have meroy. 
Almighty, have mercy." Now, they utter (on in the OAifatrt, used by 
every Brahmin for more than 3,000 years as his pniyer uii waking) 
the prayer that the " adorable light of the Divine Creator may 
Ulumine (or rouse) the spirit of the worshipper." Now, they 
recognise n Power from whom no secrets are liid. " If a man 
ftandd, or walkti, or hides ; if he goes to lie down or to get np, what 
two people sitting together whisper, King Varuna knows it ; he in 
there as the third." (I, 41.) Now, with no trace of tho me- 
tempsyehoais which we associate with later IJiudoo religion, lliey 
express a hope of immortality. " Where life is free, where the worlds 
are radiant, there make mo immortal." Now, they sow the seeds of 
a mythology yet in the future by fanciful playing with tlie phenomena 
of nature. The dawn is a young bride, g<dd- coloured, daughter 
ofthenkj', ujotier of the cows (x)ifs morningji), leading the white 
and lovely steed (the sunj. bometimea their thoughts on the 

iTBtery of the universe clothe themselves in words which sound like 
the utierances of a later I'uulhetvm, us in the hymn which Mr. 
Colebrooke bai translate<l : — 

" Kor A<iKl>t tior Nought exiat«d : yon bright nkj 
WiM not, uor hcarvn'i lavnd work* oiiMr^chnl .t1»T«. 
What cuvtrod all i* What ohcltcKxi ■• What cuinL-eiilod i 
Ww it thd irntcTH fhthooUi'ws nhyuf 
There wna oot death. — yel ihtim iru noufcht [mmgitikl, 
Th«n; wiu nu ccdAiio botwoan iuy mud night, 
'rh« only Une brAathii) bt«aihl«a) by itoclf, 
OUior than IT tlwre nothing linoa hu boon, 
I^arkoAM tlwra mw, and nl! nt first wiut rtaM 
In gloom profotuid, no oce&a without light ; 

• • • a • 

Than fiirt catno Lan> upcm it. " 
Mr. Max3[uller dwelltiem])hatically on ihe purity of Yediutliought 
as cooitnistcd with tho nio.ttstniuK and ilebaMC^l nii/tiH of later liin- 
dooiain. It is free from i<Iol worHhip and the dream of tmiismigru- 
tion. Tlio Triad of Ilnihiuii, Vishnu. Si\ii, is but a secoiidury 
fomuition. The abominutimiM nf Kali-worship and Sutlec'tsnt arc 
unknown. It would bo the wiwlom of tho Christian miiwionary, ho 



74 



7he Contfmfyorary Review, 



Qgain teaA a^in urges, to appml to tlicin as witnesses, as St. Paul 
flppealKl to Cleanthes or Aratan, and to the altar of the Unknovn 
God. He in .languine enough to think that if an ofFccrivo asnault is 
OTCr to be made on the worst evils of the caste nystcra which has 
been the cnrse of India for 3,000 vpam, it mast be made by preming 
upon the Brahmins' mind the reverenw which thrj- owe to the 
supremo nuthorily of the Vedai, which give no sanction to it, as over- 
riding that of the Institute* of Mann, where it appears in fall opera- 
tion. On the strength of that appeal, he would haxe the Indian 
Government ignore casto diitliaction^ in all contracts for work, in nil 
uulitar)* service, iu all public institutions, schools, hospitals, and 
priijons. On the other hand, however, because the four great castes 
are iTcogni^x! us cxisttug, iu the well-known vor»e of the Veda 
("the Bdlhniaua was his (Brahman's) mouth, the Biganya was 
made his unnw, the Vaisya became his thighs, the Sudra was bom 
from his foet"), he urges on the missionary the duty of respecting 
these diatinetious, nnd looks on tliis jirimttivo caste, the caste of the 
Vedas, as diKtiuguished from that of Manu, us fit for the life of the 
Clirintiau Church aud the civilization of the nineteenth century, 
(TI. pp. 352 — 356.) I own, with all diffidence, that I cannot follow 
him in ihie instunco. The Vedic verne (which ib admittiMl, (hough 
comparatively late, not to bo an interpolation),* coupled with the 
aooni with which the Sudra is elsewhere spoken of aa one ** whoao 
contact defiles the Arjnin worshipper," little better than an evil 
spirit (11. 3!7), surely breathca the whole spirit of a conquering 
towards a eonqtiered race, and though not worked into a code of laws, 
juRtifies the eodc that followed as hardly more than a legitimate 
development. ?«orea,n 1 think that it is the office of the ChristiHn 
Church to be slower to proclaim the brotherhood of all men on 
its true ground than the civil govemmont is expeetod to he in making 
religious convictions yield to mere convenience or economy. If 
it is found, ae Indian railways have shown, that the dilforenco 
between 6rst and third class fare is more tfl the Brahmin than the 
aacrcdneas of his caato, it may be u reason for keeping to our Kuro^jcan 
cloasifieaf ion of carriagts ; but the Brahmin is the worse, and not 
the better, for thus i>i>cketing his scruples. Government, again, 
is more or less under a covenant to respect even the religioua 
beliefs which it does not recognise. If it outrages those beliefs, 
it does so (even (hough tliey be "traditions of the elders," and 
not primitive and VcdieJ, as the " greased carliidges " showed, at an 
enormous risk. But the Christian Church is under no such eovo- 

* tiuttociua, sir. Max UuIKt informa m (II. 311), m«(lH«nd«d by tho BnlnnmSi 
whon they Hero ■slcnl to produL« tm *ut)toiil5 Tur it Jrura lbs Vedn^ bjr a kw bLud rtmwi, 
whi^ the publicAtioD of Oio Vithd luu ehonn tube* jklBificatioo of the text. 



Max Miiikr on the Science of Religion, 



75 



tf is bound by no such restriction. She is faithless to her calling 
in the Southern States of America if sho rcfiuc to admit the ne^^ 
the wbito at the eamo Inble of the Lord. Sho would be equally 
lithli-'^ss if in India she allowed Ibo Brahmin to hold uloof from the 
Sudra or the Poriah. llcr vratchword (whatuvor concessions she may 
ike to social cusIoioh of lon|^ Htaudingl must be, as of old, "Neither 
treok Dor Jen', cirtmiiiciiinn nitr unciruuntcisioii, barbarian, Scythian, 
bcmd nor free." 

li falls within Mr. Max Miiller's mope t/t present the fftnumui of 

wligirtiirt niihcr tliao to trace oiit their ili-velopnjcnt and corrnption ; 

and we have in those volumra but comparatively scanty notices of the 

inter ritnal liooks, and the mo(ai>hysira.l systems which followed upon 

Jit! VmIus, Thi't>e indceil he had nlready analyzed ehiboratelj in his 

"History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature" One of those systems, 

iwever, he notions more than once as standing in clooc connection 

^with the tisiciiing of Snkva Monni, and therefore with the faith of 

the dO<),000,OOD of Bnddfaists who form about oofvthird of the whole 

koman raee. (Jne looks out ca^rly for anvthinf* that promises to 

irow light on questions of such colossal magnitude, and if the 

:hing of Kapila he in any sense the fonntoin-bcad out of which 

Idhinn flowed (1. 327), the desire to know what he actually taught 

164 proportioDably strong. And here the reader ii fain to own 

that the guidance (it may well be from the ineradicable difficulties 

irhich KuropeauH feel of looking at questions of ontology from the 

latoMii-jfoinl of Hindoo metaphysics) seems to fail, ^ow, Kapilu 

(the "an-umra," "lordless one," as his controversial opponents 

joalled him) is represented as teaching an ab»)lutcly atheistic nihilism. 

*• an atheistic philosopher of the purest water " (11. 304). Now, he 

■ppears as acknowledging the inspiration of the Vodas, recognised 

I unimpeachubly orth-jdox. " not denying the existence of an Abeohito 

iug," maintaining only that neither man's sensos, not: his oonoep- 

tiona, nor his ecstatic visions, enable him to apprehend the Absolute 

— tlw " Lord," whom his oppoueiifa claimed t« know by (heir in- 

luttitais — }iot more atheistic, i>. (it is Mr. Mux Muller's illustration), 

than " a well-known llampton lectui-er," with his theory of rcgulatiro 

tMtliH fl. 228). 

II. Of tho three great eystems which are referred to these originea 
of our Art'an forefathers, one, that of the Hellemc and T^itin racett, 
■oems to have bfH'ii the iincheckcd growth of the seeds Then town, 
raodific<l (Uily by diuiigi! of climate, uew geugnipliitiil conditions, the 
struggle for existence, the activities of a life in frequent contaet with 
!i I^ of ihp sna. The other two, the religions of Zoroaster and 

> ii'iini, bear in them the traces of "harp antagonism and pro- 

tracted conflict. The nfRuities of langungo show (as is now established 



76 



7he Contemporary Review. 



by the concurronco of all pliilologists after half a century and more 
of unrcmiittiug lubuur^ tkatGrufk and Latin stand in tho relation 
of eistor, rather than daughter, languagoti to Sanskrit. 'Hie oiBuitioa 
of tbuir mytbtilugy to thut of tbe Vcilas, an brought out in Mr. Max 
UtUlor'rt ino&t intcrcfitiiig cwuiy (vol. ii.), weem to prove that tbey 
startc-d nn their uiignition vpstwurd beforQ tho Yodic byiniia had 
bet>n c^iloctvd und hcc-ntnu autburitutive. The )t>ligii>n of tbe Griteka 
never rested ou tho groundwork of a canonical book. AVbat they 
did was to carry ivirh them tho names and tlioughtH to which the 
snuset and the dawn, the rain and tlio wind, the lightning and the 
thnndor, had given birth. To theeo, in striking and rcfreHbinj 
oontrarit to the Kuhemorism • which prevailed in the Furnpcan 
Bcholurship of the hist centurj*, Mr. Max Miiller refers all the more 
striking mythd of the Theogony of Hesiod. With a subtle skill 
which we cannot help ntlmiring, oven where it fails to convince ns, 
he Hniily^es the names of Greek divinities and heroes, and the legends 
that gTLther round them. Tbe Dyans (sky) of the Vedas appears as the 
Zeus and Jupiter (Diespiter) ofclasaica! antiquity ; Varunaistriu-eablo 
in OurunoH ; Ushas (the dawn), in Eos and Aurora ; Surj-a in ILelios ; 
the Hurits (the horsos of tbe sun), in tbeCharites or Graces. Krery- 
where we are led to rpcogniso what were originally parables from 
nature. 8okr phenomena arc traced out as the fonndation of legends 
like those of Apwlly and Daphne, Kephalos andProcris, Heraklee and 
Dcianetra. 

ItVbetber the same procesB applies to tbe cycle of heroic legends 
upon which the epic and druoiatic poetn.' of Greece was bused, and 
which seems at finst to have sprung out of tales of human passioi 
and guiit thut have analogues enough iu later history — like thow' 
of Troy, of Argus, of Thebes — may, perhaps, admit of question. If 
wc can think of the marriage of Zeus and Hera — incestuous, as 
measured by a liuman standard — ^as the bridal of tho earth and sky, 
and see in the war of the Titans tbe couflict of the elemental forces 
of nature, or tho imssionate wills of men with the supreme law that 

* Jt is wortii while to look back on vltat mu not lon^ Rinco Lhr titAniln.nl of knov- 
lodBio io tlv-iMi inattttn, «ul n niuasutv tbs dubuiDo va hare tiuveUied aioco. I quoto 
tb« foUowini; tmm Dufitacoy's " C7hrciiiolo)(y," 1702 : — 
B.C. 1904. — Jupitor l)om. 
a.c. 1860.^ JopiUir, at \hn nj(ii of aiit;^--!*!^ bcgRS Yiu nHgn in llieMttlin, which hn ooa«i 
tiiiued aixtj- yean. HuubUiint-dUiucrumiliyilntltruniiiff lui fntliurtialuni, 
Mbi- ii!fo hiul hy (Icpuing his&tlior UriLnui. 'J^iaTitnu^tniriilc vnir against 
him, tint were defcAtod, and obliged to loavf- Ht«i>at^ Pluto |iosf!cascd thut 
port of li)4i country Uint lay weA of his brotbei'B kingdom. 
AX. 1773. — JiipiUr <mA, agvd 122 y«an. 

And fur thi'sn dx\x* itIiilM>nit<i nnitoas &K gircn, with what now eeemiK vtrnngoly^ 
' ■mimu^ j<rufity. TIio nttor oltlivJou into wHch all Ihi* hiu rullni mi^tiL ahinint jiiNtif 
Uiep«TplRxo>l tmnalatorofM. KcDiKD'a"Ka1ntb«ui AtpioulLuii:" inroniiorius "uaMprif 
DYhinxftrlt^n " na "an tpAmtenl a^aiix." 



Max Miiiier on the Science of Rxlighn. 



77 



shouM hold them in cnnfml, U iJor* not follow Ihnt tlio " mtelHgont 
jurr" to wTiom i[r. Jinx M\il!cr (I. 143) apj>eflls as apainst Spiogd'a 
Zoroastrian theories, wo«I<l lioW (hat there was sufficient evidence to 
lead us to see in the iuXn of fEdipiw only a symbol of the Sun which 
itunies daily from the womb of its mother Nijjht, and relunis to 
dmubor in the orma of her to whom ho owed his birth. Such an 
mterpretation, stripping; them, as it docs, of the hu^an Interest 
which made them 6t eobjectft for the groat dramatists of Greece, was 
clearly far enough from their thoughts. No trac-cablo analogue to 
theM> m}'ths ha« na yet been brought before us from the Vedos ; no 
Greek mind, even of thofie who HUe[K.>cted a mythical eymbulismof 
uaturul phtiuomena ol»ewhcre, had a glmipeo of its ejustvuee; and 
we may be allowed to think that it was within the limits of possibility 
either that some such tragedies hud ]>ii^».'d bcfuro men's eyes, or 
that the imagination of Greek poets was fertile eiiougb, without the 
aid of a mythological starting- point, to invent them us tales of human 
crime and suffering. 

III. The religion of the secliyn of the Aryan race who spoko what 
we have leurut to call Zend, and wliOBe cuUu* and creed are embodied 
in the Zeud-Avesti or Avesta-Zeud (Avestil meant tbe sacred 
" text ;" Zend, from kliumUnt, a " njetricjil paraphrase" or interpreta- 
tion), bears, as has been tiaid, dintitict murks of untogonism. It 
has wparated from the parent stock, under the influence, it may 
be, of some powerful mind, at a time when the polytheism of the 
latter had become more prominent ; and it throws scorn upon it by 
giving to its very name for the Gods an entirely new significance. 
As the ialfunt^ of the Greeks pass into the demons of later Judaism 
and Christendom, so the Decai of tlie Vedic h}'mns, Indni and 
others, become, one might almost say, the devils of the Zend- 
Avesti. Every follower of Zoroaster has oolomiily to renounce 
them. By a yet stranger transfnnnaiion which Mr. Max Miiller, 
following in the steps of Buruouf, traces with a fascinating skill, the 
mythical names, which appear in the Vctlas a^t representing elemental 
phenomena, became clothed in the Persian system with an historical 
persotullity, and become, at a later period, the groundwork first of 
an epic, and then of pseudo-history. Jemtthid, Feridun, and 
Garshasp, the three heroes of the *' ShahnameK " of Ferdusi (a.d. 
1000), are identified with the three representatives of the earliest 
generations of mankind in the Zend-Avesid, and these again shown 
to coincide with the Yama, Trita, and Kriiuwva of the Vedas. But 
with the change from polytheism 1o a belief in the One Supreme, 
the *' solemn protest against the whole worship of the powers of 
nature involved in the Vedas," which was the vital principle of the 
Zoroostrion religion, there came that which is its almost invariable 



78 



The Contemporary Review. 



oonoomitant, a profatinfler wmiro of gin, a clearor rlHicm of tho' 
mystery of evil in the lieari uf tii'tu, and in the wurld. Ttiia in tta 
tuni vexed tho suul with thought-s of a oonfiict betweeu tiro hostile 
piiwerH. all l>ut fqiuilly omnipotent, iind thvatonwl to tranifurra th»' 
moiiotheiHtic onH>d into Dualinm. Oruiuzd awl Abrimim, Li^bt iiod'J 
Darkness, were urrayod one aguinst anotlier, and tlie work of the' 
devout worshipper, even in whiit seorus to ns moat trivial and rovolt--] 
ing, was to attain the purity which belonged to a servant of thff' 
former. *] 

Of ibo marked points of paralleliwn btitwecn tTie religion of Zoro-* 
aster and thnt of larnol, rocogiiiwd to tho full by Spiegel am 
Kaug, as well as by older scbolars, Mr. Max Miiller speaks with thtf j 
rescrro of n true historical investigator. ITioy are indeed striking' 
enough. The btlief in a mighty Lord, the " I am that I am,**' 
supremely wise and good, in an evil spirit tempting and aocuaingjJJ 
in myriad angels who form tUo armies and do the pleasure of th»l 
great King, in a tree of life and a tree of knowledge, and a serpent, 
the enemy of man, the ioonoelaatic hatred of the common forma 
of polytheism whieb chamcterized the more ;!ealous worshippers in 
either ^stcra, tlic hope of a eoming Deliverer, the belief in a 
panidiao for tho souU of the righteous, these are far from exhausting 
the rewmblaiieos, Thev nnturally enough tempt men to conjeetures. 
Scholars of a past period, who lie almost beyond tlic horizon uf 
^. Max Mullev's vision, identified ^roaster with Gehazi or ivitfa 
Uamch. Spiegt*], as we hnve seen (and he occupies, we murt 
remember, all but the highest place among Zend-AvestA scholaiv), 
asBtunes a conference between Abraham and Zoroaater, to settle, 
it wore, the articles of n primeval creed. Many biblic!il critics, 
on the other hand, have assumed that Israel hud no belief in ISatan, 
nor in angels, nor in immortality, till it derived it from IVrsia, 
that Sudduceeism wa<* in fact purely conservative, witueBsing fur the 
unconlaniiuatcd faith of Abraham and Hoses. 

Mr. Max MtiUer wiwly avoids these Buai*ce and pitfalls. He 
aokaowledgetitheevidenceof seemingly Semitic elements in theZcnd> 
AvestA itself, but so far as he offers an account of them, he assigns 
them, not to intercommunion or derivation, but to tho primary 
religiouB intuitions which ho holds (ditfering herein from Kenan 
and many othei-a) to have been God's gift, the primitive revelation, 
the common ioheritonco of mankind. 

At the risk of seeming to identity myself, wholly or in part, with 
the crazes, dream.s, and phantoiiii-'S, the "delirontium eomnia " with- 
out number, which liave gathered round tho Ten Tribes, I venture 
to think that we mny see some of the eausos of this parallelism iOi 
tho ovcoittf that preceded the appearance of Zoroast nanism, as 



Max Muiier on the Science of R^Hgion. 



79 



living- nnd enorpetic erpotl undor Ornis.* Wo ntay reason fmm iho 
analog}' ol' tin.' history of thr swtion of Ismcl which wu« Ic<l caj»tive 
to Btthylon, from that of tho later " disporsion," to what, would at I«u«t 
K' prohoWp with thoso who were earned to the cilit'4 of the MwIl-s. 
If Jiidiih nnct lir-njamin have all along exercistrd a titraiigo yower 
tiTtfT tho minrU of thow with whom they cwno iu contact, wtju the 
hnmflgf (^ren if they alf^o iron tho hatred of iholr counuerons horno 
their witness, transiiiittwl their thoujfhts, prejiarwl the way for a 
faith higher than their own, may we not thiuk that u pt-oplc of the 
same race, carrj-iiig with them the sumc faith, iii u form, from the 
nntiire of the carte, more prophetic uud leifs e>acenIoUil than that of 
Judah, might carry with them seedii of now thought, and find iu 
the Persiims iu the glow of thuir religious euthusiasra for Ormiuid, 
their prt»l-e»t against m»ture-wonship, their vehement iconoclosm, the 
good ftoit which wa« needed for Ibcir growth ? Certain it is that 
OS Boou as the parent Ari'an and the parent Semitic fuitliH come 
wilhiu Btght of each other, their attitodcis one of profound sympathy 
and mutual honour. Itwiah (I am disposed to think the proto-^ not 
■jfiftrrn- Isaiah) points to tho Koresh (Cyrus) of Iho distant tribo aa 
"aervaut of the Lord," tho "rightoouB man from the Eaat," tho 
Anointed, the " Messiah" of Jehovah (xliv. 38, xlviL). Bantel is at 
once honoureii by" Dariua the Metle," and becomes the " Uab-mag/' 
or Chief of tho Kagi. Cj-nis issues liis pr<»chimntion aa ono who hod 
reoigtuiwl a common ground Wtwvpn himself and Imtol in the 
wiir^hip of tho '* G<m1 of TTenven." During the two renttiriw in 
which in Itnbylon, Kusn, Jerunalem it-self, the Jow« lired under 
Pcrnan wtrnps, or in the court of tho Kmpt'ror, the rolalioud of 
the two meen were, with hardly an rxccption, thoM of friendly 
protection on the one side, and lo5'nl ol)odicnce on tho other. 

IT. When the next great religion of tho world started on itA 
cfturse, in the sixth centurv before Cliri'^t, tho s\-stem of tho Vcdas 
had suifiTed n more iwrrading corruption. Ita polytheism hud 
uMnmed a more rerolting chaiTtcter. Ttn oasto difilinctions had led 
ui an intolerahio tyranny. The dontrino of metempsychoaia hod 
a^sum'-d a prominent position in nil speculations as to the " before " 
A»d " nl\er " of this earthly state. To the common people it nffiired 
the gpoctacle of a ruling order, a eanred ari-^tocracy, with no t-ynipiilhy 
for them. The minds of thiukers wore led to look on liie, with all 
itfl svUBntions and en«rgie», a« a delusion to which thoy were in 
bondage, and were yet offered no ready and eas3- proi>'S5i of eman- 
cipation. Wg may not be able to follow Mr. Max iliiller in the 

* Tb* mhiitrftlHRi of XomutriAiiuin fa r«m«d liuilc bj rcomt aoholfin to a mora 
lODOta p«rio>l. lint the nftnift of C^rns (tmloH wt nnin hi* history miao iaw m Kikr 
MyfA) rlouiv roprMfTDta « aew, asd, u it wen, cnuodfaig eoBrgy. 




d( 



I'he Contemporary Review. 



belief that the " natund " ouicomo of surh a state of things, hy o 
■acQcssary law of evolution, "with the suiiie necessity with which, 
roodiiDval Romiinisin led to IVotesfautisni" (I. 12-'3J, wjis what wc 
know a» Buddhism, AV'o may claim a hir^T tthfire thaa tlm 
longnngc seems to hIIow for the power of individual ehariicter us an 
element of eaitsatioD in the reli^ous hislory of tlie world, hut it is clear 
that it offered ohundant materials for such a pereuiuil elenieut to work 
upon. To those who look upon the story of Sukya Mouni as one of 
the noblest and most touching iu the history of muiiJdnd, it will bo 
a witiiifaction that Mr. Miix Miillerdoeanot follow Mr. H. H. Wilson 
in the ftcopticism which, applying a Straussiau method of cj-iticinn 
(Kapilavastu, e.g., the cit)- where Sakya Mouni was bom, ia only a 
symhol of the fact that ho reproduced the nikilism of Kapila), would 
relegate it entirely to tho regions of the ntyfhs which are the aftcr- 
gTcwt.h of o religion, but sees in it the history of u human life. 
And accepting it as history, he is not slow to acknowledge its beauty 
and its greutness. If be docs not follow tho language in which Ilenon 
gpetiks of Buddha as perhaps greater than the Lord whom Christians 
worship, he reproduces, without protest, M. St. Hilairc's more reveren- 
tial wordji,* that next to the story of the Gospels there is no record 
of Helf-deniol m marrcllous as that of the king's son who laid aside 
the greatncAs to which he linJ been bom, and when he had found 
the secret of emancipation from the misery of existence, gave himself 
to a life of suficring, hardship, meudicuncy. to extend it to tho 
poorest and the mcaaest. 

I cannot blame tho glow of admii-ation which that story kindlc« 
but it is worth while to note that the true analogue to it in Christiun 
history is found, not in the life or teaching of the Prophet of 
Kaxareth, but in that of Antony of ligypt, and Francis of Assisi. 
Tho lessons of the former point to a lil'o unworldly, indeed^ and 
regardless of wealth and honour, but active and cheerful, luingliug 
with the daily lilo of working men, sanctioning their industry, 
blessing tho tics of kindred and aU'eefion. Men are taught to fed 
the misery of sin ; they aro not led to look on existence as a curse. 
The teaching of the latter, noble as the spiiit of self-sacrifice was 
there also, tended to a Manichajao disregard of the common work 
and natural tics of man, and, as has been said a thousand times, 
it threatened Kuropc with a Christian Uuddhism, and ran its course 
with a singular parallelism of organization, ritual, asceticism. Ilad 
the (In-ftms of the Franciscans of the thirteenth centurj' been roolizodi 
had the story of the Siirjmufa, and the " Kverlasting GoajMjl " been' 

* U. It«aiu3*i woH*, Hpwkinf^ of our Lord, sre, " II n'y paa en d'hummo, fftlym 
JfoMtf pntt-SIrt txttpW, qui nit a (« point foul^ mix piota U famills, et let joiM d« ga 
motidO|"citc.— (I'M^yr^M, p. 469). M. St. Uilairo sayH, "Je n'hteite pu ft &Joi]t«r qne 
t«uf U Chriit leal n-al, U n'cst point ponni Ids fumlAltura da rali^Lon de Aguro plus 
pun nt pluj tcudhontu que colli! du Boudha."— (^vhc/'MiI tt to RtUyka, p, 5.) 



f 



Max Mailer on the Science of Reiigwn. 

incopporatcd into the crcod of Christondom, tbe pornllol would hove 
been yet more compktc, and wo should have had nn apolhtosis 
like that which Buddhism, in spito of the Rtheistic tendency with 
which it Bccnu to hare started, has lavished on its founder,-— like 
that which tho more portcntr>ns developnioTits of Latin Chriatianitv 
in our own time liavc bestowed on the mother of our Loi-d. 

On tho qaeetion what it was that Snkya Monni offered to liis fol- 
lowers ail tho prize for which they were to strire, for which oU- 
laboor and toil, and fastings and praj-ers, might wtil bo home, Mr. 
Max MUller follows M. St UUaire and "H, Eugene Burnouf in 
identifying tbe Nirmm with, absolute annihilation, Iho pure not- 
being in which there is no absoi-ption into the higher life of tho 
Uncreated Essence, no consciousness of peace and fn.>edom of ovil. 
but the loss of being and consciousness at once.* That thero oro' 
■states of mind, and those of no rare occurrence, in which such 
annihilation seems a thing to bo desired above all Joj's, or because 
all joy is thought impossible, is obvious enough. It utti'm ituclf 
in the despair of Job and Juremiuh, and in the deep mcluachoU- of 
BodesiHtee; it breathes its "pathetic minor" in the choruses of 
BupLocles, it clouds the brighter hopes of imiaortality in the Ajyohgia 
of Plato, wo hear its voicu iu tho soliloquy of Ilumlet, it appears 
in a commoner and coarser form in every suicide. The marvel 
of Buddhism is that it appenls, and appni-ently with snccesa, to 
this fooling, not as csccptional, but as universal ; that it ignores 
altogether that dread of annihilation which some have looked on 
on instinct of man's nature and a proof of his immt^ality. ■ 
ttrt. the answer is found in the fact that nature in stronger tlian 
mutaphysii'ol definitions. Even, it may be, in the mind of the 
Bnddha himflclf, certainly in that of the millions who revere him, 
Nirvana is a deliverance from misery (I. 233. 250J, and this thoy 
identifp with the oon.tcimiwieM, at least, of peace. It becomes to' 
ithem what Heaven, Paradise, Elysium, have been to others, a 
'ittgue (gnonym for a blcsBcdnGsa which, as yet, they know not,* 
Vot of which they dream according to each man's temperament and 
feney. What mav well surpmc us yet more is that this weariness 
of existence, instead of leading to almsgiTing, fasting, prayer, sclf- 
aarriflco. as the path to Jiirvana, has not prompted men to suicide. 
But the explanation here, too, is uot far to seek. Tho strength of 
Buddhism lay in the tiniversal acceptance among the populations to 
which it offered itwlf of the doctrines of a natural immortality and 
meteuipsvcho^'is. To one who held that belief dralh brought no sure 

^ I mii;r ODntwt line n phnum ojirai to miHConueptlon In n nolo to the titio of n vhart 
ponn in wbicb (CW/mt/iwary Eeritw for ftlay, 18S7) I tin%'o attrinptntl to omttMlj the 
Boddliiiil ruuUng. I h>VDuU<;<l it "Snlcyti Muuni id Botlhimnnilit," btcaux itwu thcro 
Uwt thti ulcft of ATri'diM first eaiue upon lilm in its clearuesa. Ilo had UiMi a [orctMto of 
it 'Hm •oono or hi* (leatlt, «h«n, in Itaddhiat phrade, h« caiterod on it, wu Eu^luugiLn. 

VOL. vn. D 



8z 



The Cmtemp&rary Review. 



dcUvcnmcQ. It mi^Ul lead ouLy to "ilia meu knuw not of 
thun those they know, new furms of human or brute lifu iito 
miitcrable thou tbcir own, torturoa lU the bimilB of avenging duniu 
in tiio unsocB. norld. In order to escape Drom sutTering, it )iad tor' 
Toiso itfi moral being to the highest. {loiJit ai it8 perfection, and tUi 
and tJion only, subject no lonnror to the law lliat beJd it in hon 
it attained its irucdom, could "shuiHe off its mortal ooil," and be at 
peace, i.e., when men came Lo analyze tlicir hopes, oea^ to be. 

But neither tho wearineaa of life nor the belief in transmigrut 
CAD accouuc for the rapid progreu and the permanence of Buddhiai 
For tliat wc must look to tbe faet that it presented to men in tho.' 
Itfoofita founder n-hat has never failed to toiioh their hcarta — thfl' 
spectacle of a life of fielf-sacritloe and voluntary poverty, the sym- 
pathy which "county nothing human alien from iteelf," that i 
proclaimed the trutli of a TJnivcrsal lirotlierhood. It modjc w. 
upon the coftte ^yAtem, which muiit have been felt l>y the inferioi 
ca«tos 08 a cru»hi]ig tyranny. Sakya Mouni htimself, belonging 
the Warrior (E&h»triya) ca«te, fratonii^ed with llic Sudroa. 
welcomed the older non-Aryan races that Burviv«cL in IndiOt ani 
tho more remote countries to which it afterwards spread, as standi 
on. the same footing, eutangled in tho same misery, capable of th 
SKxnei emancipatt<ni. Of the history of Buddhism, how, afler acorn, 
desertions^ gtruggloe, succueti, it found its Con&taiitiue in Asoka, Ih 
contemporary of Soleucue Nicutor, and hud it« guueral councils aa 
ita monastic orders ; how it had also \U suored books and ila countless 
prayers, its ineeoec, and ruF<aritts, and images, and praying wheel 
and wor8hi]> in a " tongue not underBtiinded of the jjeoplc;" hn 
Brohmiuiiim roso up again and drove it forth, as Pagfuiism might 
have done in the Wobt bad Julian been suut'essful ; how, in its exile, 
it found a hoiiiuuveu iu a country which eieemtid given up lo a system 
so alien from it as that of Confucius ; how the ragioa of ISuk; 
Mouai's birth and labours became a Holy Land^ and drew thouHaadAt? 
of pilgrims from tlie farther liust — for all this we must reliir thsr 
reader to the papers in which Mr. Max MiUlor mokes the rotiulbs 
tho labours of MM. St. Ililaire and Stanislas JuUion accessible to the 
Kngli^ public For simple perttotial interest, apart from that oC 
philology or religious ^uculation, there is hardly any paper iu the 
two volumea to be compared with the reautiU of tho pilgrimage of 
Uiouen ThMurig, who in tho sixth century of our era started from^ 
I'ekiu, uud made his way, amid hnrdehipa and obstacles, throng 
the regions which MM. Hue and Gabot have made familiar to 
until hi« fw't had trodden on the sacred ground and bis lips kissed 
tho SBcrod relies. 

V. Of tiie religious history of th© other great divisions of 



am 

id.^ 

iiar 1 



Max Miilfer on the Scknce of Religion. 



83 



bmnan raoe Mr. Max HiiUer saj'S lesti ; but tlie paper on " Semitio 
MouDtlieiiim." with >rlticU the finit voluiae ends. In in many ways of 
greut iutertnit. 3f. Ttenaa, in hi» " Biiatuire des Lan^at SemiUi^ueis" 
bad reproduced tlic old familiar generalization which uwi^ed to the 
Semitic races a " monotliei»tic instinct," and whicli saw in that state- 
loent of ou uUtniato fact for wliich no cauae could be unsigned, a 
saflScient explanation of the part which Judai^in, Cliristiaaity, 
Mohammedanism, the three "religions of the book," have played in 
thu history of mankind. Against this generalization Mr. Max Mi'illor 
protests as hasty and supprficial. He points to the wider extent which 
recent philological research has giTcu to the term " Semitic," and 
to the ftict that rauuy nations (*t> included — Phamicians, ('artha- 
gioians, Syrians, AwKvrians — present forms of idolalrous religions os 
g^mas and ncnsuous a& those of Grce<% or India ; that the history of 
the Jews, (ill the return from Babylon, presents no trace of such an 
instinct 115 common among the people, but mucli rather a constant 
tendency, against whioh the loftier minds of individual thinkers 
straggled in vain, to degenerate into the worship of "gods many and 
lords many," like thut of thcnationsroiond them; thjitwhcnMohammcd 
oppeared us the prophet of a more rigorous, exclusive monotheism 
than the world had witnessed,* it was because he found himself in the 
midst of tribes, as Semitic as himself, who had sunk into polj-thcism 
and fetiche- worship. ITo nssortB, in words that wo are glad to t^notc, 
that here the whole course of the history has bocn determined, not by 
the laws of naturul development and necessary soqnoncc, which seem 
in his Introduction to Iw dominant In his conceptions of religious 
history, hut by the influence of individual teachers, of one colossal 
per&ouality. If Moharamed proclaimed that jVllah was but One, he 
did so OS the revival of the faith of Abraham. If <7hrist and his 

LApofltles prmilaimed that there was One God and Father of ua nil, 
iey too did it as a truth which hod been committed to Abraham 
I the Father of thr; Faithful, in whoae seed all the nations of the earth 

"^"WPTe to be blcsicd. The following passage will .-^how in what way 
he holds that Abraham hlmsrlf was led to the truth which so many 
miilion.H have inherited from htm : — 

''And if wo arc ntikcd Uow tbia one Abraliam posseSHod not only the 
primitive iutiiilions of trod as Wo had ruvcolml UiiuKclf to nil mankinu, but 
L'J tbrotif^li Lhc deiriitl of nil other gods to the kiio\T!cdgc of tbe One 
We aru i!tiuUnit tti answer that it was hy a Bpeeiul Diviac! rcvciatioa. 
We do not iadulgo iu UicologiosJ phraseology, but wo ludaa avury word to 
its falloEt oxteDt. The Father of Truth chouses Uii own prophiits, and Uo 
i^tks to tbein iu a voico strou^^ur than that of Lbuudur. R is the same 



* Tbe bans of J(«wiah brli^f. u Mr. MMtrioA hu imintad out, iraa not mmothdMi, 
ths belief io a D«i|.y nnmmcalljr tniK, bttt in a lirin^ Ond, Un Fuher and tfai Kiiig 
bt men. 



a 2 



84 



The Contemporary Review. 



inner voice thzough wluflli Ood Bpo»kt< U> nil of us, Tbat voice may 
dwindle away and bftoome liudly uuditk- ; i[ mny lose iU Bivinc accent, 
and sink into the language of worldly prudence ; bat it mity also, from tiuio 
to time, aBname its real nature with the cbosen of God, and Honud into 
their ears na a voice trom benven. A ' Divine instinct ' may soiuid mo» 
scientific and less theologionl ; but in truth it would neither be au appro- 
priate name for what is a gift of grace ac<:orded lo but few, nor would it ha 
s more eeioutifiu, i.e. a more intelligible, m-ord thou ' special rovolatiou.' " — 
(I. 373.) 

On ihin point, therefore, wo have no reason to complain of ambigaous 
nttenmws. Tn market! conlrust to many temleiicies of the age, Mr. Stnx 
Miiller proft'sses his belief in the possibility, in the historical reality, 
of a revelation maile by Goil to the mind of one man chotien from 
out his fellows. He sees in that revelation a power that helped to 
raise the Semitic rncis, in part at least, above tendencies which were 
just as much natural to them as to ^Vr)'a3.s or Turanians. He beb'eves 
that when Christ came to proclaim the Gospel that had been " preached 
before to Abraham," He too came aa " a teacher sent from God," and 
revealed Jlis leather's will. AVelcoming this confession, there are, 
however, minor points in his view of Jewish religions history in 
which I am not able to look on his reasoning us equully conclusive. 
It may be true, as he says, that the very name of God, LWhira, showed, 
in its plural form, that the monotheism of Abraham " rose upoa 
the ruins of a polytheistic faith." It may be pozisible even, though 
not, I think, probable, that Abraham chose this as the Divine Kame 
in a spirit like that of St. Paul ut Athenv, or Pope'^ Universal 
Prayer — as a recognition that ever}' name which the nations had given, 
their gods as expressing some attribute of might, wisilom, goodncM, 
bdonged to Une in whom they all centred. But when the other 
Kame, which witnessed of the Divine Unity and Being, came into 
MM (whether through Abraham, first receiving u now significance, 
but not first uttered, on Uoreb, or through Closes, or through Samuel), 

^ilaurely brought with it a witnetw, distinct and true, that Jehovah 
not only the supreme, but the One Elohim. Commandiacuts 
like that which says, " Thou ehalt have no other goda before me," 
phrflaes like those which speak of Him " as above nil gods, God of 
gods, and Lord of lords," instead of showing, as Mr. Max Miiller 

r-aeems to say, that those who used them thought only of a mUional 
Jehovah Klohim superior to the Kluhim of the nations, aud that 
consequently they had not risen to the conception of a pure mono- 
theistic creed, receive their true interpretation from the words which 

\ proclaim, " Aa for all the gods of the heathen, they are but vanity 
no gods . . . the work of men's hands, wood and stone. . . . 

"It is the Lord that made the heavens." That the people might fall 

into the lower forms of thought and speech, that their very worship 



Max Mnlier on the Science of Religion. 



sj 



of Jehovah became polythoistic, oven fetiche, iu it« nature, and led 
thpm to ftdopt a chKuk which they uo longer felt to be generically 
unlike their own— to this everj- page of their hiator)-, from the 
Kxodus to the Captivitr, bears but too plain a n-itness. But the Ion- 
guage of Lowgivor and Prnphota and I'salnuatj, so far from being 
an echo of that belief, vas throngbout a protcdt against it. 

Nor, again, is it easy to feel quite satisfied that one of Mr. Mux 
MiiUcr's anflwcra to M. Rcnan doea more thim shift the difficulty, 
substituting an apparent for a real solution. It wan no monothci^tie 
tendency, he says, which saved liie Semitic races from the interminable 
polytheism of their Aryan brothers. It xtM simply that they had u 
language which did not permit " np]i4'llativei)" (numen of natural 
objects that exprcsfied their cpialitieHj tolo-so their true power, and w, 
robbed of tbeir signtticonce, to become personified, and as perAons to 
be the heroes of endless compbcationa of relationship. As the state- 
ment of a fact this may be Iruv enough, but as explaining u fact it 
seems to assume that language, out on inntniment of thought, came to 
the Semitic racy from without; that they had it somehow given to 
them, and that it l>ecnme the condition and the limit of (heir thuughts, 
and, in this instance, of their religion. Might it not be a*kcd by a 
follower of Sf. Renan, or indeed by any inquirer, whether this lioiita- 
Uon of the power of language doe« not Imply (if language be. indeed, 
the expresMion of churaeter, the spoken word the utterance of the un- 
spoken) a like limitation of the powers of thought — wliether such a 
limitation of the lulter in its bearing ui>on men's thoughts of God 
may nut fairly be looked on an approximating to a " monotheistio 
instinot?" 

I have ventured in this ])Hper, where the Bubject matter or the 
reasoning of Mr. Max Muller's volumes came within thu range of 
average readem, to give expressiott to the doubts or the quentiona 
which have ocourred to me. I ha%'e done (his all the more freely, 
because my own work in life has practically abut me out from the 
regions in which he iij confe^sefUy among the masters of those who 
know, and 1 must be content within those regions to ait at his feet and 
ieoTD. In the name of many who have already much to thank him 
for, I gladly acknowledge the addirional claim on their gratitude 
which he bos established by this collection of essays and notices, 
which wore before so scattered as to be practically inaccessible, and 
which will for very many shed light over some of the dark pages of 
the world's history. 

E. H. Plomptbe. 









THE SOCIAL LEGISLATION OF 1S67, AND 
NEW YEAR'S GIFTS FOR 1868. 



ITS 



TO tlic meniory of Ihc ordinaty observer, the clilef Parlidmontary 
acMion of Ii^(i7 &pjK-nr-s as if Blled only with debates on tlio 
Itcfonn Bill. Yrt, in fatrt, few scesions have ever Ijcon more fruiltiil in 
iiiottiiurpfl of BOeial importance ; iew will leave a deeper mnik in the 
statute-book and in the livea of great masses of our countrymen. 
And if the mode in TPbich tho lleform Act was carried has indet'd 
for the timo loof^ened the political morality of the country, the bene- 
ficial character of on occasional HUiftin^ of political power from the 
one partr to the other has, on the other hand, boen exo^ently exem- 
plifind, outside of the political (iphfrc, by the passing of auch measure* 
as those uboro referred to, which in ■oi'diuurv tiioes could never 
have left (he liands of a Liberal ministry without Bom« impairing of 
their iiilnew, eomo narrowing of their scope. The vezy ideal con- 
dition of things for the UM'ful exetcine of the legislative power bwi^ 
in short, bo^n ivulizcd^ — ihut of the one parCy proposing whut could 
not le opposed by the olhoi-. 

The beginuiug yf u J»ew Year seems u peculiarly fitting period Jbr 
a retrospect over the more prominent features of the social legislation 
of 1867, inasnmch as many of the mcaFures which desen'O to ho 
tingled out take eflect only on the 1st January, 18GK. Some indeed 
are at work already, more particularly the Poor Law group. Sir. 
Hardy's excellent " Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867," came into 



The Social Legislation of 1867. 



operation, for ibe moitt part, from its date ('29th Mar*^, 1867); as 
to Bome claiiww. fmm last MichsplTiins Duy. Four momoiitouB 
Tcforma lire itttroilucod by it : — lat. The ciwition of naylmns for tho 
vceqMaon nnd relief of the sick, insane, and infirm poor, and tho 
appHcatioa thereto of (he diatrict j^yatem, already adopted in tho 
cane of BohooLi ; 2iid, The power given to the Poor Law Board to 
•require boank of ^ardianfi to pronde dispecisarics for out-door 
mnlicdl relief, and to "approve and direct" the "dutice, quolifica- 
tiou8, ninnber, and salaries of the diapenncr*, officers, and serranta," 
as well a» to "Tary" esi»rting medical salaries emd contracts with 
diilriot medical officers, and to " direct " tho payment of such com- 
pnuation as they think fit to medical officers afiocted by the 
Act; 3rd, The creation of a "MetropoKtan Common Poor Pund," 
for the maintenanec of limoties, smalUpojc patienti, paj-ment for 
medicines and mcdieal and surgical applinnce«, salaries of school, 
saylam, and dispensary ofijeer«, e^mpensalJons to medical officers, fees 
for rep;istTation of births and deaths, vaccination fees, school main- 
tenance of pauper children, and certain expenses for the houseless poor; 
4th, hwt, not least. The introduction into boards of guardians generally, 
aa well a« among the managern of asylum districts under the Act, and 
into diatrict school- hoards, of justices of the peace or qualified rate- 
paiytm nominated, by the Poor Law Board, to an extent not exceed- 
ing one-third of the whole number. Token in eonnraion with tho 
Hou&i'lew Poor and School- Dintrict Acts, this iw 11 distinct lifting of 
nearly the whole que«tion of pauperism in tht.! metropulid out of tho 
sphere of inoro plutonoray into that of a truo economy. Tho right 
of the poor not to starve, wa^i, it may be Kaid, established by tho 
Now Poor Liiw. Then followed the recognition of the light of 
tho pauper child to be educated, in the Acts relating to school-dis- 
tricts, &C.; of thtt right of tho poor to move freely about the country, 
in various mitigations of the Law of Settlement, and in Iho Houw^lesa 
Poor Ar4B. The new Act, in ttim. recognises the right of the poor, 
— in the niPtropoHs, at least, — to be du}y cared far in (heir physical 
and moiital diseases and infirmities. And it is obrions that tho 
principtes thiis applied to London will havo to be extended to all 
large towns, and eventtially throughoot the country; although it 
may be feared that the fiirmpm will fight harder than London shop- 
keepeiB haTo done for the privilege of saving rates out of human 
live**. 

On Now Year's Day, 1868, indeed, a fresh inrood will be Tiinde 
upon that privilege of the rate-payer, — a fresh outtago offered to tho 
great god Solf-will, and to his image which fell down from Jiipiter in 
tfae shapo of iaiMa /atW, — through the coming into operation of the 
" Vaccination Act o( 1867." A beautiful machinery already existed 




The Contemporary Review. 



for cnfoi'ci&g Toccmation, buL uurortuuatcly it did not work, it 
Ijoiug no one's duty to i5t:t ii in motion. Thia duty tho new Act casU 
upoo tlio Kogislrar of Birtlis and Doatlis, to whom certiticatc« of 
;^jtCcinaLion aro riX|uircd tt) bu traii^mittod, aad who is bound twico a 
yWT, witliin a week tiEei' Uiu lut Januui^' and tlic 1st July, to make & 
lint of all oaseK in which ccrlificutcti havo not been duly rocoircd, and 
Buhiuit |tu> oaTiLu to thu guardians ; who in turn, after making inquiry, 
um liuuxid tu cause prouocdiuga to bo token against dcfaidters. 
Provision is made both for vaccinaLieu (witliin throo luouthit after 
birth) ami iuHi>ectioii (one week ofli-r vaccination) of children, under 
. ,^eualty of not exceeding twenty shillingii against jiaretitii or other 
H^lpuosiblc persons ueglet^tiug either duty. 8udi vaceiuation is gru- 
ii^tx^ as respects the parent, wlien performod by tho public vaccinator, 
the coat being defrayed out of tbu nxien, at a miiumuni feo of onft 
shilling and sixpence for each succus^tut vaccination, with power to 
the Trivy Council to direct in any case an extra fee not exceeding 
one shilling. It ia obvious that thia Act, efficiently worked, will 
compel the vaccination of the whole registered population ; power 
being, moreover, given to magistrates to order the vaccirmtion of 
cliildreu imdcr fourteen who have not been successfully vacciuttted^ 
nor hod the small-pox. 

I^astly, tho " Poor Law Amendment Act, 1867 " (in operation 
since its date, 30th August), give»i vigour to the central authority, by 
rendering the Poor Law Doard permanent, and in several ways 
extending ito powers ; whilst useful facilities ore given to guardians 
to^laue adult blind, deaf, or dumb paupers in special hospitaU or 
iavtitutions, und to detain in workhousea paupers suflering from 
mental or infectious or contagious disease. 

The next group is the loi'ge and important one of what may be 
called the " Labour Acts." iiost of these are New Year's gifts, and 
foremost among them stands " The Factory Acts Jilxtousion Aot, 
1SS7." This makes the l-'actory Acts applicable, subject to excep- 
tions and temporarj" modifications, to— 1, IJlast furnaces (including 
any premises in which the process of smelting or otherwise obtaining 
any metal from the ores is carried on) ; 2, Copper mills ; U, Iron 
iulUs (including any premises on which " any process is carried on 
for converting iron into malleable iron, steol, or tiD-plate>" or for 
" making or converting steel ") ; 4, Iron foundries, copper foundries, 
brass foundries, and other places for founding or casting metals ; 
d. Any prcDiiscs in which niochanical power iu used for moving 
machincr)' employed in the manufacture of maehiuery or other ortielea 
of metal, india-rubber, or gutta-percha ; t>. The paper, glass, and 
tobacco manulocturcs, letter-press printing, and bookbinding ; and 
lastly, 7, Any trade establishments nt which fifty or more persons 



T^e Social hegislation o/" 1 867. 



89 



are employed in any manuihcturin;^ process— a drag-net clause similar 
to tiat of the French law (althouf»h with wider meshes, their own 
limit being twenty persons), ii^anday labour is forbidden for children, 
young persons, or women in factories under tho Act, with some modt- 

■.fication as to blast fiimnces; boys under twelve and females arc for- 
bidden to bo employed in those parts of glass factories where melting 
or annealing is carried on ; children imdor eleven, to bo employed 
in grindingin the metal trodca. In the glass manufacture, children, 
yotmg persons, or women, arc not to take their meals where the 
iterials ore mixed, nor, as respects flint-glaaa, whore grinding, 
catting, ond polishing aro carried on ; and the inspectors of factoricB 
arc authorized to direct the use of a fan, or other mechanical mcanii, 
to prevent the injurious inhalation of dust by the workmen, whenever 
the latter or ony other dust- generating procewsc* ai* performed, as 
well aa to require the secure fixing of grindstoiic«. 

The main importance of this Act \& that, for the first time, it scelcs 
tobaiK: on a general principle our protective legislation on thelabour 
question. This has consisted hitherto — it consists in a great 
measure still under the new Act itAelf — in a series of exceptions to 
the ordinary luw, introduf^d into this or that branch of imliulry 
•uccewiively, according as a case was established agsinst each for It^'gal 
interfertiace. The coUectiTC wisdom of the nation baa at laat groped 
its way to the assertion that, wherovor largo numbers of workers are 
brought together in munufactunng industry*, there tho law has a 
right to interfere for restricting the labour of tho child, tho youth, 
the woman, and for cnfurciug certain sanitary proviaioas and life- 
RATing precautions. This bold step has been taken, more than six* 
■nd'twenty years since tho like principle wuk recognised and carried, 
as above shown, at least in tho text of the law, muuh further in France 
(kw of 22n(I March, 1841). 

Having &aid thus much in fuvourofthe new "Factory ActsExtcnsiou 

[Actr" I must now point out the drawbaeks to iU efficiency. Tbeso 
COBBiat in the schedule of " Temporary " and " Permanent Modifi- 
CBtions" annexed to it. Some of these may be necessary or expe- 
dient; others appear quite to stultify the Act. If it be consistent 
with humanity and the true economy of the State, to forbid Sunday 
labour for women, it seems impossible to defend a provision whii;h 
mllowB them to be so employed in or about blast furnaces for itco 
jfears and a half, not even from the paasiug of the Act (15th August, 
1807), but from the Ist January, lti68. If overwork be (and who 
can doubt it!*) especially detrimental to the constitution at the period 
of growth and puberty, what is to be thought of a "permanent" 
provision which allows boys and girls of fourteen to be kepi to work 
at bookbinding, three days in every month, for »\xi£en hcxtrs a day P 



9f» 



iT Contemporary Rrvtntf. 



If tkeru ate periods in the life of woman — when aboal. to faecomo, 
wlieti li&viu^ ruHjfutly bwiyin«, u. motlicr— in wliiiU overtoil in as 
<l»ngoroutf to Wr as to a girl — nay, nuiy impiTil two lives at once — 
wliat. id to be euid of u ptinniwiou to keep her to work in the same 
trade for the like period of sixloeu hours a d«y, for not " more than 
(kr (VMtticutirc ii»y» in any oty w^k" or niuety-six in a twelveniODth P 
Vihy, a «ingl« such day of toil might be <mongh to min a delicate 
constitution for lifu ! It i« uot too much to stiy that !<eTeral of these 
" modUicutiouu" are aimply scundalous, and would deserve instant 
repeal. 

The next of the prutcotive AdK in the group (uIho to oomo into 
operation on. New Yetir'i> Diw) concerns a class of workers who will 
ulwu^t) require to be cxepptionally dealt with, llie '* Merchant Khip* 
ping Act, iHii'i," is mainly sanitary. The IJonrd of Trade is to 
issue and have published scales of medicines and medical stores for 
dificnrat ships and voyages, and to sBaction dispensing books ; ship- 
owners are to provide the like accordingly, and stringent regulations 
arc set forth for securing the purity and enforcing the use of onti- 
aoorbutics. i^hipownors and masters are made linble for the expenan 
of seamen's iilaGs»>g arisiog out of their neglect; the seaman, on 
the other hand, to forfeit wages from scU'-induft>d incapacity to woisk. 
Further provisions arc made for securing the duo ventilation, whole- 
somcnt^AK, and conveiniency of .sr^men'!* cabinR, and a medirjd in4pec> 
tion of seamen Ih citabliohed, though only to bo sot in motion by th« 
shipowTiei- or miuitor. 

The some 1st January, 18(>8, which will spe Iho iinrt- genoml 
application to what the French term " la grandc indostrie " of tb« 
protcctivtt ayBttm of our factories Acts, will also «e-c the principla 
itaelf of protection to hibour fin*t nppliMl to agriculture. Tha 
*' Agriculturiil Gangs Act, 1807 " — jxrhapa the on» which, from it« 
novelty, has attracted the most notice among the social measnres of 
the session — forbids the employment in agi'icaltural gangs of 
children under eight years of ag«, and of females in the stuso gang 
with mali>«, or under any male gang-mneter without the presence of 
a finuale licensed a» sucli, and the acting of any peneos as gang** 
masters without a license £i-st obtained Irom two jnstioes, on proof 
ofoharaoter and fitness; scch liecnne to limit the divtanoc wfaioh 
children are to travel on foot fur their work, not to bt* granted to 
publicans or beer-sbop keepers, and to be renewed every six months. 

Invaluable as is this Act, consi'Iercd as introdacing into ugrienl* 
ture^KngltHh ugriculturc, for the Act docs not apply to Scotland or 
Ireland — a prinoiple hitherto ignored in this sphere, it may bo 
doubted whether it will prove ciBoient. No machinery is provided 
Ibr seeing that it is carried out ; and the main safeguard for its doa 



I'he Social Legislation Gf\%ty. 



91 



working, the baif-ycarly renewal of licouses before tho Justices, ih 
greatly weakened by a clause empowering juatiees, oftor a second oon- 
Tiction of a gang-muftter under the Act, to withhold bin license fur not 
mora than three mouths ; after a third, for not more than two yoars ; a 
tbitrth, indeed, diHquulifj'iii^ him aJtogeliicr. It would thus wara ihai 
ti^iiliit the justices arc empowenxl to require the nio&t atriugttiit proof 
of good uhoructcr and fitness in the casu of a first upplicatioo for a 
Uoonao, yot this, ouoo granted, gives kucIi a Tostcd right to the lioeiisee 
thftt. he will W vniitlud to iiumodiittii rcnowal iifler a firHl. conviotiou, 
to renewal in thn^e uinnths after a stHiiiid, and in two yenm after a 
third. JFlvidently tin- provision in cfumlion only fcUors the discretion 
of the jUHtiodS, and rrquin?!! to bi- repculed. 

The last Act of the sefision, the " Workshop Begnlation Act, 
1807," iilso coming into operation on New Vcair's Day next, brings 
bock into the tiphcrp of non-agricultural labour, and in quite the 
important labour- regulating AxA yet poased in our countrv. 
The principles of the limitation of the hours of labour for childrtai, 
yon ng persons, and women ; of theenforcomoTit of aanitaryproTiaiona; 
of the Compulsory MdiooL-attendonrc of children, and (pcnuissivclr 
at leoflt) of official inspection, arc by this Act extended to all handi- 
erofta, with the exception of the baking trade (regulated already. 
Irat vory insufhcicntly, by the Bakchoiwcs Act of 186'3). I^o ohUd 
onder tj is to be employed in any hundicrnft : no child midor 13 for 
more than 6^ hour?t in one day, between G a.7U. and 8 p.m. ; no young 
rperKOi or woman for more than 1? hours in 24, with 1^ hotira for meaiU 
.BSSt.betwecnOa.m. andU p.m. ; no child, young person, orwoman. 
Sunday, or alter 2 p.m. on t^aturday, except when not more than 
Vtft }X'r>ous are employed in making or ri/ptiiring articles to be sold 
bj retail on the premises ; no child imdcr 11 in metal -grinding or 
l_ibitian-ruttiug. iiverj" child employed in a workshop is to attend 
lool lor at least 10 hours in every week, with a penalty of not ex- 
ling 2O4. on parents in case of ne^i^cct ; erort' occupier of a work- 
[■hop who hoe employed a child for 14 days Ik to obtain witekly 
bivurtificatcH of bis. school attendance, and to |iuy out of his wages, 
[not exceeding 2i/. per week or one-twelfth of hia wages, £nr hia 
isobnoling. In case of oontravontion of the Art, both tfao occupiorH 
(«f workshopfi, and parents or other persons <leri\'iug dirtnit. lit-iiellt 
from the labour of, or having control oiTr, tho jwrson wrongfully 
HtniplojrGd, an; liable to ponaltie^i. Tn proceeKK whumduAt is gcnemteil, 
or other mecliunicail means maybe required to be used. Officem 
tamployed by ioual aiithoritie?, and suporintendeutHof police, by order 
;mi)def the hand of u justice, and insjwctors and cLub-inspertors of 
^fMtfviafl at their dittcretion, may enter into and inspect workHhops, 
and examine the periions cmph yni. lupeitars of factories may also 



92 



T/tf Contemporary Review. 



disqualify teachers for granting school certificated, eubjeot to aa^ 
appeul to tho Home Socrctacy. 

It is iin|)08siliio to exaggerate the imiwrtance of this Act, con-; 
sitlert.'d as gcnerolizing tho principle of protection to tho Labour 
the youiig and of women. In practice, however, it ie, like th«^ 
Factories Act of liiiS'J ^but 1cm seriously), marred by a Bchedul* 
of "temporary" and "permanent exceptions," — allowing, fo 
iustanwv children of 12 to be employed as young persons (i.e., for 13!] 
houra) until Ist iluly, 1870. Xot much reliance, moreover, can bei 
placed on the *' local authorities " {^.ff., the vestj'y of a pariah) wht 
arc pntnisl<ed with the onforcemeut of tho Act ; and it may fairly ba 
preiiiimetl that llic intervention of tho Factory In^poctwrs will have 
to bo regnlurijwl and extended before its pi-ovisions can be fairly 
carried out. 

W'e may now pfuw to another Kiib-gr<Hi]) nf tho Tiabour Acts, those 
which have not tor their aim f(» pi-oteet the weaker workers, but to 
improve the jRwitinn, promote the fu-tivify, or check (he misconduct 
of tho stronger one«. t)ne of the mo^tt important of these, the 
" Master and Ser\aiita Act, 18(i7," is remarkable as being only tem- 
porar}', being limited in ita operation to one year from its dat*! 
{20tb AugiiRl luHt), and from thence to ilie end of the then nei 
aession of l*ttrliainent. This takes awa}- one standing reproach M 
our labour-law*, consisting in the diflVi-i'm-c of tho treatment of tl 
employer and employed in case of broach of contract ; the former' 
being hitherto only puruNliuble in the fir»t instance by fine, the latter 
by impriKonuieiJt. Under the new law, the fii-st object of the juslict 
before whom any complaint of breach of a labour contract is brought 
appears to be made that of annulling, or, as it may happen, causing 
the fultilmeut of the contract, and determining u pecuniary compE 
lion t« the aggrieved party. It is only "where no amount of com.' 
pensatiou or daimigv am be assessed, or where pecuniary compensation 
will not meet the circumHtauces of the case," in the opinion of the 
bench, that they arc to inflict a fine not exceeding £20, and o:ily 
on disobedience to their order that the power of imprisonment arises; 
sueb imprisonment to be in diiKrhurge of any compensation, except, 
indeed, incaseof aggravated misconduct by either party; nottoexocod 
three months, and to be only accompanied with haid labour in the last- 
mentioned case. 

The cfHciency of such a measure as the Master and Servants Act 
resolves itself eo entirely into a matter of procedure that it cannot 
yet be fully judged of, but it appears to bo carefully drawn. This 
praise cannot be bestowed on the " Equitable Councils of Conciliation 
Act, 1867." No such ex post facto law has over been enacted since 
the darkest davs of Tudor or Stuart. To reassure the reader, bow- 



I 



The Social Legislation of \%6y. 



93 



OTer^ He must be at once iDformed that uo duiigcr of life, limb, or 
property is involved iu iLta cou^tilutiunal Bulecittm. But it is a droU 

'&ct that a moasurt!, ushured into the wurld under thu parauuU respon- 
■ibiiity of an cx-I^rd Cbaiicellur and most leumed legal authority, 
■hould hear dati- the 15th August, 18()7, and profess to commence on 

'the previous 2ud July, thus cluiminj^ lurty-fourdayBofpre-existeiieeat 
birth. The Act, it need hardly bo obsorvedf seeks to introduce into 
igliah legislation an institution (the " Conseil des Prud'hommcs ") 
Bgolly rooogiiised in i'mnco since 1806, and which of late years has 
bwn g^rowing np in an extra-legal form in screml scats of our manu- 
fiioiuring iiidiistrj'. Any number of masters and worJunen in any 
irade, occui>ation, or employment, being inhabitant householders 
or part occupiers within any city or place (the metropolis being 
ccmBidercd optionully as one place), who, as masters, shull have 
resided and carried on trade Trithin such place for six months ; or, 
being workmen, shall have rcsddcd. for the like period and worked at 
the trade for seven years, may, at n meeting qiceiully convened for 
the purpose, agree to form a Council of Conciliation and Arbitration ; 
uid on thcit joint ]>Gtition to the Crown may, after ono month's 
lotico by advertisement, be licensed by the Home Secretary to form 

*»uch Council under the powers of the Act. The persons signing 
ihe petition, may appoint the first Council within thirty days alter 
the license ; the Council is to consist of not less than two musters and 
two workmen, nor more than ten masters and ten workmen, with u 
chairman appointed by itself, being a person unconnected w^ith trade 
and invested only with acasting vote. Ho member is to adjudicate in 
aoy com; where he "or any relatioa of bis" is a pluiutiif or defendant. 
The election of the Council is to take place annually, on tho first 
»y in November ; occasional vacancies to be filled up within 
days. The constituencies arc to consist of all persons quali- 
6ed to polition imder the Act, who may claiui to be registered aa 
Toters, the mastei-8 " ap)ioii»ting " their own portion of the Council, 
and the workmen " electing " theirs. The votes for members of ihe 
Council ore to be taken by a ehow of haudf, with power to six regis- 
tered voters to demaml a poll. 

The functions of the Cuuticil, as tlioBO of its French congener, are 
twofold — oonciliatiun niid arbitration. There is to be a " Committee 
of Conciliation," to ho apiMiinted by tlie Council, consisting of one 
itUL->iter and one workman, to which '* all cojica or questions of disjmte 
wkii'b nhall be submittod to the Council by both parties" are " iji the 
first instance "to bo referred, that the Committee may "endeavour 
to rec-oncilc the parties in ditference ; " in caac of failure, the matter 
in dispute to be remitted to the Council, and " disposed of as a con- 
itcd matter in due course." TTuder ite arbitrotion-jurisdictioD 



The Contemporary Rrotew. 

tho Council lias '* power to li«ar and cletermfne all questions of dJs^ 
pate and difftiremio bptwppn masterB and workmen " eiibmitted to it 
by both parties, witliin the liniitHofuu existing: Act of the 5 Geo. IV"; 
c. fifi, as to arbitration btttween maHtfra and workmen, and also " any 
other CBBP of dinpute or ditHji-cnct! " .submiftt'd to it " by tho mutual 
consent of maBtei-*! and wui^tmiMi;" but it is not to have power to 
"establish" u future " rato of wages or price of labonr or workman- 
ship." And the Act is not to extend to domoBh'o sorvanta or 
(wrvants in hn.sbandry. Each Council is to appoint its own officers, 
fix feo* and other expenses, and rebate its proceedings, under th« 
Mnction of the Home Secretary. 

This is another of thoae Acts of which il would be difficult to 
oxaggerato tho importance. But it would be equally difficult— and 
T must again draw nttontion to thia sabjeet — to eatnggcrate tho 
slovenliness with which it is drawn. Every ciause is ftill of jHtlViIls; 
almost every difficulty in the subject {e.rj., whether sub-raastwrt 
working for themselves ni-o to he considered workmen or ma.sters) 
is slurred over; the sami; provisions {f-.g., one as to appointment of 
officers) occur twice over ; unintelligible refercncca mrcur, apparently 
to prior discarded texts of the bill {I'.ff., although pmviKion is only 
made for the appointment of a " clerk of the Council," a " clerk of 
each divii^ion of the Council " is spoken of in one cTause). And as 

the decisions of the Council are to be " final and eonelusive with* 

out being subject to review or challenge by any Court or authority 
whatsoever," (!) it follows that the help of judicial construciion beinjOf 
shut out, the only remedy for the draughtsman's blunders must lia- 
in fVcHli legislatioii. The Act, in short, would require to be entiruly 
re-drawn. 

The '* Industrial and Provident Soeioti'e.i Act, 1867," does not, like 
tho laat, introduce any new priiiciplt;, hut only develups an existing 
system. Wc need not stop over it, aa it« eoactments, ^witgh of: 
practical moment to (he societies coneemi-d, tnrn for the most part 
oil points of detail without intci-cst (o ibo general render. Suffice it 
to Bay that tho principle of oo-oporation, the yearlv expansion of, 
whii'li, as evidenced in the return.^ of the registered .societies by the 
rosptHJtive RcgiKtrars of Friendly Societ-ies, uffitrtls so cheering u proof 
of our fiociid progrew, is honcoforth allowed legally to be extended 
to mining and quarrying — a field of liibonr, its cxclui?ion from which 
had alwa>*9 been singularly anomalous, seeing that the Cornish 
miuent have long afibrded one of the stock instonccs of co-opero- 
rive indufltry. And to check tlie growing abuse of non- returning* 
societien, a penalty of from i!2 to £3 is imposed for the default to 
make returns. 

Two other measure?, although passed only for a temporary purpose, 



The Soctal Legis/aiion of iS6j. 



n 



ita the group of ihc Labour Aubt, Um " Trades' Uuions Com' 
i&SSboil Act, Id(i7," autl Uii- "Xradta' ITiiious Commiaaion Aci 
Bxteoaion Avl, 1SU7 ; " ikv lurmur mnpoweringtbt) already appointed 
Trades' Uaioaa Cominissiouera, or other qualified peraons to bo 
appmiitcd by a ^k-oretury of Statu, Ui "iii<)uirr iatu uny aote ot* 
intitiiidutiuu, uutntgo, or vrroug, uU<>ged to hare been prumobed, 
managnd, or ooDiiived ut by traden* uiiiona or aasooiatioiu " in 
Shctfit'hl or the iiri^hbourhMod, trithiii li'n years before tbc poftshi^ 
of the Act ; arming such comtiussiouers or p^wtiiB with judicial 
powurs lor cnioroing the attendance of witnesses, examining them 
on oatb> oompelling the production nf dootunonta, and puniTJiing for 
amtempt ; and giving indemnity to witnesses nuking a fhll disclosure ; 
the othor empoworiug the exteuHion of tbo oporations of the 
Oonunis-tion. to other phioea besides Shefiicld. and giving absolute 
indemnity to all persons puUisliing a tnic acconut of any evidence 
taken before the Commissionors. These two Acts, it need hardly be 
said, will mark on era in the history of British labour, as ha\'iag at 
last dragged into the light of day the industrial Velmigeriebt of 
Sheffield and ito neighbourhood. And if followed up by a fair 
Isgislativo r€<;ognition of the limits within which trade societies may 
okirn Ifgal protLttion, they may serve to pbcc the vexed question of 
the relations of capital and labour on as good a footing as may well 
ho, until ^uch time as, through a large development of tbo priuciplet^ 
contained in the new Conciliation and Arbitration Councils, tho law 
shall become capable of putting down tho social nuisoucea of strikes 
and lock- outs, by tiiinly grappling with the (.iiuses which produce them. 
Side by side with the group of Ibe Labour Acts we should in 
formur years have found a bulky Sanitarv' group. But our sauitar)'' 
system must now be looked on as nearly completely constitute, and 
saailury onactmonts now run easily into other forms oi' logi^ation. 
Thus, two Acts of tho past scs&iou, in part at least bolongtug to this 
group, the Vaccination and Merchant Shipping Acts, have been 
already considered from other points of vlow. Again, from our 
Sanitary Acts has hocii evolved what may bo tenucd the new uunicipal 
urgauiKutiun of the niDeiocnth century, that of " Local Boards," to 
tile number of which every year soes fresh luldittuns ; whilst the 
probbm of the di^itribuitnn of sowage is fast nvtolviiig what wiia f*isfc 
only a sanitary qiitiKtion into an economic one. The " Sewage Ulilixa- 
tion Act, lij<i7," ought not from this point of view to he overlookod, 
though it does little more than extend tlio prDvisions of a previous. 
Act of 1805 ; giving "sower authorities," tor instance, power to buy 
or toko or hire luiul ontside their district, for " recniving, storing, 
disinfecting, or distributing sewage," and again to deui with sncb. 
land na they may think tit, farming it thcmscLves, letting it on hire 



The Contemporary Review. 

for Boven. years, &c. A larger Bphorc in moreover opeiicil to such'' 
operations by certain provisions of tko now Act authorizing the union of 
distrtcU and theoonHtitutioii of joint Sewomgo Boards. lu nhurt, the 
only disttnctl}' aanitary Act of the scKsion, if vo except itn Cattle 
Plague stitutv, the " Contagious Diseases (^Vnimals) Act, 1807/' is tho'l 
" Public Health (Scothmd) Act, I8(i7," which consolidaU>8 tbo lawi 
north of the Twec>d in the Koinc nmiiner oe, but it would seem more' 
efficiently than, thu English " Satiitiiry Act, 18G6." 

If 1 trtait UH a nuawure of sooiul leginhition t!u5 " Army Knlistment- 
Act, 1867," I maj- seem to many to be doing rtolcnco to ita character, j 
M a pure military Act. Yft it is a striking proof of the in(Mlifying« 
power of the |K>liticttl coustitiitinn of a counti*y over the bearing of' 
uU its leginlalion, that in France M. Jules Simon ban just based hisi' 
interesting work cm infant labour, "L'Ouvrier dp Huit Ans," on the' 
relation of such labour to the military strength of a people. And,:| 
indeed, where the figure of 800,lX)0 men is accept»l as a norroul' 
one for a nation's army, it is easy to nee that the period of military" ' 
enlistment must become one of priman,' social imporiance. With 
OS, thank God! it w not ao; but it may not be amiss to point ontlj 
that since the date of the Act in question, that period for our army? ■ 
is not to be "longer " than twelve year^, but with a power of re-»! 
engagement after two-thirds of the term, to complete twcntj'-one. 

Measures of T;flw- Reform projK-r, however far-reaching may be their' 
social importance, are generally to(j technical to admit of bein^M 
rendered interesting to the general reader. It would be wrong, how-t 
erer, to overlook the Act " to remove some Defects in the Adminis-.j 
tration of the Criminal Law" f30 and '6i Vic. c. 35), allowing the 
giving costs to the accused if acquitted on certain indictment«, giving 
lacilitics for falli:ig witnejt!<os on behalf of accused jjersnu?', and,, 
where stolen propertj' is restored, allowing couip«u«ation to be g^\-en.' 
to bouA/iiie purchasers out of money found on prisoners coaricted. 
Knactrnents like these, which neem trifling to many, tend iievertheleaiii 
efficiently to grease the too often creaky wheels of justice. The- 
" Oounty Com-ta Act, 1867," again — also a Ifew Year's gift — ^vea 
further extension and solidity to the juriwlictioii of these tribunals,, 
particularly through provi wms lor refusing coals in the sujwrior courts 
where less than £2Q is recovered on contract, or lees than XIO inil 
tort, authorizing the common law judges to order causes to be tried 
in, and equity judges to order proceedings to be transferred to, 
County (yourts, and giving a jurisdiction to these in title where 
neither the value nor the n;nt of property exceed X20 u year. Some- 
what analogous to this Act for the sister-country seems the "Debts 
lieoovcry (Scotland) Act, I8tt7," the exact purport of which I aball 
jiot venture to explain. 



The Social Legislation of 1 867. 



97 



Among ActH of a more espociully i-ommercial clmracter, but of 

^aomewhat imiwrlant uncial hearing, may be inRnl icn«(l " Thu Coin- 

tiea Act, 1867" fin forci? wnco Septtaiiber l«t), which pi-ovides for 

le uulimited liiibility, if Lliought fit, of the ilircclors or iimnagt?rs of 

Ea limiu'd i.'onijiaiiy, llie recluution of rapilal and shares, the creation 

■ of fihare-wammt* to I>earer, and allows, under licerisi! Prom the Hoard 

of Trade, the funniition of associiUions with limited liability, but 

^without the need of vwing the woni, for pnrpostw nut of {»ain ; the 

['two "Railway Companies Acts, 1867," for Knglnml iind Ireland, 

land Scotland respectively^ "which protect rolling stock and plant 

from being taken in execution or " attached by diligence," authorize 

** armngoments " of companies unable to meet their engagements 

with creditors, and facilitate "abandonment.'*;" and Mr. hceman'fl 

Ktit T-'IO Viet. c. 3tt) for discouraging jobbing in the shares of Joint 

Stock Banks, —probably too narrow in its operation. 

One other Act, though purely local, deserves to be noticed, the 
" Metropolitan Streetji Act, 1867," which came into opcrtition for the 
most part on the lat November, 18G7, but part of which will only 
take effect on New Year's JJay, 1868, This is noteworthy ns having 
required to be hurriedly amended already, first, lest it should ruin 
40,000 costcrmongors, and secondly, in order to avert a cab-mvjier** 
id cabmen's atrikc. On the whole, aa I would rather not be cen- 
Mrions on this occasion, I think the least «iid of this will bo sooneitt 
tineadod, — except that Mr. Hardy deserves real credit for having 
lown^himself open to reason, and capable of retracing his steps when 
onwi^ly taken, and that 1 believe he wilL be taking quite the right 
I coarM in restricting rather than enlarging the powers of Ihc police. 
On the whole, then, the budget of legislation for 1867 has been 
tmost valuabloone, and in nowise more bo than through that weighty 
idAil of New Ycar'w gifts for 18ti8, the Vaccination Act, tho FacTory 
L,ct« Extension Act, tho Merchant Shipping vVcl, the Agrienhnrul 
Gangs Act, thti Workshop Rogulatiou Act, and tho Coiuity Courta 
Act. 

Might the rest of tho year prove worthy of such a boginning ! A 
trying wiiitcr is upm us ; (tlacknetts pervades alinoKt evtiry branch of 
lustry, imd hnA prevailod so long that liLrg(> nuinbers, both of the 
rking and lower middle chi^, have by this time exhausted all thotr 
nringH ; a spirit of almost. aimIe«H discontent is unmistakeably 
■broad, gathering fuel from etiforcrtl idlcnrsH, wln'ist the sparks 0} 
real or faiicierl grievances are already flying through tho air. At 
meh a time e.^ipecially it is well to took ste-adily at tho good, which 
is evoi now taking shape around us, and t« view in the beneficial 
legislation of 1867 an earnest of that which — if England bo true to 
berself — 1868 should bring forth. J. M. Ltolow. 

VOL. Vtl. H 



i^r -jlxjs: 



>»',*T •*•■ Jf. ^, ■*: -T*, «■ r*-'*-. .-^ .T- ;-*v-*T . .*' 



c,^c*iic::.ci' 



c?-:>^2)Ci5'^ 



'!:--■- 



->;^*- 



:5:c:iL-^?j^^:c^'i^^i3 



THE LONDON PRESS: 

THE " SPECTATOH," TUB " OUABDIAN/' THE " NONCOXlXfRMlST." 



A LMOST eTerjlxKly with « grun of thoughtful hamoar in hin' 
"^ must havtj been oocasiouully amused at the sort of title br 
which minor lecturers ofleu seek to indicate the topi«» of thpir 
lectures. It i^ diiHcult not to smile at such a line in a. bill as this — - 
"The Influence of Womau on Society;" which means, Hccordinp to 
Cocker, the influence of the half upon ibo whole. Bnt such a title 
as "The Influeuce of the Press upon Societj- " would be nearlv as 
questioniible. >VTiy not the influence of Bocietj- upon the pro« ? It 
is surely Mr. Gladstone who eaya that the successful or |>cr$UMiTe 
orator is the speaker who receives from hia audience in vapour what 
ho pouze back upon them in a flood. Can it be otherwise with tlie 
auooessful or persuasive journalist 1* 

There are certainly obvious diiierenccft bet-weea the position of th*J 
tfator and that of the journalist with respect to the public to 1m1 
addressed. It i^, no doubt, u very primitive view of his functiotvl 
but it is strictly true that wherever he can find a stump the orator if 
fiimiahed, and wherever there are people he may count upon an 
audience. It is perfe<;tly conceivable, however unlikely, that an 
eloquent enthusiast, witliout a penny in bis purse beyond the price of 
a bed and a dinner, should, by merely using an inspired tongue^ 
wherever he found men and women enough to make a crowd in aa 



The tendon Press. 



99 



ci|ten space, nhake England from one end t« the other. JBeforo a 
jonmaliat cuii tincl hiK public thnre must be a journal, which implies 
the expenditure of much luoney and a past cuncurrenoe of all the 
lents in getting it up. More depends upon the pulpit, leas (in this 

|>fine r^ard) upon the praiober. It is possible that if "An Kn;;ltsh- 
had written his well-known letters in, eav " The Earthen 

li'VaBBel/* he might have been fonnd out, and that his letters might 
have hail Muno influence. Those who maintain that every true and 
capable Toice is sure to be etibctircly heard at some time, will assert 
that this is not only possible, but certoin : they must fight their battle 
aa tbey may with others who think, on the contrary, that, accordiog 
to all the analogy of nature and human life, true and capable roicea 
get stifled on an appalling scale. But it may be presumed that any 
man who hnd domcthing to say would prefer the speaking trumpet of 
the Titrtti to the speaking trumpet of " The Karthen Vessel," and it 
u certain that a newspaiwr is a costly thing to create. Wo have 
Bome of us read lately that the Nac Yorl- Trff/nne was founded upon 
a capital of about X'-!>00, half of which wa^i in printing material ; but 
in London, at the present day, it takea, or is assumed to take, ahout 
iAO.OQO to found a daily newspaper. In some way or other, before 
man can have the benefit of an elective speaking trumpet in the 
ipe of n printed jounial, there must have hvc-n a great looeening 
of parse-strings— at qU cvonta that is tho understanding; but a 
capable person, who used the tongue instead of the pen, need not 
Iiavc forty hundred pence to commence with ; and, us soon aa ever 
lie began to tell as a speaker, the press would be ghid enough to 
report him, if his topics were imperial in character, or ii' his speech 
■ppou-cd likely to lead tu or influence popular or other action. It 
would be trite to recall, with more than a word or two, the immense 
UDoimt of labour and skill actually devote by the press to the re- 
porting of such oratory aa is supposed to lead np to decisive ootiou 
(in Parliament), or to be the manifesto of an}' acknowledged party, 
social or political. Of oourec, what Mr. Gladstone says at St. 
Btcphou's, or Mr. Bright at llirmiugham, is as much news as a 
murder or a rowing-match. But tho money has been spent and the 
naohiuery set up ; Ibc journal is there before the orator, of whatever 
Jtind, gets the benefit of it. 

£ven with oratory tho tendency is to run in grooves, and act under 
,]inutatioQ6 which bring it into allianoe with " capital." It is not 
^pl»l■idered reapertable to huwl and shout in open spaces ; and not 
ndy do balls and places to wliich peoplo will go cost eomctliing, but 
tho proprietors can rofuMO to let thoin for objects of which they 
happen to disapprove. The tendency has, of course, been resisted, 
hnt within the last, two years there hax been a tendency, sufficiently 

11 2 



100 



The Contemporary Review, 



eTidont, to moke tho only platforms that cost notching diiBcult of use, 
and the tendenry icili e/iow iM/ uijaiti. But with regiinl to the press 
tho case is clear — a newsiiajior must pay. ^o doubt there are »som« 
which are subBidixtxI, and which arc maintained in existence for party 
purposes; but, ue u rult:, a newepapcr in a commercial speculation us 
much as a shdp. It depend**, liltc a ithop, upon c^!^tomer8 for it» exiat- 
enuc. In other words, it in so far like tho orator, who receives from his 
public in a va]HPur that, which he puurs back in a flood, that it must say 
what a suiHcient uumbor of poople lihn so much to have said, that 
they will buy whatever says it for tliem. 

In this connection ii may, perhaps, bo jwrmitted to us to quote, 
from Mr. Mill a portion of the fourteenth chapter of the t^econd, 
Book of his " I'rinciples of Political Economy " : — 



" Litvniry occupatjou is uac of those purBuite in which snecess may be 
iitlained by pcrfcOBH the s^ruHtor part ul' whoso time is token up by other 
emp!ii>*meiit» ; luiil ihu cdu<.>AtiuQ uuceKKfiry for it ie tho cotmuoa cduoatiou 
of nil culliviiltid tMjruuna. TL« iudutcmcuUi tu it, indcpcudcutly of nioaey, 
in the prcBOut etutu of Ihu woilJ, to all who havfl either vanity to gratify.^ 
or perHoiial ur pubhc ohj^etK to promote, ara strong. Thwe motivua now] 
nttruct iuto this career a grmii aud iuortasiiif; iiiimher of perHOna who do ud 
need its pecuuiary fruitd, iind who would eqtmlly resort to it If it affordodl 
no remuneratiou at all. lit our awn country (to cite known examploB) tfa« 
most inflnenliiit, imil on the whole mort eminent, philosophicjil writer of 
recent tituui<i (Hentham), the p^Hlcst politjcul eroDumint (Kii-iirdo), the moict 
ephemeraily celebrated uud ttiu rtMiUy greatest poettt (Byron iLiid HlialUy), 
and the uio»t fcuccessfni writer of prose tiction (Scott|, were none of them 
authors by proffHtiioii ; wutl only two of tbe five, Kcott imd Byron, could 
have aapporled tbiuiDBclveK by the worfcfi which tboy wrote. Nearly all the 
high deportmentd of nuthortthip are, to a great extent, similarly tilled. In 
cenacqueuce, although the bigheet peconiary prizes of successt'ol author- 
ship ure iucompiirubly greater than at any former peiiod. yet on any rational 
calculation of the chancew, in the existing competition, scarcely any writer 
can hope to gidn » Uving by books, and to do so by mayaziuLS nud reviews 
booomes daily more diHicult. It is only the more troublctiome und disagree- 
able kinds of literary- labour, and those which confer no personal eolebrity, 
such aK mont of thune couuccled with ufw^pa^'ern, or with the suiuller 
periodicids. on which an educated pentou euu uuw rely for BuhsiHteace. Of 
those the remuneration is. on the whole, detiiludly high : becanse, though 
exposed to tbe competition of what iiwd to be cidled ' poor sfiholars ' 
(porsOQs who have received a leamuil education from Kome public nr private 
charity), they ore exempt from that of lunutenrfi, tho-sc who have other 
means of support bciug sdilom oaudidates for sneh cmptoj'meQts. n'7utlA^r 
ihfie anm'iifrmiiius atv nor nintii-rUil irilli mtiiflhiiuj nidimUif iimii-t in tlw 
idea v/ tuuhimhip ta ti jirqfeasiim, aii/l \rkrthfr nnn Mrial nrrrtmifm^nt undn- 
lehieh the itmlirris of manfriml camUl of ihtmiis •jititnj out doctritteii J'ar tirtiui 
iggtiilnt to hr, itr can posxthly fif, a pi'rmaiutit linttg, avitUt Ac u nuJtjecl uxU 
itorthj t/ the atietilkm />/ thinluTs." 

This will, doubtless, appear trivial to thoBe who think that when 
a given set of facta exists^ all wo have to do is to accept it and make 



i 



The Landon Press, 



lOl 



thtt bekt of it ; bnt not to those who tbinlc that there is an error in 
the word "all" hero, and that we may learn to make the best of a 
state of facts, not only without accepting it, but in a- spirit which 
would reverse the state of facta if it were possible, 

it by no means followe, nor is it true, that the inception of a news- 
paper is in most cases a purely commercial affair — that it is sot up 
for a livelihood, like a stand in a market. It is far more likely to be 
the *' idea " of a clever noan, who aces his way to a pleasant ephore of 
intellectual activity, — perhaps even with a sufficiently high purpose, 
— and then hunts up his capital among men of wealth and ontorpriae. 
But a newspaper started on the principle of obeying the law or 
necessity of genius — that it must create the tasto to which it intends 
to appeal — is, according to our information, an unknown thing. 
Almost every newspaper is projeetml with tho knowledge that there 
will bo uphill work at starting, and tho pnibablo expenditure is cal- 
culated upon that basis ; but it id alwayji aHHumtMl, to begin with, that 
there ia a public ready to buy it : tlio difficulty is to make that por- 
ttcular public look at it and know it. 

Tt has been said that the rewards uf Literature — a general term, in 
which joumaliflin counts for much— ore now so considerable, that 
tlie learned professions are feeling the drain of talent nliir.h im caused 
by the attraction of public writing. People who mako statements 
of this kind include, no doubt, the Ohiirch among their "learned 
professions." A clergjTnan who is sufficiently at one with his church 
to bo able to read the liturgy, and who yet allows the attractions of 
literature to "drain" the energy that was vowed to his pulpit, does 
no! know, can never have felt, the privileges of his office ; but there 
are doubtless numbers of clergymen who find it so difficult to accom- 
modate their language in the pulpit to their deepest convictions, 
modified a« those have been by criticism, that they fly to the press 
for an opportunity of relieving their minds, and say as little in the 
pulpit as they well can. And it is plain upon the surface that the 
journalism of the day is largely contrihuled to by members of the 
learned profefwion?, and gentlemen who, having received the necessary 
education, prefer literature to the chancers of those professions. Of 
course, the perno/itiel of journalism ia mis.ed. It contains huge 
numbers of persons who have tumbled or scrambled into it, with only 
the culture of clever men, whom accident and a nutural bent have 
set down to the desk of the iifUrdfrnr ; but w^ith the Satunhnj liiTii'ir 
a new era began for journalism, and even for literature in general. 
More and more one can trace in newspaper- writing the culture and 
fxprii ife corp-i of the highly-cdaealetl Knglishman; the self-suppres- 
sion, the drill, the uniformity, the half- technical honour, the ostensible 
frankness, and at the same time real ^quifoqifp of good society. In 




102 



The Contemporary Review. 



Mr. Teanyeou's little idyll or eclogue, " Walking to the MitU.* 
James aays : — 

" like mm lik« manncn ; Hke "bnei* ]ik«, Uwy mj- ; 
Kiod natwra U tbn bMt i thow maaiMn next 
That Gt ua like a naturo Hoond-hand, 
^Vliich ani\ indt^od, Qio manncn of the groat." 

It is ihose " numnors oi a nature i^econd-liaiid " which stamp tho 
moat aocc]>tcd writing of much of the beet juumalisin. of tho pre«cat 
day ; and it ta vtiM worth while to remark that thoro are '• naturoa ' 
whom such "maunorg" rei)cl rather than nonciliate. Tt might bo^ 
pluutiiblo to say that the increasing aocepttiiico of 6uch writing amonf 
one or two clasacH of socivly is a token, or at Icust u coaconiiUuit, of 
a vriduuing aeverauce of cluustis. Dpiuiontt may and do difier, both 
aa to tho alK-ged fact and the alleged concumituiit; but it is, at all 
evcnt», a fair question whether the existence in joumidiem of a highlyj 
saooessful literature of cynical polish in a good sign for Ihia genera- 
tion or tht; next. 

Of one thing, meanwhile, there is no question whatever. ThervJ 
is aHoat and busy in our joumnlism an amount of talent and cultural 
whieli is in itself a most strilting sign of the times. Let any 
take up, say, three of those able joumal-t which are written 
tively aa if they had shibboleths of ciilturc to begin with, — whic 
have a "not«" of culture almost, if not cjuile, as marked aa lh4 
"note" of Evangelicaiiam or liigh-Churchism; and be will sunilyj 
be struck with the profusion of good thinking and good writing, 
backed by good reading, which is to be had for inuouy. And yafti 
there U this peculiarity about it — that it never docs uuy Uiiug par-] 
ticular for you. Vou read your column and a hall' of vigorous, 
polished matter ; you are impressed by the joumalist'ti evident know- 
ledge of his subject ; you receive a deUght similar to that which flouta 
in tho atmottphere of a wcU-appoiutod dinncT'table. And what then P 
Tou have merely spent so much time in an agreeable manner, and 
you go about your business uutoucbod and unaltered. It will, of 
coarse, be said that this is just the result wlxich the writing aims at, 
— (bat it is of the very essence of joumali&m that these Ihingii should 
be so. But it is impossible to siitlc the doubt whether that society 
can be going on well in which there is a demand, with a corrolativo 
supply to meet it, for maasca of Iitoratur(<, week by week, of which 
tlie most striking charuetcristic is the siiciu-sk with which its producers 
have discharged their minds of feeling, faith, and imagination. 

It is not inconsistent with all iIuk that public writing at present 
should be ULrgoly charucteriiwd by virulence and ingenious injustice. 
The second-hand nature may fit like a glove, but them art. the 
clawB ; and wherever an ercuse can be found, we have the felicity of 



The London Press, 



103 



Boemi^ them tinsli^Aihed. Anything harder, more nuiooroue, more 
Bojust, more duringly penwnal in a well-mannered way, more im- 
ptidcxit in 8uppi«»iiig whut is to be said /or " the prisom-r at the bar," 
and, generoUy, more cruelly beat on Ticlory and the last blow at any 
coat, than some of the joumaiifim of polish and culture, it i« not eauy 
' to imagine. Il« law is military law. Its verdicts are those of a geu- 
tiemunly drum-head court-martial, the jury bciag packed agaiuat the 
prisoner. lis dim;iplJne ia thumbwrow discipline, with high-bred indif- 
ference to much hi^ides dcxurnt \"ict«ry over opposition. Decency is 
caaential to it : bat that being grantiMl, juatico and kindness, except 
in the shape of patronage, may bf> nowhere. 

This is ea-sily expliiinod. If a newspaper is to bo a great com- 
cncrriaJ success, it must, at all coAtA, be efToctive : it must oppeol to 
tbo love of hard hitting, and p\'en of hurfing, which is no common a 
abanotoruitic of fauitian beingn. A NapuIt>oi)i« policy t» the only 
thing for it, and tho masa of floating talent and cnlturo, with no 
, psrticnlar heart or poii«t^ience, which \n ready to lend itJM>lf trt su'th a 
policy, is one of the most striking signs of the time«. That the talent 
■nd cnltupe think they are doing justice while they adopt tliiskind 
of policy ifl wry probable — oven merccnarj' clevemeM must have 
its illuHiontt — hut their mistake is in fancying that if they write 
what they think bk cleverly ns they ean, striking out boldly when- 
«Trer they nee anything wrong, they aro doing justice. But (hi* i« 
apt iiecesearily juutive, much less goodness; which last, however, is n 
word one ought almost to apologize for mentiooing. Indeed, the 
whole subject is exceedingly difficult of iipproach, becaxiee any 
reference now-u-ilays to ideas Mhich cannot be manipulated for 
bonncoB purposes is pretty enre to be derided ua " theological." 
Borne time ago, we happen to remember, the S/ifffntor said that " the 
Anglo-Saxon race had a mj'steriou?* |>owcr of absorbing " — we ibr- 
got what ; but this refercrice to a " mysterious power " was imme- 
diately snubbed as being " theologieod," — a taking refuge in the mud 
which was quite improper in these dn\*H ; a purely stupid return to 
an exploded order of ideait ; something which called for the imme- 
diate application of the cnt-o'-niiic tailn. 

It h not difficuU to <li>Hvni that, what is at the bottom of the 
hrrannic tendom^iea of our journalism (so far as they exiht, and we 
have no deeirf- to pxaggernto them) is whnt may be wdlcd the 
eeaen't 0/ errlainiy, which ia natural to the cnrr)'ing of the scientific 
spirit into a dominion where it is comparatively strange. ^Ve have 
framed this sentence with an eye to strict jnsticc, and have only said, 
" whore it is comparatively strange," — because the bulk of modem 
opinion inclinw, mVA or tnViout comeiomnm*^ to the idea that it 
«aght not to be "strange," but familiar and victorious, and that it 



104 



The ConUmporary Revt^w. 



will eventually prove eo. Bat, having don© justice, we are at 
liberty to odd that we think the scientific apirit is not only in fact 
strauge in the discussion of all problems in which considerations called 
moral and spiritual inhere, but is of right a stranger, a blunderer, 
and a usurper. If it brings knowledge and acuteneoa to bear upon 
the evidence, it does what is required of it ; but in the decision it 
»thould take no part. Now, whether conscious of iteclf or not, the 
t^irit of the bulk of our journalism is »cientitic — sciontihc in its 
hardness In its |)ositIvenceH, and in its distrust. 

Side by side with the spirit which we have called the conceit of 
certainty, there iit pluinly tu be di>H:ornod the Hpirit of sociolatry or 
crowd-woi'Mbip. Th(! " enthusiofiin of humanity" ha^ entered for good 
aud all into the dominant activities of life; and, of course, the 
soientiBc N]}irit " accepts " it like any other at^compliahed fnet. 
Whether thiw, too, is not a little in the way of bteoming a conceit 
as well as, or instead of, an enthusiaNm, is another que«iliin ; but, in 
the meanwhile, thy two tirlea, first, of conceit of f-ertiiinty in a s|)here 
whose very law is that " the unt!X[K*ted always happens," and, seaind, 
sociolatry revelling in humane effort, are concurrently flowing, and 
may be said tu doininale iuour joitmulism. 

The theulogioal spirit, in the higli sense, in the sense in which its 
entrance into certain discussions is, as we have hinted, so readily 
reviled, i* quite a diffeixnt tiling from the spii-it of systematic 
theology. lleligious faith witliout dogma or proposition is, we 
confess, a thing untntulligtble to us ; hut there are spheres in M-hiiuh 
religious dogmn is quite out of place, and may become the miuister 
of injustice in public diticuosiou. Thus, the GuarUiun umy legiti- 
mately ai>iM.'al to a "High Church" public for support, and may 
legitimately enforce views and opinions of the order prefyrrt-d by 
such a public ; but, of cuurae, it muHl fretpieutly, indeed genvraUy, 
have to judge mvu und thing* by standaixl* of which dogmas are wholly 
irrespective. The ifpertafor may be openly a "Broad Churxih " 
a<lvocate and orgou. The JVwwo/i/erwvr?/ may be ojwuly un nrgau 
of Dissent. But to bring the dogmatic or sectarian standard into 
court ujjon most ow'asions wo'uld be nothing less than unjust ; 
injustice, indeed, of the nature of peraecutioa. Journalism cannot, 
of course, attempt tu rule the world by any given set of opiniuua 
upon open questions, hovrever devoutly its conductors may adhere 
to them. Jlut the theologicul spirit in the high sense is quite a 
diHerent luutter, we repeat, from the spirit of theological propa- 
gandit>m. Its essence is briefly that, starting from faith in " supremo 
retributive goodneas " — which our aciontific friends will perhaps 
permit us to call God — it " hopeth all things, believeth all things." 
In this spirit alone, the spirit whirh believes in the unseen, the 



iJon Press. 



105 



spirit which h att much qHtc to powiibilities tut I0 achialitics, in thin 
spirit alotie can juntic^t be done, can the truth be Hiftcemod. In 
another spirit irognients of the truth irmy he diacemed and faith- 
IbQy contributed ; but in the iipirit of cbnrity nlone ig insight, alone 
is that equitable Itindnew which is the only "justice" that human 
bmngA should dare to offer each other. Now, in the mere effort, no 
constantly required of a jonmnlirt who honmtfy works with a Iheologic 
inspiration, to hold flpecial dop^nas in suspense, and yet not to let 
go the inspiration — in this mere effort there is necessarily a training 
in faimew and kindness such ob other men cannot ko readily secure. 
May we, then, naturally look to the best of those journals iu which a 
tbeological spirit is evidently active, for a hip-ber tone of justice and 
kindnesa, and a deeper iuoigbt, social, political, and llt^rar}', than 
we are likely to find elsewhere ? 

In the first place, it must be borne in mind that we ubo the phrajse 
*' theological spirit" with an oxtendod, but. we coutund, strictly 
accurnle signification. The thcologicul spirit is, for example, dis- 
tinctl}' traceabk' in (among othtT places wtiicb will not escape atten- 
ti<m) some of the leading articles of the JbaHy ifeicn. There ore 
hundreds of urticles ou public questions which may, for whiit one 
knows, be written by men who would vehemently reject the adjective 
"tbeological" as belonging to them or their writings; but that is 
nothing : ptsople do not. always know the logic of their own jwaition, 
and the theologiecil spirit is quite possible where the notion of any 
"aeienco of God" would be scouted. The question is, not whether 
sectarian religious newspapers have not often been tbund rancoroun, 
false, and fooliuh ; nor even whether the bulk of professing religious 

t^people and religious journals do not maniJ'eat a sense of honour less 
Jtpcn than that of the bulk of honest people and joumaU that make no 
profession. Decide these questions as you may, they do not (."oncem 
the question whether or not, when we take up iho journals which 

iJiuwt deeply impress us v!\\h their truth fulncas and gofvlness, we 
cleariy And the theological, or, to use an overdone but inevitable 
word, the God-fearing spirit at the bottom of the facta. 

We wonld entreat those who may think we approach this question 
with a foregone conclusion, and those who itnugine they hare ready 
a atott* of factx to quote against any such concluiiion — plentiful proofi'^ 
for example, of the honour and goodness of men who would disclaim 
the theological spirit in all its shapes — not to givi^ themselves 
nimecessary trouble. We dare to promise that no real utjustne what- 
crer will be done to any side nf the truth by us, though we niav uiako 
mistake^, and may err in the less or more. The thing we have 
chiefly in our mind when we speak of justice, or equitable kindne«M, 
08 a thing that grows be^t where the theological spirit is breathing. 



io6 



The Contemporary Review. 



ot at all a common matter. It 18 an cusy Uiing tu expoeo a fboL 
is an easy thing to write a '* strictly just," i>. a very nmel and 
ked, reriew of a book. It is an easy tlu'ng to " cut tip " a public 
man, us Karl Russell wtut, some little time ago, "cut up" in tbe 
Saturday lUtwr, m an nrtide wliich sent a thrill of disgnst through 
England, although it containctl, perhaps, not a word that might not 
ibc justified, as justice goca in jonmalism. This kind of thing ia 
mere JacJc Ketch work. It is only a part of that tyranny of ex- 
pediency, under commercial checks or inspirations (as may happen), 
into which journalism seems threatening to drift too far just now. 
If it be too much to cipi-ct that a newxpajwr should be conducted 
on heroic principles — though lluit is not too much to tlvnmttd — 
it iif. at least, a pardonable refreshment to turn for u short time to 
joumaht like the SjftrMvr, the Guardian, and the Nonconfurmittt 
where it ia evident that " eflect" is not the thing aimed at, und that 
I the inspiration is independent. 

In our own day the main fendenoy of public criticism — moral. 
political, and literary — is tu t<liift the centre of gravity from a 
solicitooa sense of dutj' to a mere waiting on the will of numbers. 
No doubt the voiue of numbers is very often the voice of (iod, but 
rhorc are two ways in which it may be arcepied^ and it is ulmoat 
impossiblo to refnac the illustration which offers itsel£ In our 
opinion the political courage of the late Sir Robert I'eol was not tho 
highest, or, perhaps, of the highest. Jlut, bo that as it may, it 
remains true that, to his everlasting honour, he aocoptod, in a certain 
caao, the voice of numbers as the voice of God, doing it to his own 
injury. It is hard, it is even dispiriting, to think that there should 
be any who do not, again, recagniKc, in the history of Mr. Qlad«tone, 
the gradual and too snrely painful M'lf-iKluejition of a great M>licitous 
nature waiting on the voico of God in the voice of nmnbers. In 
t}te "Conservative Surrender," however, it is difficult., indeed, to 
reoogniso anything but the mere waiting on the will of munbers. It 
is to the honour of the press that it has so largely denounced 
lit. Disraeli's crime (for a crime it appears to some of us) ; but it la 
also to the discredit of the pitJsa (hat it has so largely condoned tho 
crime, and that so much of its blame has been blame with n wink in 
itv Wherever wc may think omtielves entitled to affix condemna- 
tioD upon this subject — whatever organ of opinion has disappointed 
us by its tnno — it is plain that such an evimt as the Oanaervative 
Surrender would scarcely have been possible, except in a day in 
which the currenlfl ran decisively in the direction of a mere waiting 
on the will of innnlMTK. The tendency U* wait iijH>n that will, 
whether existing in a shape philosophically splf-justifiod, or only in 
the shape of an instinct of the hour, ia really at tiie bottom of incal- 



The London Press, 



107 



culably j^reat masses of both action and criticism at tho prasont time. 
Let ns not for il moment confound this biuc fcondoncy with Ik^n- 
thomism, though tho tondonrr mar bo supposod to oxist in the 
majority of cases whore Benthamism i» espoused. But one thing is 
cJoar — that it Is totally inconsistent, not only with Christianity, but 
with the tbcologicnl spirit. If every miracle were to-morrow 
reduced to a myth, and every page of the Now Testament worm- 
eaten by criticigni, it would remain true tlmt Christianity has, 
historically, deposited in the heart of mankind, never to be torn out 
cf H> the ideas of the inalienable responsibility of the individual 
wml, and (lie importance of a faith dominating the life to the indi- 
Tidiiat «oul. Drop the miracles and tear the records, we repeat, 
th^se ideas are here, and came to be here demonstrably in one way. 
They are not Ohriptianity, but they are of its essence. And they are 
of the essence of all that is woKh doinff, or having, or thinking, or 
writing in this world. Whore they are dccifiively avowed in the 
press, we are entitled to hope that the functions of the press will be 
well fulfilled, Finco the avowal creates on open responsibility, besides 
disclosing a tendency. The times being what they are, a newspaper 
in which the theologicfll spirit is thua avowed may be at some com- 
mercial disadvantage ; and, inevitably, a paper placed at a com- 
morcial disadvantage loses much in various ways. It is no disrespoct 
to tho S'ottfftnformisi , for example, to observe that the "cnlturc" and 
writing force of some of itit contemponuips are greater than it can 
itself ooDimnnd — it mnst neoetiHarily be so. Rut it is impossiblo to 
ngaid somo of the " thpologieal " newspapers wiihoui feelings of 
T««pect and affection lor tlieir faithfulncM to what they think good, and 
their geatlcnes*^" hoping all things, believing all things" — to what 
i» questionable. Higher qualities than these no man, no journal can 
pdojubly hare. They aro, taken as instruments, the very power of 
Ood. It is a small matler that organs of opinion and sentiment like 
these do not command fabulous circulations. Wlicre Ihoy do go, 
they touch the hc«t, thn Ixildost, the most generous, the most self- 
^Miying natures, in wlu>m im the hope of England and the world, if 
anywhci'c. The three tiewspapen we ha^'e seUtotf-d in Wgin with, we 
taJce OS types of the better journalism of England, on account of the 
spirit which pervades tliem. But our apace is exhausted, and wo must 
postpoiio illustration by extract and some little criticism in detail to 
another dav. 




THE TALMUD. 



THE article on the Talmud ia. the QitnHeriy Jtcmte has made aa 
unpjtampled stir. Whatever has boon written about its marvel- 
loiiB subject before, in " libraries, ancient nnd modem," in "cssnys and 
treatiaos, monographs and sketches, in books and periodicals, without 
number" (p. 120), has fmmehow failed to bring it before the vorld 
as it has been brought before it now. A subject hitherto trejited in 
a tone ol' bitter controversy or |K'dantic lemming, — a suhjoet wo had 
been accustomed to dismiss with a mere contemptuous shrug, proves 
to be instinct with beimtv, tendemofis, and wisdom. 

Within this small compass the Talmud is analysed and condensed, 
not only with oncycloptcdic erudition, but with intense human feel- 
infl-. Theories are put aside, and facts are dealt with. The author 
lokes his stand on a purely scicntitic platform. Hut while expressly 
mentioning the many " gurgoyles," the "ahstruse propositions and 
syllogiama," the " fanatical oxitbursts," the " hierogyphical fairy- 
lore," of which wc have hitherto heard far too muchj he " burioa," 
"that which ia dead," and "rejoices in that which liveji." He 
brings before ua nothing but the distinct, authoritatiTe, clear state- 
menta of the Talmud, legal, ethical, metaphysical, and other, 
generally iu the words of the work itself. And while hia 
answer to the question, " What is the Talmud?" is mainly historical, 



The Talmud. 



109 



H 18 not wLoUy so, for at every Bt«p, tbe religious and philosopbio 
characteristics of the work are touched upon, and new and momentous 
probli-ins are irresistibly suggested to the reader's mind. 

I am almo«t atibamed to have at once to raise certain empty 
pliaiitoius which might perhaps in time begin to float in the 
hu/.y atmosphere of public opinion. The Old Testament is written 
in Semitic language, the New Testament is written in Smnitic style ; 
yut what do wo in England understand by that term Semitic P — some- 
thing vaguely oriental or costern, iw to which any one can »tpeak, 
with the confidence of knowledge, who has once hod a alight acquaint- 
ance with aoiiio Indian vernacular or Chincrio dialect, having about 
the same relation to tScmitie, or loss, than our ICngliah haa. No 
wonder that wo usually miaundertitand grtovouHly the simpleat facta 
of Semitic literature. 

There is the <]utMtion of the age and composition of the Talmud. 
The focta stated by the QHari^trly writer are aimply these. The 
urigin of the Talmud data's from the rctui'n from Babylon, but the 
writing of it waa nut begun until about eight liundred yeann later. 
The dates of the redactipu of both the Talmuds are given by him 
with the greateat precision. 

Those facta to weatern minds are simply marvellous. Living in 
the midst of a oivilization which is accustomed to books and neglects 
memory, the^' cannot understand the growth of Semitic literature. 
This is logically verj' strange, when not merely Scmitli; litoruture, 
but nearly all early literature, has the same history. The Vcdaa, 
the Zend-aveata, the Kur-6n, the Suxmeh, the Homeric poems, the 
£ddaa, the Nibelungen, ami the Kolewala, arc acknowledged to have 
existed orally for periods of varioxut length, in some cases of 
very great length, oven ages, before they were committed to 
writing. Yet a western, swayed by custom, thinks naturally 
that the Tabiiud waa suddenly written like a leading article in 
the Timet, out of coateinpornry matcrinU. The author observes 
that nothing wa« admit led into the Talmud that waa not well 
authenticated, and that whenever feasibly the mmie of the tra- 
ditionalist was added. ^\jiy one who will take the Ireuble to think, 
will see that thiij kind of work its not done in a day, ur u year, or a 
geaerutioii, and if hu gous deeper into the article in the Qtutrierbj 
will percei^'e that ii' the Talmud was nut the labuur of centuries, it 
was a miracle. 

But what was the bterary history of the Jews during the period 
to which the composition of the Talmud is assigned f .:U'ter their 
return from Babylon, they became on intensely literary people, and 
their literary energies were wholly devoted to the purpose of illus- 
trating the ULd Testament, and mainly the Law, strictly so ealltKl ; 
and thua all that thuy produced daring that period was rudimentary 



i:o 



heCanttrnporary Kevtew. 



Tafanod. It is Bimply iacredible thut there should be nothing cxtantl 
in the TaliHud of tLis its earlitr condition. 

And whcji we have once Admitted the masimum interral of the 
composition of the Talmud, it is a nattiral fiiUauy to he slwnvs thuikiui 
of that interval iw if the 'I'ahnud, with not only ils traces of Babylon,-! 
but of the Syrian persecution and the Roman wars, had been wholly' 
oompoeed in the days of Cyrus and handed down complete to the 
fourth century. But it is obvious that it wa9 composed durinf* c VBi ' j f ; 
gencrntion to tbo intervening centuries, ereiy generation which hflti] 
left its indch'blo historical traces in it8 pAf^cs. 

The Talmud hod also, bo it rememhei-ed, a rare quality to cnsiu^l 
its prencrvfttion. It wna developed out of commontary on tho 01 
Testament, the oral exponent of written Seripture. Thus, if not a i 
word had been ftTiHen, and the writing of nnir-thing jiuthoritalirn was 
aferiotly forhiddiai. tUcrc would «till have been the SaiTod Text, aa an 
aid by which the scholar might remember the eommentJi. But though 
theM comments were not to be written as authoritatiTe, yet afTeoiion. 
and reverence remembuvd them a« the comments, nay, the veiy. 
dicta, of tho doctora, tho saints, and tho martyrs. 

Yet, all allowances made, we \Vi-sterns cannot fail to be amay^*] 
ii the positive «tat*raent of such a «ti*toh of moiiory a,-* we ore 
aocustomcKl vaguely to admit in other cn.4eit. Tt will, therefore, be 
useful to comparo the Shemite faculty of mcraoiy, or its cultivation^ i 
in our own times, with oure, and tho matter will stand out in a dil- 
fcntnf and far cleurer light. 



" Hilsnj of the ArAbo," writes Lane. " hsvo been remarkable for s tenaeitjr 
of niutiiory almost miiAoulous. At aclioo] they geuernlly 1ciun the whole 
tli« Kiir-!iii liy Ill-art, uiilcil to (to so by it* hting composed iiirhyiaing prose ;{ 
and tituny fltiidtiiitii, nniiin" tbeui, whon niiolilr to piin-hnjie worktt necessary] 
to th(>rn. bnrrow »iu-b wnrkx. ii portion nt & tiin(>, from the libmrioB of that 
mosquvA, niid cnnimit thiur entire coiilenbi to memory. H«ne(i, in dqhk 
iiiatiuicea, LUu vu-iuLionK in cnpits uf Lliv nvnc ArHliic work, copies boiDft 
oft4:ii writtun From tbt: dictation of i)ersoit.s who havo LcAnit a work by 
heart.' • 

Among works so dictated arc lexicons, not seanty vocBbularics, or 
even dictionaries, but ample tbesauri of one of the most copious 
languages in the world. 1 havo in my own hands a curious instanue 
in point, in a copy of the " Romance of Edh-Dhihir" (commouly 
pronounced Kz-Ziihir), which has evidently been written out, from 
memory, probably by a pmfcaaional reciter for his own use. It ia. 
wholly in vulgar Arabic, oii spoken, without those attempts to imi- 
tate tbu classical language which ore charttotcrisLic of modem written 
Arabic 

• "I*6xt««i," i. p. nil. «•(.- •, 



The Talmud. 



Tir 



Such facta xaw^ propArc tis to miderttand those other &cts which 
establtah the antiquity of the Tnlmud. 

The main object of the Tulmud is the elucidation and derelop- 
meat of the Law, A rery important part of the Law is that re- 
lating to crimes. Here the Tahiiud \s ait particiiiar as eUovrhcre, 
not meruly diMCiutsiDg the meauiug of tha Mosaic criminal juris* 
prudence, but laying down minutely how it should be carried out, 
and indiciiting how it actually was carried out. Yet the Itonmns 
had takeu from the Jews, into their own hands, the administration 
of crimiiuLl law full three eentaric& holbre the date of the first r^ 
daction of the Tulioud. 

It will be well to bear in mind the object of the Talmud, for then 
we afaoU be less likely to fail into error as to its oontcnta. Ajs it is 
almoat the entire Jmviflli litemturo of several centuries, we might 
expect abimdant bistorical informjition ; but we must recollect 
that ita object waa oommont on the Law. Those who hope to find in 
it more than va^e hints of the chief crcmts in the early history* 
of C'hriatuLnity will be disappointed : narrative would have been 
beyond ita province, which is strictly expository and mainly legal. 

Our idea of the historical vaino of the Talmud, and it has n 
very distinct historical value, may be made clearer by tbc nxamiiin- 
lion of a known historical character oit rcpreaentcd in its pages. No 
more markcfl one could bo chosen than Oamaliel, the Gamaliel the 
Elder of the Talmud. 

From the New Testament wc see that he was in the front of the 
politico and Icnming of the ago. IFow great his learning must 
have been is safliciontly evident from St. Paul's knowledge of Greek 
literature. From this and from the only action told of him in 
Scripture, we may oonclndc that he was liberal and tolerant, perhaps 
cTcn willing to make a compromiw with Christian teachers rather 
than to peraoeutc The Talmud fills in the outline. What it tells 
us of Gamaliel in his own words or in biogniplncal touches shows a 
singularly learned yet liberal-minded man, strong in his convictions 
yet against persecution, not a secret convert, but a Jew till his death. 
The two pictures are quite couHistent, and the more detailed one 
of the Talmud is valuable as a commentary on the clear but scanty 
sketch of the New Testament. 

Take, again, a Uttlo arcluoologicai fact. Archroologists are very 
careful as to their facts, yet they huvo no scruple iu citing the 
'lUmud for the period to which the Qtiartorh/ writer assigns it. 
JUommsen agrees with Boeckh, and no two names stand higher iu 
oriticiam, in remarking that in the Talmud it is stated that Iho 
Jowisb nlvcr coins wore struck on the standard of the Tyrian money. 
Hub they cite as bistorical. llic statement ia undoubtodly true of 



112 



.ontemporary Rt'view, 



the first silver coinage, n-iually assigned to Simon the Maocahee, five 
oentaries older than the redaction of the Talmud, and there is no 
other but that of Bar-cochba, three hundred years bter ; but the refer- 
ence is evidently to the former, for the Tynan silver coinage 
ceaaee with the lloman (Jominion, and Bar-cochba did but reatrike. 
Ghneco-Koman staters and Roman denarii, neither of which could b» 
tiDoed to the Tyrian standard, thongh both at that time had chanced 
to hv accidentally in accordance with it. 

There i», however, a much more serious difiBculty than that of) 
dftte. People ha^e heard that the Talmud was " all nonsense," and it] 
IF, of couree, in the interest of all who neglect Semitic »tudi«e toj 
have the excellent excuse thus afforded for a capital instance of] 
that neglect. But we can scarcely blame those who take this view , 
of the Talmud, if wo look at what has mostly been written upon it. It| 
is very well to Ll' j^rateful, with the Quarterly writer, lu what learning 
and eumestnetis have been brought to boar upon it before now, but 
looking at the matter from outside, one can ocai-cely bo patient with the 
learned triiliiif-, the utter want of appreciation, of uiauy of these former 
Btudeuts, whose dry, practical, yet gi-oping, stylo of work watt specially 
unfit for a vast aud varied fitruclure that can only bo fairly uutlcnitoud 
if it is regarded aa a whole, aud li" thjj fervid enthusiasm of its many 
builders is taken intu ueuouut. It has thus, notultogether luireuscnubly 
been, the fashion to abuse the Talmud, and rest satisHod with one'j 
ignorance of what was not worth knowing. But supposing such a view 
to bo conceded, there remains the fact that certain ethics have been 
given in this article which are not only not nonsenae, but so high a 
kind of sense that any man with a heart to feel and a mind to under- 
stand would gladly wade through a very sea of nonsense to obtain 
them at last. And how much more is there that the writer has noft - 
quoted ! 

ITie case resembles that of the ancient Egyptians. The Book of 
the Dead, their sacred book, in any translation, even in the elegant 
French of M. de Eoug^, is really repulsive ; j-et it is the oldest state- 
ment of man's knowledge of the future state, with it« rewards and 
punishments in accordance with the life led on earth. A moral work 
of extreme antiquity proves that the Eg^-ptiana were capable of, 
worthy idcaa of man's chief duties and moral a«piraliona. And, 
therefore, as we study the dry and unrepaying pages of the Ritual, 
wo remember that the very religion of these old Egyptians had 
nobler products, and that the great doctrines were not utterly con- 
cealed by the liisuriant growth of fables. So, in judging the Talmud, 
people would do well to keep the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesias- 
ticus before their minds, and to expect some expression of the nubia 
ideas they preacK Had they done so already, they would have been 



The Talmud. 

for the discovery of tlioso otbtcal passages the Quarterhf 
has here unburicd, though they would tcurcely Imve expected 
aujrtUin^ so U-autit'ul and no touukiu;;. 

Tliere utill ruiiKiiiis u difDculty. Thu Talmud is "uiiticliristian." If 
for some obnuuxi' uiid noi-ihlcsa [fassuj^f uot cunlaiiied at tdl in the 
coniiuDii cditiuiis, wc uru to oundciua the wliole literature of a oatioa 
for eiglit hundred years, we sliall sliow ourselves less liberal tlian 
the Trideiitiuo bishops, with whose sauctioc the Itosle txlition was 
published. 

What we have to do is to look for facts from whatcTcr sourco they 
come. We can no longer afford to shut out whole races (rom occeu 
to us, becuusc we had rather not hear what they have to say. Wo 
can no longer afford to keep our own people in a padded room lest 
^aej should hurt themselves against the hard and sharp points of the 
imiveTse. Others, perhaps not our best friendB, will huve no diffi- 
culty in acting aa interpreters to the proscribed races, or in releasing 
our sham lunatics to wander ilUprqwrod over a world thoy hare 
nerer bcon allowed to understand. 



n. 

And now, what is the relation of Judaism ami Christianity, if we 
accept the data of the Talmud P 

It would seem inevitable from tho analog of nature, and the state- 
ments of Scripture, that two revclationj* made to the some race should 
have been, continuous is. some sense, and that the Jews should have 
bccu ready for Ohristiajiity when it was preached to them. Yet, in 
recent times, theologians on the one hand, and philoM>pbcTB oa tho 
other, have more and more lett the old position, and oomc to regard 
tho two religions as independent, different, even antagonistic and 
hostile, as if, indeed, true religious, like their partiinans, could be 
endued with human frailty. Christian doctora have now, at last^ 
almost chougcd place with Jewish loaderfi, if uot with Jewish Kabbins. 
The Jew now genemlly concedes the sublimity of the Clirititian reli- 
gion, thu Chriiitiau ulmoat denies that of the Jewish. The one ia 
liberal in fipite of bis logic, tho other is illiberal in even more direct 
defiance of bis. 

But let us leave the babble of modem contention and api>(>al to 
Scripture. Tlie ^[csfiab of the Law i)^ a proplict like unto AIorch ; tho 
Messiah of the propbet-s i^ to bring moru light to Isi'uel, and to 
lighten the Gentiles. What Haid the Lord? "I am not como to 
destroy, hut to fuIHI." How did St. Paul, and, even more, St. J;inic8, 
live the life of the Law ? With gri-atcr light came greater liberty. 
We Imow that it wiis luwfid to be a Christian and not a Jew, 
but wo will not sec that it was lawful and possible to he a Cbristiaa 
and also a Jew. 

VOL. VII. I 



»4 



^ke Contemporary Review. 



There mast have been somewhere a very oloar coatinuit}*, a strong 
and positive point of coEtoct between the two HystCTos. It strangely 
happens that the strongest pnijit of contact is whut hod Ixjen sup- 
pofted to bo the point of divorpenco. 

Thc^c ethics of tho Talmud are not matters of argument ; they 
arc ninttcre of fact, and this in equally true of tho social condition 
of the Jows in Tulmudic and in modern t-ime^ The Quarterly writer 
extraets certain proverbial saringn and maxim.q from the Talmud, 
and there can be no douht of the lofty morality that they teach. If 
they are in the Talmud, and this I do not suppose any one will con- 
test, it is useless to pretend not to see them. The socisJ condition oC| 
the Jews, for many centuriw past, surprisingly tallies with the Tal- 
mudical teacbing, and this is a ver^' important xx>tnt, to be later con- 
sidered. We remember the terrible deed and its terrible conse- 
qnences, but we do not remember that Chri.st and the Apostles 
came of the Jewish stock. We are too ready to forget tho liberty to 
speak in so many s^oiagrtgues conceded to the Apostles ; too ready to 
forgft how little the Jews retaliated the shameful persecutions of the 
middle ages ; too ready to see the faults of an ambitious race shut out 
for centuries from politics, and driven to the degrading pursuit of 
coumierco; too rrady to ignore the dtwile citizenship, tho opon- 
hauded liberality which subtscribee not only t« our hospitals, but ulso 
to our churches, the social virtues of the Jews in tho East, mark this, 
as well us in the West. 

When shall we be Christians enough toundcnitaudSt. Paul's tender 
ontburHt, attested with evoi uniiinual eiirnestneiw, and concluding with 
a marked attestation of Christian ttuth '*' " I have gn.>nt heariui.«B and 
continual sorrow in my heart. For I would wish that myself were 
accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen accoi-ding to the 
flet<h : who are israelitee ; to whom [pei-tatueth] the uttoption, and 
the glory, and the oovenanta, and the giving of the law, and the 
service, and the promises; whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as 
voDceming the tie8h Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for 
ever." When shall wo be Christians enough to weep with Christ 
over Jernsalem !* 

It is in the ethics of tiie Talmud that we find the key to the oon- 
tinuity of the two dispensations and to the social virtncs of tho Jews, 
It must not be forgotten that in the Talmud even monogomv, and 
yet more, the highest position ever given to the wife, is practically 
taught. 

Is there anything surprising in all this P Was not the T^w on 
education for tho Gospel P Bid all the prophets and all their disciples 
preach in vain ? Was good, after it had done so much, utterly 
deprived of gi-owth when the last prophet ceased to speai P Later 



^almud. 



"5 



k 



still, ims tho Law annUulutod, inKtoad of «iipereedc<l, by the Qotpel, 
which was more free, more capitcJous, but only anoiher true reli^on, 
not coninin,* and hostile to that of which it was ihv fuIfUineat and 
the enkrf^enwnt ? People jtlory, and (jlory rightly, in the gradual 
htunaniiaition of the world by the «iU-nt, even laora than by the 
open, action of Christianity. Waa the Lnw without such a IcaTeoiug 
power, or mther, did it suddenly and for ever lose what no hLstoHcal 
■tadcnt will dare to deny to itP The difficulty lies only in our 
ignorance. 

But i)reci»oly, what are theae ethics of the Talumd, and what is 
their precise relation to thcae of Christianity ? 

In ejiamining the ethics of any nation wu idiould carefully abstain 
&oin (i priori retwooingf, and looking the facl8 in tho tace, a.sk theni| 
with aU the eomeotness of which we aro nuuters, — Whoooo and 
whatP 

£at, before we do tlus, we should thank the God and Father of 
OQT rtt(», who hcL& left no nation without uiorul li^ht, — to some has 
rerealed the crystalliao brighlnees that »euuiii Kuunwly to have lost 
BU^ht of iU sploudour since it ehoue from the very throne of the 
•ource of light and truth. So alone can wo approach whiit is a Bocred 
task, not to be done with profane haste, or with miuuto, carping, 
qtMrmluuH triiliug. 

Whence, then, tJiese Jewish ethics? 

From tho patriarchal religion, from the moral law, from the 
leaching of propheta lutd schooU of prupheta^ from the groat sorrows 
of iaroal, all conteinplat^Ni, luid mo>it of all tbe Scripture itself, 
m an age of intuuse devout study, aAer tho nation hud been in- 
flnenced by the caltnre of every other great nation of tho old world. 
If truth, and most uf all divine truth, 'w, fruitful, it can never cease 
to grow and spread, developing out of iUiolf not new truths, but new 
phaece of truth, to the very end of time. 

J'rophota, saints, and witneBses did not teach and Buffor in vain. 
Israel did not fear and hope, sin much and love wore, in vain. Out 
of the maw of inatructioa came higher moral inaight and clearer 
moral truth. 

What, then, wore these ethics? 

True to their origin, their root always, their flower often, is in 
the Old Testament. When ocremoniuliKm was too strong, or much 
of it was lost in the ruins of the hrst temple, ethics were the protest 
or tLe solace of tho taithful. So when Koman imperialism was 
surrounding tho Jewish state, and cutting off its free action, 
ethics reassM'ted their power. When tho temple had fallen, and 
there was no present hope of its restoration, the nation hod to choose 
between Ohristianit}' and its own ethics. It partly chose one, partly the 

I 2 



n6 



The Contemporary "Review. 



other. It was not indeed without dogma, strong, clear, Tt^-dciined 
dogma, yet othics met, a« ceremonies liwl, a huiiian want. 

There \a, as we might anticipate, eoini-tUing very special and 
peculiar in those ethics. They are rather Kimilar thaa identical, 
mthtT pamllol than historically rfliued, if we compare them with- 
thow of the Go8pet The Talmudic adage ray?, "Above all things 
atuHy." Christianity' teaches the simplicity, almost the ignor- 
ance, of childhood. Jewish ethics were, if not limited to tho 
doctors and schools, yet their property ; Christian ethics were 
pKaohcd to the common people, the ignorant and tho Tioious, 
publiconii and harlots. Jewish ethics hare a frngilo and tcndei''] 
beauty that made them scarcely equal to pass from the ideal calm of 
learning into the great conflict of the world. Like certain touching 
mo<Iem RVHtems, tho systems of pure-minded idealists, they ahnoa 
fail to realise the existence of evil. But, after oil, there is evil, and' 
any system that does not look it in the face and fight it to tho last 
mutt go down in tho wear and tear of life, if indeed it do not end voa 
self-righteous separation. Christianity, while in no way inferior iin 
lis ethics, recognizes the existence of evil, combats it, releases ilsslavcivi 
points sternly to tho end of its servants. The Mishnah has no hcll.^ 
It is curious to notice how mankind, when dclennine*! to reason out( 
tho problems of good and c^nl, fall cither into ignoring or givingi 
undue weight to evil, either into imivcrsalism or Mauichajism. The] 
Talmud almost shuts its eyes to evil, the Zend-avesla sees it where it 
is not. But let me not be supposed to undermte the ethics of thf 
Talmud. Very soon 1 shall be able to show by comparison with oth>QF| 
Bj'Btcms their lofty height. 

III. 

Here it bocomes necessary to oxamino the tht^iry which makes tho 
ethics of Judaism and Christinnity uiei-u natural jiroducls of iho 
Shcuiite mind, a tUeorj' that has K-cii pnijjouudpd with nstonislunf 
conJidcnco by the very men who had ample means of knowing how^ 
falhu-ious it was. Those who may think that this qocstion is beyond 
tho pro^-ince of tho present article will have reason to change theii 
opinion when they see how clearly a historirnl view of Shcmital 
ethics affords materials for that coin pari win of which I have jus 
spokon as enabling ns rightly to estimate the ethics of the Talmud. 

Mucli of the ethics of tho New Testament, in pwrticuhir of the uelf- 
denyiiig precepts of the Sermon on the Mount, strike a Shemitc and 
a European, I would nlmost writo a " Frank," to exclude the Turks, 
very dilTercntly. Oo to a Shcmite and tell him to return good for 
nil, to love his enemies, to give bin goods to the |toor, and he, be he 
Christian, Jew, Muslim, or skeptic, will answer with n sigh, ** This 
is all true, but I am a sinner, and I cannot perform it." Go to a 



^he Talmud, 



117 



Kuropcan and he will hear you with incredulity, and then tell you 
that it 14 all caAtem Bgurative language, and that society could not 
hold together if such precepts were practised. 

It ia remarkftble that in one province of ethics, tho Shemite and 
the European change places. All Shemit^, without a revelation, 
all but Christians and Jews, would be incredulous as to the practice 
of those precepts which refer to the virtue that is the very crown of 
mondity, and oo signilicantly enough has among us taken its name, 
whih' £uropcans would acknowledge that they ought to be practised, 
and lauiL'Ut Iheir own human feebleness. 

It ought never to be foi^ttcn that the society of early Christians 
by which the golden rules of the (Jospel were first practised, tho true 
ideitl lifu first lived, was a society of Shemitcs, a society composed, 
not of select scholars or unworldly ascetics, but of the whole body of 
believers in Christ, and therefore something wider than tho largest 
bupos of Judaism. Wo bavo to realise what this society was and 
what it did, and then to ronicniber that it waa a society of i^hcmites, 
B matter which deserves closer examination, for it is of momentous 
importance. 

Thehistorj'ofthoSbemiloracoin relation to religion and morals can 
be bettor understood ii' we look at the picture in the Uiblo of the king- 
dom of Israel at tho time of £lijaU. Wo see a nation of boliovors and 
of misbelievers, of thtf purest believers and of the groeseab idolaters, 
grouped round tho eentral figure of Elijah, the ascetic man of God, 
and of iVhab, tho sonsnal man of the world, a nation divided between 
belief that taught aociuI morality and nurtured the germ of it.i full- 
grown plant, and idolatry, which wns but the excuse for tho Inwost 
and ooarso-st vices : this is but a single view in the history of a race 
that has been at once tho foremost in monotheism, and among tho 
very lowest in polytheism, holding sternly by tho very simplest form 
of belief and worship tho world has ever seen, except the belief and 
worship of the Church of the Apostles, and yet given over to the 
basest and moftt debasing idolutry, to idolatry from which Greeks 
shrank as contemptible, and Romans aa cruel, and, agaio, the race 
that has practised tho most chivalrous monogamy, and yet is to this 
day the ouly ouo that has combined thu degradation of polygamy 
with high iutelloctual culture. In diOervut periods of its hietor)* 
the aepurate lines so strongly marked in that picture of the kingdom 
of Suuuiria etrungvly divide, but they nuver mix. If a pagan 
Shtuuitc has a faint knowledge of monotheism, it is never fused into 
his paganism, but, like a Une of precious ore, appears here and there 
in the midst of the dark mass of common earth ; if ho has glimpses 
of a pure social morality, he sees them, not in the lurid mists of his 
own paganism, but in tho fur-off sky overhead, pure as that which 
ehone on his parents in the Paradiso of God. 




Ii: 



Se Contrmporary Review. 



A paradox, or rather a mirucle, is this race, which wao for at lawt 
tvo tfaoQHiiul yearn the e:cponcnt to nmnkitid and in iuelf of trvb 
religion and high ethiVd, which dow, iu 3lobftnui)iulaiiiKin is the grettt 
•(^filioaeiit of the nniv^risal tnnmiA of both. On« thin^ we may 
•afely conclurle, that whereTcr wo tmci? true reltg^cm and pureetMoi, 
there we may infer Shemite influence, but we miut beware of the 
fallacy iuToived in the converse. The Shemite was the missionary 
nee of the ancient, world, but the truth was a treasure in its charge, 
not an inheritance it hud by nature. 

I will tiike two examples which prove what will be ecen to bo of 
no Bniall importance, that the ethics of the Talmud arc iu tlietr germ 
of extreme antiquity. 

Scnpttiro speaks not merely of the knowledge of right and wrong 
grantod to tho (iontiles, but of a prinuoTol knowledge of tlio true Qod, 
^von to the fathers of mankind. 

The old Eg}'ptian8 were iHutly Shoraitce. Their aspect, their 
langunge, and, modt of nil, thrir religion, i-ontain the proof that the 
constant influx of Arab bliMHl that is still elianging the African popu- 
lations is no new phenomenon, but that the same current hoft set in 
that direction since the very beginnings of the biatorv of nntions. 
The Book of the Dead, already mentioned, deals wholly with the 
welfare of the soul in the af)cr state, and thus in the midst of the 
jargon of Nigritinn incantations we find, like the Semitic gmnimar 
of the essentially bnrWic language of Egypt, the inculcation of 
man's responsibility, and the moral conduct by which he should gain 
Jiappiness in the future of his houI. But thia in not all. Even amidst 
the multitudinous and incoherent vocabulary uf gods and genlj, 
where names are often ns muiistrouin as thoir funas, we are siurtliid 
to read of Ood in the singular, or, if you will, in the aMnict. Thus 
the babble oJ' polytheism could not drown the pristine kiiowltxlgo of 
truth, as <»n some storm-beaten coast, above the discordant clamour of 
tlie many-voi('ed »ea-A>wl, rises aud falla, yet never censes Co sound, 
the suli'mn roar of the va^t ocean. 

But even these remarkable facts are not enough to prepare ua for 
tbi* teacihing of au old Kgyptian book of moral precopta Here we 
find the bumlago of idolatiy almost shaken otf. Once embitrked in 
Ilia pubjecti the ancient sage dismisses the divinities of Kg^'pt, and 
fi^unds his teaching on man's responsibility to Ood. 

The proverbs of Ptah-hetp foi-m part of the oldest manuscript in 
the world; the original wos still older, a work of probably not Inter 
than ».c. 3100. 

The writer speaks to mankind as a fothcr to a son. Tlic object of 
man is the attainment of long and happy life. The way of attain- 
ing it is by virtue, which is life ; while vice is death. Virtue is due 
to God, aud tarings from filial obedience. No part of duty is more 



The TalmuJ, 



H9 



Btrong^ly inawted on than the duty of husband to wife; the husband 
to tbo cpiie wife. Nu evil is so great ae thnt wliirh »prtnga from the 
harlot 

" The obedience of a docile son is a good ileed : the obedient walks 
in bis obedience, and he who listens to him becomes obedient r it is 
good to listen to all that am produce love ; it is the frrcatost of 
goods. The son who recoiTCB the wowIb of hia father will therefore 
become old. Obedience is loved of Gorl ; disobedience id bated of 
Him. The ht^art is mooter of the man in ot>ediene«, and in disobo* 
dience; but man TiTifies bix heart \>y his docility." 

"The rehol who does not obey, does absolutely nothing; he sees 
knowledge in ignorance, virtues in vices; everyday he oommits with 

audacity all kiud» of fraud, and so he lives as if he were dead 

Wbitt the wise know to be death is fats life everv dav; he udvauces 
in his vsyn loaded with a mass of curses every day." 

" If thou art wise, take care of thy house; love thy wife heartily, 
nourish her, clothe her ; it is the adornment of faor body ; anoint 
her, rejoice her during the time of thy life." 

** A rock of abominations whence it is impossible to remove oao- 
self [is the bad woman] ; she outrages fathers and husbands with 
the minions of (ho harlot ; the woman who seeks man is an aasem- 
blugo of every kind of horror, a bag of every kind of fraud." 

With such teaching as this the history of the nation has much in 
common — moat of all in the high dignity of the wife, who, in the 
tomb, is represented seated by bur husband's side, hand-in-hond, as 
she sat by him in life at their feasta, the one wife, whoso title is 
"kdy of the house." 

It is verj" curiouu to compare the teaching of a work so strikingly 
resembling the Book of Proverbs with the direct appeal of the Book 
of the Dead to the belief in future rewards and puni^ihmentji, not 
indec^d that the idea that the good man is really living, the wicked 
man really dead, already in this life, can exclude the notion of 
future life and future death, for it nither aids it But, though we 
luay remark in passing, that the ismclites in Kgypt, and for the 
centuries before Ua^id, could seorcely have been ignorant of the 
ancient Kgyptian knowledge that thcro ynos a future stale, it is 
im|>ortaut to observe that the real point of contaii: between the 
remains of old Kheraite religion in Kgj'pt and tho later moral teach- 
ing of the Old Tcatamcnt is ethical. And it is still more curious to 
ohservo how completely tho lofly ethical level of the Biblical work 
in rofereiioe to tho marriage slAto eonnocta it on the one band with 
the K^yptian moral book before it, on the other with the Talmudical 
aayin>{s utler it The Kg%'ptitLn book is Imt a bud, but it is a bud of 
good promise. That the Jews of the age of Moecs were for tho 
hardness of their hearts allowed a greater latitude than cither 



120 



The Contemporary "Review. 



tho older Ef^jption writer, or tlic later Hebrew of the Book of Pro- 
verbs eonccdcs, is but a proof of their low state of cn*ilization. Kut 
tho germ waa ia tho Jewish raee, and it survived, and ultimately 
throw off polygamy, to which tho noble Arab haa fallen a victim. 

I have spoken oC documents far anterior to Hoses ; let me speak of 
tho life of another Shemitc notivo long after him. 

People are becoming occustomed to think of Mohnmimid as a 
reformer, and no doubt he effected reforms of great value in tho 
Btem fluppresaion of infanticide and the tightening of the roarriago 
bond. Jle found hiA people mainly idolaters, and for tho most part 
idolater!) of the iKwe-vt kind ; he left them atriet raonothoista ; yet 
he cnwhRd out a fender feeling of chivalry that was trao to tho 
Shemite heart after God had once given it this precious jewel, and 
that was parallel to the fame feeling in tho Talmud, anticipating, but 
not so clearly, the heights reached by Dante and by Petrarch, and by 
our own Surrey and Spenser. 

The romance of Antar (properly Autarah) ia a modem composition 
of inferior interest, viewed either for plot or execution, and ftTitten. 
in a miserable ntvle. It has, however, this remarkable characteristic. 
The moral purity of Antar's love for 'Ibln is quite unexcelled in the 
romances and poems of modem chivalry. And the story has been 
heard and admired in the t«ntB of thousands of desert Arabs, and 
though tho Muslim doctoitt have placed it in thoir index, has been fur 
long past reeitcd at Cairo by men who take their name from its title ; 
and yet in not one parage does it, as fur a.4 I have hcanl, iiruny 
orientalist is aware, cuntiiin uii appeal to the hai^ur feetiiigs of the 
people. Aiituruh, though like the brilliant Esh-ShaufarA, also a 
hero and a put^t, a ravim, or Arab with black blood in his veins, 
is emphatically the national hero. 

Antarah was a poet of the age before Mohammad, and in the Seven 
"Suspendetl" Poems which remain (o us of those which were hung in 
the Ra'abeh nt Mekkeh, one is by him. A pagan of those wicked 
poela whose works Mohammad prow^ribed in public, but recited in 
fiecret, Aiitarah'a remains show the reason of the national choice; 

Listen to the criticism of an Arab writer, unhappily imonymoua. 

" I would that we had with onr Isl&m tho genenwitv of manners 
of our fathers in their paganism. Antarah of the horsemen was a 
pagan, and Hasan, son of llince, a Muslim. Antarah was restrained 
within the bounds of duty by his honour, and El-Haiian, son of 
H&nee, was not at all restrained by his religion." 

If we institute another compariBon between the ethics of the 
Talmud and those of Moharamadanism we whall be struck bv a 
similarity and a difference, that will help us to see how high tho 
former stand in the moral scale. 

The so-called proverha or sayings of 'AJoe nObrd the most favour- 



: 



I'he Talmud. 



121 



able Tiow of Mohammadan othics. It is to bo rejcpvtttsd t^int t-hoy 
have not boen tho subject of a rritical analysis, for it is siitfiniently 
BTident that tbtre has yrown around tho first Tmnlcns a verr litom- 
taro of the moral iiaying:!! nf the Iwst and puront of those who have 
foUcnred tho teaching of thn ^ntlest of the firct Mohainni)i(]fin<i. tJo 
Tarionfl are the^e RtiyingR, that thev oould not pofudbly have been the 
thoughts of one life, were there no other evidence of the later date of 
Bomo of them. 

Of religion in general we have such sayings as " No higher honour 
than to be Godfemring. Fear Gr»d, then thou hast uotUiugeleo to fear. 
Trust in God ; He will suffice thee. Wisdom is the lost she-camel of 
the faithful ;" — this last a striking pictui'e. Thu Arub awakes in the 
deeeil, and looking round (he vaet shield of waste, ho seos no traceof 
his property and his support, and sets forth at once to exeroise all his 
power of tracking until he discovers the treasure ho has Lost. 

DuL besides theso general precepts, there are two very distinct 
Masses : those which teuch the religion of tho usuelicisin that haa 
abandoned the world, and those whi(;b teach a religion which seta 
ethica at the very front and determines to better the world. " Well 
to him who haa no family," au intensely non-Bhemite outburst of 
asoeiicism. " Hopelessness is free : hope a alave." On the other 
hand, hero aie ethical sayings wbicb make religion mainly morality. 
" A thii-d part of belief is modesty, a third part undei-etanding, a 
third beneficence." "The blow of a friend jiains more than any 
other." " A man without humanity is also without religion." " By 
good deeds man makes free men slaves." " Do good to him wJxo 
do« ill to thoc : thus wilt thou be his master." " Thy brother is (he 
man who stands by thee in misfortune." " The guardian of an 
infant is himself sustained by God." "A gcnoroua unbeliever 
haa more hopo of Parodiao than on avaricious Muslim." " No 
honour to the liar." 

Two sayings may he qnotorl as protesta against our current opinion 
of the whole Mohammnflnn world. " Tho man bowed with sorrow is 
highly esteemed of God." " Hli.sA in the next world is better than 
enjoyment in this." 

But here I must not stop. Where are the virtues of married life? 
All I find is a stray saying, such as this, — *' No truth in woman." 
Uere, alas ! is the blot and shame of Isl^im. You may look up and 
down Muslim literature iu vaiu for one pearl of such a string as the 
author of the article in the Quarterly has strung together, the fruits 
of the treee of Paradise. 

^Lct mo not be supposed, in having collected some few Egyptian 
and Arab sayings, to have attempted anything to bo compared with 
the life's labour of tho essay I am endeavouring to illustrate. I am but 
indicating sources of knowledge and subjects to be compared, trj'ing 



122 



The Contemporary Review, 



a little to brcsk up tho rongfa. ground that lies about this city of 
mnrvels. 

Xerv slight ly, and with an anxious mind, I hare endeavoured to 
show the cnpneity of iiihcmitcB to prndice a high morn! code, and 
that euch a code, in a rudimentarv form, was from a verj- early tlato 
kncnm to them, and yet. that it was not a naturnl outgrowth or 
arquisition of studv. but the direct git) of Qod, found nowhere but 
among ihoec who have other traces of revelalion, if not a reTelation 
Itself. 

IV. 

Tho point of contact of Judaism and Christianity has been 
examined at some lenglb. Tho point of divergence has now to bo 
nolieed. There are jieople who are iniilined to n&k whether, if tho 
cthicB of the Tdlmiid be such as the Qtiarffirf;/ writer has repreeented 
theni, in rhe very words of (he Talmud be it remembered, there is 
tnything new in Christianity. Thewi people are in fact uneasy at 
the discoi'ery that they are after all] only Jews, and nnfortunately 
very intUfferent Jews, Jew« that HiUol would have sighed over and 
Shainniai driven away from bis flw>r. Tliey have nothing of 
Christianity Imt itse1bic«, nnd these seen through a very dense modern 
atmoBphere. Cliriwtianity differs from Judaism poraewliat in its ethics, 
but far more in carrying those ethics to all maiiltind, lo the very 
ontcasts, and, most, of all, in iU dogmatic ^'stem. Those who attack 
Jndfti^m from a supposed Cbrintiaii |x>int of -now, and have not 
ascertained whether they can take that point of \'iew, arc neccRRarily 
very feeble critics. I do not wish to be thought to depreciate the 
splendid ethics of JtidaiFm ; T would not be so foolish, if I dared lo be 
90 wicked ; but T intist protect against the idea, that iieitb»^r Jews nor 
Christians could ndmit, that either revelation is wholly ethical. 

T. II 

There is a minor bearing of tho Quarterly article which, minor 
though it be, may ultimately be of greater importance than any 
other. 'il]e time will come when the relation of Judaism and 
Christianity will be understood and acknowledged, but it will be 
long before the ralue of so ditficult a book as the Tnbnud as a com- 
mentary is recogni.ied. It is so much more convenient to have 
one's commentaries in Greek and Latin, not very difficult Greek or 
Latin either, than in Ilebrew, and a Chaldec which has nothing moro 
than tcntaiire dictionaries and no grammars. The very dates of the 
redaction of the Talmud lead to the conclusion of its being neceasarily 
a comment on the Nf-w Testament, and this enaay brings out designed 
and nndesignerl evidence, of which I cannot refrain from here 
Ting a few points. il 

The view of Phariseeiem in the Qaartcrly article at first siglit 



Ihe Taimud. 



^n 



Menu irreconcilable with tlie statemente of the New Testament. We 
bad be«u Rcciistumed tu regard the Pharisees of the time in qncstion 
88 « sect, or party, comprising bat a small portion of the Jewish 
nation, perhaps not more Dumerous than the Saddocecfi. Vfe are now 
told that the I'harisees were the great body of the nation ; tbo 
Sadducece a email aristocratic party.* The real state of things will bo 
better ondcretood if we consider a parallel case. In eveiy Roraon 
Catholic country there ie a prepondcmnco of lioman Catholics, and a 
fimall body of diissontera or skeptics, hut within the body of Roman 
Catholics is aCatholio party, ov parti prdtrti. Tbo Pharisees condemned 
intheNowTegtamentaro not the whole body, but thclcwlingmcii, the 
Pharisees who gloried in being PliarisocH, the very pooplo whom the 
l^almnd condojnns alraost without exception. We can now undor- 
Btauii the seemingly unqualifio*! cnndt^imation of the Pharinocs in the 
(jospels, and S(. Paul's dwihimtion tliat he waa a Pharinw, a dcclara- 
tioD no man of hiH unflinching courage would have mode had lie not 
known ho ooultl miilic it honi>sfly and unreservedly. In the con- 
troversy aa to the obligation of converla tu keep the liaw, the conser^ 
TBtiTe view was urged by PhariseeH who beliered. 

In the account in tho Qwirfrr/i/ nf the criminal law of the Mishnah 
there i» a deeply tnuchiug commt'iil (in the most sacreil part of Gospel 
history. The reviewer tells ns that the ladiea of Jerusalem formed 
A aooiesty which provided n soporific bevcnige of myrrh and vinegar 
to alleviate the sufferings of those that were executed.f "Wo can now 
nnderstand the rejection of the first draught, which was offered to 
Cbrisi before hi« suffering, and also a special reason for the preeence 
of the Jewish women, " ilaughters of Jerusalem," " who bewailed and 
Umented him." 

A Tcrj- curious inquiry is opened by the suggestion that moral 
Mruig^, hitherto con^tidered to have originated in Chri>4linn teaching. 
Were already current at an earlier time. Such an idea gives great 
umbrage to thotse who are unuccQ9t<;med to look at the whole of 
Revelation in one general view; who, having been delighted witb 
tlie quotation by St. Paul of nome heathen nage, are shocked at. the 
notion that our Lord could have quoted a pion6 Itabbi. Why should 
Bot a pious Rjibbi have been quoted when the saying of a narrow 
ascetic was condemned Y 

There can, however, be no doubt that certain popular tenchersof the 



* [LJshtfMt, FMtiimUm Taimudit Biawilffmitmii, p. SS. had toU m pratMly tiJa i 
** FhariauHBU .... ntabi genii* cmi r>;%lo." " ]>o ediiaBate Sadducfuoroin hie non 
wkte Buemiu." Iade«d, Jtwephus had long Kgo said tbo Bane. 8ov Antt xiii- 10, 7 ; 
rCv filf S«^i;oi>rcitwi> toiic ti'riptivi ftavof tr»i06yTaiy .... rAw II ^ptealitir ri 

t [Our knowlnl(^ of thii &ct <lotii not dntc fmm llin nrdclr in th« QMrUrif. Li^lt- 
Ibot, //or. fftir., <» aintt. sxrii. 3i, givca from thfi Bahyl. SanAtdr. fo). i2. 1 : "Tndltio 
Ml, ftmhiu gtaeroaa* Uioroeoljnnitanas hoc 6 aporttonoo nunptu mc vcUbulns." — BiJ] 



124 



The Contemporary RevieV). 



age of ClirUt and Ibo Apo^llem Htiintl at a great disadvantage by the 
dide of tI)o toscLcrfl nf the final redaction of tlio Tjilmiui. Tbero I'a ' 
no doubt Itittt mmo oi' the Jewish doclora of that agt; held aU>oI', uud 
led instjniction to religious inipcators, men who then, as lu uU agea^ 
thought that religion consisted of dreases, servicBs, Beaaons, duyit, 
times of derotiun, hmgth of prayers, postareA, and all that isc.'icludtKl 
by the idea of " the faith of the heart," to which the Talmud reduces 
all the commandmeutR of the Law (p. 4-iS). Had any belief not 
been able, through the kind force of ciilamily, to throw off much of 
such withering delusion, and this the Jewish belief had undoubtedly 
done long ago, it woidd have perishwl altogether, eaten up by a 
miserable cruS't of funnidism. Dot as the Jews have undoubtedly 
long thrown off verj' mach of this coating, why should wo not bedievo 
their books, when they show us how long ago this waa done ? 

VI. 

"Wliftt, then, ia the result of this evidence brought to bear upon 
the history of religion ? 

1, The essential identity of Jewish and Christian morality. 

2. The Jewish origin of modem social virtues. 
ti. ITic continuity of revelation. 
But this is by no means all. 
Ingenious critics, better versed in the literary history of thai\ 

Orcvks thun of the Jews, have construct^ a chain with IMato at 
one ©ntl, and St. Paul at tho other, with the Alexandrian Jews and 
notably Philo between. This theory must now be ebandouod.] 
Thinkers of the same school have been at great pains to dcrivfti 
modern social virtuea from a Gorman or a Itomaa source. Their 
theories are equally disproved. Host of all has there been a tea- 
deney in almost all tliculogiana and critics to draw a sharp Uno 
between the Law and the GoKpol, tf not to consider tho Law as in no 
sense a revelation. This position is now reversed, and the two reve- 
lations, as heretofore, must bo held to eland or fall together. 

In tho Qwnr/^r/y article a key-note has been struck. Tho world 
has now a right to expect from the author a fuller description of the 
wondrous realms he ha»t jouriteyod through in order to produce thia 
heart-moving essay, in u'hich j iistice ih done to an illu&irioua race, and 
a grand hook, both long oppressed under iko weight of suaiiicion, 
hatred, and jfulousy. 

As I ftnish iL not ensy labour, for it ia not easy to form even tho 
slightest eatimate of the great prohleios I have dared ta face, 
I remember it is Christmas-Day, and there rings in my ears its 
divine mesiiagc : 

*' Glory to God in the highest, ani on earth peace, good-wiU 
toward men." 

Reoinald Stuabt Poolk. 



NOTICES OP BOOKS. 



I.— THEOLOGICAL. 



TheKrg»o/Si.PatT!Or,the 30U*eo/Beckab. Bj- EnXfiST DB BtnfaEX. London: 

LoQjpjiuaJi. 

MEHXEST T)E BUNSEN. iniiwdtin^f much nf Ibo wide «U«cumve kaowlodge 
t of hiii illui^trioui! fathor, and uniting with it a RtiYinp: toAto for iinw cc^m- 
biDatiofuof fnoUui'l thu pLTix<ptioii Qf'romoto simlocics, roatinupi^ in this \rnrlc 
tht' liii» of thought which wits worked iit «onio loiiRth in hi>t two volumw on the 
" Hii]il>Mi WL^«iom of Chrirt." Tliero the tnaio Uihsih was, that fmm the time 
of ZurL>iMter (whotn ho ultrntilitxl ivith AdAm), tburv htui boon a tnulitional 
-tnjuaui»«l<in of xpirituAl triithri, Auob an Vft foiinil in t)io nohlcr cleuionti* of tho 
[jSetul-Avecit^ ; tliut (mta time in time these Wort> utti_-n<d hy lIt.<bn.'W teacbws, aa 
llu tho (lutcriptiuii of Wixiloiu in iJii Br«tk of Provori»;th«iHft<tr lh« rotuni from 
i^Jahvlon they were kept secret by the Jt-wish t«i)chi>r8 of Ptileistioe, and wero 
[parBally titturctl hy thode of AJoxandriu in th« Wii^dom of Solomon uiiL Ec^lo- 
Bi^sti'-:!'! ; that these formed the hawy of the Gospel vrhtoh WM preAchcd to tho 
: ■ '■ ■ in pijimblca, and coinm\imciit6d in fiilnuA 1o Uie diitnpleii. Tho dif- 

: <'lw'c-eu the teacliiuarofkiit. Puul and of the Apoetlea of tho Circumutstou 

Ttwt, thut ho prochiimod without rcwnro, whiio tliov Mlrovp for a timo to coboouI, 
1 Hub apocryphal [in tlie senso of hvUfn) wiwlom. *rhe rehition of tlm Ou^pul of 
St. Jonti to that of the other threo ia oxploincd in tho amuD wu^. 

Tho " Uiddou Wi«loru of Christ" mot with uioi-e iip|<r**eiiitiou Drom forotoa 

tiuu) from EngUfih critics. Soint' of tho Littor wero shocked at tho idea of llio 

Rdistiaotioii dmwu bvtwuuu uur Lui-d's enteric nud cxoturic tenuhiug; eumo 

. 3l>okMl on the book as a n>rivaJ of Onostidwrn ; wine wor« sroptical as to tho 

rtriiicucv cm which tho thvuhos wl-iv biinvl. M. Eiuilu llumouf. ou thv othut 

hand, in tho Iteuiu dn Dmx Mouiirt, welcoaied it a* a valuable contrihutiou to 

tho H-ieiicu of Tcli^o, luid ut^iioied to it a high plucu iuuuu{; tho moHt 

" reiuurkublo " beatuwut ou tJiat Hubjet^L 

In "The Keyaof St. Pott-r" M. de Bunwin hrinj^e hoforo uk yut moi-oi;tart1in» 
theoriiw an lhi.t nuiult "f bin n-.-ii-aiirhi-* in llm intvi-xiil. KlurtiuK fruiu tim fuittii 
-Inougrht togother in th<> lUtioJo Rtth'tiitte tn Jiiaith'a " niciiniuuy of thL' Biblo," 
that the huusu of H<.'<.'linli 1n)locig<-<I to Ihe Keuiten ; Ihiil they ptuyod it i.x>a- 
Fpitnonrt part in tho n^ligifms ntvidutinn uuder Jthu : thut they wero welcouiExl 
by tb« prophut J'jromiiili, miij ii!liniitti!ly iiiroriMinitiiil liv iidoiitiim into (bt» ti'ibu 
[JLevi, ho poci* on to find tnu.'os oi' thewi Ketiitcs thi-ouph tho vholci history of 
mel. In the Jl'jch-iliitej' ho boo-* Ui'ii^ who, tuJiiii|: Ihnir nmneji fnim Re«;li«b, 
FChe "cliariot" of li;:ht, wwo, throny;h a limtr suc(*%ssinn of centurios. the vfhieloa 
by which th« liiddeii wis"loni ufilivino truth llml bml inimt frmn IIil" prinn!V;il 
nrrcfaituui giron to the Aryiut raixs was transmitted to tho ChriKtian Church. 



I 21 



Contemporary Review, 



IctmI ii Mxxi* roprwont^tl n» a mixixl race. — half Aryan, half ACriran. The 
taimfir is thronj>aout tho purer uul nobler — th<! rirciichra- of a loftitir mono- 
u ; liiu latter Umdi to aUl bault to fotiobo-worKuiji and idolatry. MrU-hi- 
t. Job (M. do BanMn ttinta his belief in their idinttitr), jL^thro. C'lUftb, 
Jodiiu, DuTid. Ajnpb, Jeromiab. on tbn repi«KotatJv«6 of the K>:»mto el«mont. 

le qtMfltioQB wbicb gather round tho natnos of JohoTab and Elohim aro eottlnd 
tlw WUQ vny. Tho forcior i« tho Kuuitu, tiio Ultor tbu Ucbrvw name. I'ho 

le of tho tiro nnniM, aopamtelf rfr jointly, in history, or prophecy, or psolm. 
TO]iraieat« tho iiomllvUiiU) or thu couQuuuoo uf tho twu eti'Muas of tntditiou. In 
the twofbltt lino^ of EImuut and IthAiuar in tho AiUY>ntc pneetbood, in the pcuM 
oT till) Suribul »ut.-cut^<ju, lu iu lliUul and Shiunioiu, hu linds tbo sasau iudica- 
tioii of iL dijublrt ocii^in. Tf:e Kadducrt4ia and tli« Saul<litcean |>ric«thood ore 
HohiwTB— th« " Son of David " unJ tho fin* dirtciidon Konit«B. The Plmriwos 
arv KwuitM, who winli to kis-ji Lheir dodriim n'iUiin k lumow tar<-la of diMi-iplos. 
Tim (TiriKtianitT of St. Paul was tho roroUitioD to all men of tlio Koniiw Ociipo!. 

Riit Lboii^li it Wii^i tliuH ]>i-oi^iuiiiii«l in iln Lnmil ciiitlinrt-i, M. dtt Buiv-ittii huldtl 
that thtiro wiia a vaat body of trulha. oriKinally EimitA. still bifldcii. Tho HymbvU 
iu the BeTwlation of 8t. John and oth^r aiKic-nlyptic IxKiko, tbuitu, wiiich gxtlixr 
nn the older aymhole of tho Sacrnd Ynhim", still await an expUnalJon. 
Tnoir rwlntion to the idolatrj' whinli itronr out of thum and urer«I"tdow»id thttn, 
tho mysteries of Incaniation and Rwlnmptinn, tho relatinna hotTToen the Bible 
and the Churob, — nil tho quoffitiun>sn-hii-b tho Bible sui;(f(.>Bts but 4o<w not niurwvr, 
tho deVQlopntents of d<iotrin4^ in Gccl<>aijiit1icjil I[Ut.ory, — thdio are Teferral to 
" tho keye of St. Pot«r," and to tho ■' progiVMisive consciousnew of the Churcli," 
of wbicb tho See of Rome, in its hiHWricd crtiitirmity, i« tho suprem.-^ livini; 
lefH'esentative. To Romo nL-«onlio(;Iy ho turns fur an answer to many cjuvettonit 
wbicb, ve Cancy, would took the powor« of Pius IX. and bis adviaers. 

**Tlua« ii a RulC and it must ba bridged Qvm. CanoiM of tiiu^rpix-tallon ore tlio 
renuiraneBtR of tbe a^o. Thojr can ooly be eapplifMl by the rev^Ution of what ie 
bi>Wn. Uitf Apot-nlyiMn uf the AjwcT^-phii. EIov itvtv tbe (.Joopola gradaaUr COntpOMd 
ui lLi.' i'lirni wu i»[.'<-ivpd thoin (vim m» Churc-li iti Lhti fuutti] (imitury F Wtial btaiae 
of &i. AUt;hi;w'i llubrow Gocpd, — that wfai<:h 8t Jeronw tiaoAlotod C What becnuae of 
the ' Expanilioaa of tlio Saying of the Laid,' baaed apon tb» tvnchiaji^a of the eldera, 
by BSah^i I'nptaa, to which work St. Irannus and Euaobiaa nfer as euHttng in tbmr 
tlna F what ihiLn did St. Mark, St. Lukv, and St. John lako m the tnoniSnien of 
Apoetollc tndtlion f How arc ii>TQboli to be intctpreted i Tboie are sane ot the 
urgent qiuMlioriA of the day. What we knew not, the SBcoeewra of St- Peter, the 
pOMMKire of Um kf^ii of St. Pet*r, of tlm kuyof Rarid, do know; iinl«e« wa aMMimn 
that th« tndition of thia Cbureh has becooie a inerv (Mion, and u in no vceae * Ibo 
uoDoiy of Uie Cbwob.' Lot the myMery of BubyloD IbU. Let Rome Bp«ak." 

We have thought it due to U. do Bunaen's natn^, to hij< iri<lo reading and 
manifbst eamostneffi. thna to ekotdi die outline of a thoon- whicfa -VKt cannot 
adopt, and which seema to us basod upon oonjoctural identi&»tioD8, oft«n upon 
pr««irimi!i otpnolO}rioH, oftnn upnn a serica of probobilitios or poadbilities dooll ' 
witb aa fact«. To the final dumiLnd uf the paaance we bare jnat quoted w« EiL>ar 
tho only aaemtc of tho 800 of ^)t. Peter would be, as with, die vexed ({iu'eition 
of the temporal power, the fiimiliar, oft-repealed *' Hon soMMmtM." But in thia, 
a» in his foruK^r oonk, the ntiubir who oan keep his hood clear amid the fiuana- 
tion of new theories and tho whirl of transfbrmod foots will iiod much inlbmia- 
tion glciancd frtim thd work.-* of groat Oriontal echolars. and many sa^geHlaon«, 
orton fruitful, whitb Ihrow liynt upon tainiliai', yet obwun', facts Ul Saored 
HLrtory. 

Tht Conlinuitif 0/ Seripttire, ad dtdared by the TtHimtmtf of our Lord amd of the 
Evarujtlika and Apottht. By WoxiAM Paob Wood, Vioe-Chaocellur. 
Londi>u: John Hurray. 

Tinfl naoftll little book consists mainlv of the teetamonies of our Lord and 'd' 
the Xew Tcstomont writers, cited at lougtli atididactd Iel juxtapo^Uos wiUi thu 
Old Toatameut poaaaf^ to which they refer. 'Riey are arranged in tho order of 
the OldTMament books, to abuw how loTffs a. porti'ou of tbem are tbont attoeteil. 
The work ia prooedod and followed by some very raluabla remarks of Sir W. 
i'aoo Wood's on tho subject wlucb he thus doslres to illustrate, tho Coutinaity 
of Scripture. This, iu ma prefoce, he coosidsn under three beada :^ 



Notices of Books. 



m 



" i. Tho H ubrri oTtTu! U- ^>f (ubjcd, — tli« grtutL epic, if I nisy v^nturo rorerpmly so 
to call it, of thn ('rcjktion. Fall, bwI Rostontiun of roan. 2. Du) Tllurdl Uoicy : or, Uui 
Vtaif ol drngn «rttb refctvnov to mnti'a moral piroparalioa for the gnat work aT R«- 
dmijitMn. S. TI>o Hpirittwl UoJty; or, Iha nniEonn declantion of die conpUte 
BMttindon of Ml'in laiui to Us Fwat't Ior», I>t the Jlree ncmy ■>r Gt4 the FnUiw, 
thnru)^ (itxJ tbn Son u & UedlBlor. — Oarvbo, Ihoogh naa. thould be trvo fnm awn's 
ntlt, ajxl williiu,' to ofler vp HimBcIf mui ftl«Ding wraiHoo for all mankiniL thmwlif 
aniwing jU iiif ii'Io Him, uia purrJaMing '''r litem the gift of Ood thn Hair (ihij^tt hjT 
vhuu Itwir buuU wvoJJ bu mneirvd tu a slAt« of luring oboil)«ic«."^(r. xlL) 

Thaw Ihrna ha tliit» fi>ll<iwN out with ranuh cleameas and fnin;jdkity, giving, sv 
teii— mti on, muir vuluublu luuti> uu c<«cb. 

In liin po-lwript h«r dfinlit ift-illi tliA atill nbidinff offeol of Ood's Word on Om 
hnman rru» an a {K>rtinn at the subject without wlikb ita oonademtion would be 
iDCvotplotc- Tb^trn is uo ininxi pHWttrfuI ixjuMrli'mtimi tluui Hiis jii aid of uur moet 
holy hith— that while othor writings, other echtxilti of tbonght, Atherinflu>>uoe», 
have bod tb^-ir diiy, uid b»TV mbmkL away, Miti wor^ aud itiltiifmoo of t^^ book 
ha* uot ouly >urrit-od tbeia all, but ib manifostly OToti now nnly in its yoath. 
so to bpeak ; is |ir^puuit with nuffbtior chan|{9B amoajf maukind than any 
articbt wbicb history bu y«t seen : still, changes which thi:: book ia fully 
capable of ocouuipliuiiiig, and wbicb, when brought ubuat, will but load tu 
tDuru Aiid more yut, by lu uamoq and but fjuntly nispeotdd. 

In ttuuiid'ully reoommeDdina this little book, we ((aote, as a aaiuplo of what 
is lo ba toolwd for in it, one ofiti concluding Mtatouoea : — 

"Tho |ic»onal Mn«i of thi* bliiM«l continiiitv in thoM who hara once bmrtiJy w«l- 
MDwd tba <««ivliinp uf Lhuir Kil>i» u H Dialt'ir ot tjxiMnmuo', Ktuf h uiIdt«aHili|^, a* 1 do, 
b«lien!» la ita tniUi, I may sUo thankfulli/ dwnU upon. 1 do not UtUu^'o that any ima 
who bad Boujbt for guidance oroamfurt in itnpuf^ltaaimirfiniodia his bopo; iboQ^h. 
of (-ourfc, tu any one vrhoreada aimi>ty to <'nlicit»0, or to Jtulgo tbat WonI by wbldi wu 
balisra w8 thai] ba iud||ed, it would bo \'aiu to oddnat any orj^unient dmocod £roai 
pononolexpcrienoe. — {P. 127 ■) 

TUt Ifitloij of Ttrnet io the Death of Motti. By HEHtRlca EWAU), Profeeaor 
of tlu Utiivontity of OuCtlngou. l^vuslatM froin tbt> Qttrman. Edited, 
with a Pr«&vc«. bv BOBSEIJ. liAUTCfSAti, U.A., I'roftwor of Ilebivw in 
Maneltostor Now Collego, Loudon. LondoD : Lvugmuiia. 
Tnta tranalatioa reproaQnts but a fra.^nieut of the sevaa rolumea of Ewnld'a 
"History of laruil'^u work. obeez'Tos Pruftuuxir Mjtrtiaaau, oxtoaeively 
Studied in our UaivanitiM, as well aa much udmirui by many cnuDoot writera 
oat of Oermany. Some of lbs latt«r are quotwl in tba itroTacej an U. EraMt 
Benui. Pr. E/jwUiid WiUiam^, and Dean Stonlsy, who chanotanaM the " lli»- 
tory of Israel" ua " a, noblo work," though ba disagree* with many of il« goiisnl 
BtatotDoute. ProCsMod atudwits, tniiaed not only to habtt« of MTore attentioa 
but aUu to Ibu guardod weighing of sU tbey rtiiul. and acoustouutd to gatlMC 
tb«ir storm from dowors of oTory leaf, will tOAko thoir ^iiu from this erudite 
work, ovuu if tbey should coosider its umiu priuoipltR!, w we do mast 
tborongbly, aoaound. An olaborato Analytical TadIo, by the adiUur, is al onoe 
A proof of tho ruudor's tiMd of aitiilBTioo oud of tbo logical arraagemaat of tbs 
author's matter. Tbo Kefiaanoatio disooreriea of the Gtjttiii;j:«n pto f ie u or (aa 
far on tha promout tuIuioo is coaoarocd) vo, Uwt tbo rouUiuiudi is tbe oompo- 
•iliuii of viu-ioua authors, wbose soreral Hhares be evou uudwUikea to deliue; 
uid. iu wKordauco with this syiitoui. tbo 'Tire Uooks of Mo«>o> ' ird ilistributed 
belwvea Uw " liook of Ori^us,*' tbo " Pro^otical Marralom uf tbe PriiaiUvo 
Hiatories," thB"ThiriI Xamitor of tbo PriimtiTo Uib-tonca," tbo •■Fourth 
Xarrator. &«.." mid Ui« " I>eutoroQonu«t" For the rwadw'* furtbw iufor- 
tOktion of Ewald'a treatment of tbe early Bible history we caaoot do bettor 
tlui extrai;! Um following pMtttge from tbu Kditor'n pretaoe:— 

"When KTraU ahowe ua Abraham asa 'repmualatin man,' and hi* mtmlei-itur* M 
tbosa of u Urga triba, and tlw quorrela of Jacob and Kaau a« i^at intnmntiofial ntnig- 
daa beftweeu Ihu Hebraw and Arabian trilMa, mtbor tjiaa the patty atrife of a fvw 
hwdamwi. the histvy oemtoua a gTaador »ado tban wu bad any idea of before ; and we 
lode with hi-txhurnoa cagamuM for what mora it may diadoM. Stori>.» which hofore 
amuacd na with lh<TLr prvUiauaii, now bill of the iatea <rf onipima aud thn darolooawiit 
of nationi : and wo se<j wby thpy h"vo boen pnrsonruil fioni an aultqaity >o h%lL that 
th« dcrda of individanla have Itm^ been obliUiratod."— [Praf., p. 9.) 



128 



The Contemporary Review. 



Heabo telbusilmt " tbu earliust pcrioil oftLo lifuuf thoGrc^s, RomauB, uid] 
Hebrewfl i» ii"w c-aUoij nivtiiical ; " end that Kwalil has done for iho Hebrew Hi*- ; 
tot7,"whiit(>. MlUleratid Xiebulirbavuduui>rurtliu Uruvk uid Bomnu. Well, w«| 
venture to owktI that if " tliu KLrifa of a tew hurdnmeu " is only '*pot[>y," tha^ 
" iatortuLtioufU struggto bctveen tbe llebrew aod Ambiaa thbw" m uuliiiug 
very great; uid if the frog vtmin vyvT mi much, «b« will iiarnr look like " Ihe 
^tcB of ctnpinM and the developmnit of uatioiiB." And further, if tho mass of 
Kiiglisb llible •readers idkt do longer hpo in the putrini-cli*! hinlurieii a rerela- 
tiou of tho F&tlicr of mui leading His ohitdr&u iu tlu'ir individual uud faouly 
lifo, but w© shut lip to the allemative of pickiiig np cnimb* «f aiiti(|iiarmn lors 
in nJlaj^oncnl did^iiis«, thoy will ooose to reikU those liistoriw at all, or the 
Book iu vhich tiiey rtq foimd. 

On MiratUt and Prophecji. By Wiujam J. TRoya, D.D., Prebendary of St. 
Paul s. London : llaycfi. 

We truxt llwt w^ »ilmll not oSbiid thv ublu and li-umt'd ntitlior of Uiia book bj^ 
nyinr tJiat bo pccnui to u« to bo thpoloj^cally a " urosa " between Tliomaa AtjuiniuJ 
and L)r. Rnwlaml WilliiniiK. Cmryiup out Uio »rpimt'nt of bit lrwiti»e oa| 
*' Tho Biblo and its Intprprtftors," he pathcra np nil tho doubls and diltieultioa 
which Clin bt;w:ldi.'r tlm pliiin. Prwk'>it«iit , "Eibli.>Cbri«linn,"(indniiikeH bimfecd 
tbnt ho hnfl not a. Icp to Htand on. If he rhanpfw hi^ positiira, and lakoa up tho 
ground of htstoriwil ov-idi-iiw uiid c;rili<-iMii, then Hr. Irou» i««iil» liiin as the 
** literary Christian " with ni'W pnrplt -xiticft. dwoHs on tho bonndloaanem and 
hoficloBHnciBB of tin.- tii>k K'forv him. on the niouifold ajntrstlicdonK of cntic» and^ 
intoriiri;t*rs. 80 far rhp work n^tnindH iia of the Rector of Hi-ond-nudk«.| 
But when thv KTOiitid v clvnred, Dr. Irone ooue« foi-wiml to tho Imlp of thw por-1 

Sk-xwi iiTiuinir. IIo invitofl him to atyopt the j>osition, " Thdt Scripture is w 
►ivine whole, nml roct-ived from Clirist quite apart IVom mticifim ; " unit how-i 
OTor impc-netmblfi it*! moftiiinc, or dai-k it» hirtoiy, it " epc-nks my9t<'ric« to thsj 
Church;" that, consequently, its "litenuy nease," treated "as any othfl 
bwjk," is •* of flocondotj conscqiwnco at inobt." 

In applying tbet>o pniidjilos to the two milgoctn of bis prceont roliunc, Mr. 
Irona laye down the axiom that the iniindics of tlio CUd 'IV-nltiUicot stand on a 
hicfa^r or lower footirg, ui-oordins a» tboy ai-o. or nr* not. i^eforrod to by Chrirt - 
iu Ui^ tt.-auhinp, or wrapped up »it)i hiwtorit!* wbidi lUf, ur aiv not. so refen-cd io.\ 
Tho niiruokd nf Mo»«-t< uiid tho crclo of wondors tonni-ctod with Elijah iindl 
KUidiD belong to the fonticr clnss, lljoio of Buluum iiiid tho Book of Jiidg«« toj 
the Ifttlcr. llic history of Balaam's os» is trialod as the narrativo of a vi^onJ 
(ia tliiif ho follows Miiiinnni(i<M); ull thut ifistntugo iuit h " uutural iuilreiiiQs;'*j 
tlio crushinfi of tho propbcl's foot against tlxo wiJl u* liko tI»o '• Irauce sensa-j 
tiou," tbo " inirulius roeling," wtiic-h uroiuucni uro fumiliiu* wiUi. Tho uai-rativt] 
of the wonder when " tho sun stcjod still on Uidivm, uud the motm on the TaU«_ 
of Aijiiliru,' ia trt-atcd us ui> iiit<.-r]<oIat«.'d piit^mp; it\>iu tho B&tik of Jashor. ii^l 
torruplinp; tlio nttrrnlire; and. thou^-h Ur. Inms ihiukH thut " wo aresttircom 
at libvrt}' to doubt '' tbut " sotiio n.-uiiirl;ablo bigiiti in Uie beavcne uro tracoublo 
both in tho ninvtccnth contury before ITirij*! and in tho (?inhlli," bo is yet bold 

rlnim *^** 



enough to say tbnt "' it is a Miriuus ivqioniubility for any man to 
authority of Christ for a certain view of a fart," and 11 minido "which Christ 
UiuLOtilf jmsaod by without uoticu." 

go. too, in de a li n g with prophe(;j% I)r, Irons do« not shrink from tabulating 
e%-ery Moatnanio pniuiction ivfbn-ed to o^ piich in tho Kew Tcstnincnt. with " ita 
iipjiareitl aenae in the Old, if reud liki< iiuy uthivr book ; *' &o as to leave on the 
nuud of th« rtMidor tbo imprei^-inu that they all hArl ti renl. perhaps nliw an 
adnquate, historical fultilnji-nl witlitn tho horizon of the proiihcta who uttered 
them. It lA true that bore also liu claims submi^-'tion primarily to the authority 
of our Lord whei-uvHr \it> bos sanctioned any Bjwjcjftl intcrpivtatiou. ana 
SMondurily to that of iho Church, aji guided to the true spiriiual meaning; ct 
propb'-vieii which wna, at fii«t. to reuiHin within tho limits of tho letter. Inci- 
d(>nlallr, in tliis work. Dr. Irons has some n-inurks well worthy of tho attention 
of tbi- Biblical student on Uit' different foimuloc of dtution used in tho NoVj 
Testament quotations from the Old. Partly on tho autliority of Jewish writer*,* 
portly by an induction from the New Teetament, ha (.'sdouvourB to prare, and 



Notices of Books. 



129 



Vft think anocaolfi in proving, that tfan icon])i, " ns it is i/'rtMm," "lu ttie 
Rcrijttiir'- Ruib," and tho liko, bavo a biKlior, mnre aulharitative form than 
"iMxvinlmg to tliiit whii'li wu* tfiiilirn by th» rimiihi'l ;" miJ in exjiluinina; Imth 
fwt-< ttt' pa>«ag4» he accepts anti ajijilioa tm> truth tiiut " tha po'ir idee r>l'B ualEtKl 
p] n.-!i.i8tic f>r fOretwUiiiff tniij- Iw oinilnuittHl wit.li thi^ fnct Ihat the reoonl yf o^xry 
trtt'liriitii flTid of every faiatorjr of any ikToured pn^pbet, pri4»t, or kin^ nf the 
fonn'T cnvenBut, wouIhI nuvza aa if oonatnictdd to suf^ast somethiilfC of the 
coming \[(«Biah." — (P. S6.} 

Tb«tiivthod'whiQh Dr. hvuB pn>po88aba«,«t]6(U<t, the merit of being a " abort 
and oo^j*" oao. 

"There i« no trcord Diat tbo Priraitivn CKtircb, wbcn (h« Qacjwlof St Jobn nppmrini, 
' exainiued Ua uluim*,' 'dftoU Ila autbonbip,' 'dobato'l thu ounsLften<rr ' and r<Ml<^y of 
it;i itAlMnont^ or anything nf tbo kind. Ko, it vnx/rtt at ohm. Thia first thin:; wa 
llntl id tlMt n BOeifty. railing itwlf Ihn ('liriati'm'ii Church. foWrnrfthotiospf] lu IHvjno; 
and wc know that that Churrh haa Oone mi for them l.TOU ymn iiin»>, ntid fnrli Diat 
Goapal nov, .... Oitr propocitio« is. thnt tliis ttt tho way, and tbe only way, uf re- 
onTUi^ Divino BaralaltoD. It it tho way uf Fnilh, th<] way of thv Catholic Chnrch — 
the ChuTth atthe Creed^ the PricHthood, and the (WrampnUi." 

It martftts not. i.r, whowroto bonka or whon thoyw^rmrritton. whethi>r ihoy 
■wvrv iitilht>»tic, annnymoiis, pseudunjinoiit ; it mntteni not vbat tbcy 6P<<ia tn 
tnectn when w*^ iiit«»rprfTt the-m as wo vmild any other book. Vfc/ffl they are 
tme, and that is «?ui>ujih, Doubtless for thiwe who /i-eK But wbnt help hua 
T>r. Tmns tf> (Hve to Thnac.Ti'ho do not fr>rl ? Whnt (Titorion Hofl» hP offPT whnre 
the foelings thnt nccopt cooflictinB bwliefs are equuUy stronjj? How does he 
iuiKW«r tho doubter who /rrt4 that the doctrine of tho Atonuinont ia at Tamtira 
vith bis moral sonse, or tho secturiaa who /nU that it is utterly onreol uoltiiw 
it hring tiio amumnj» of perannal aolraticn f Uow. on this trroiiuil. «an tho 
Ctiiholic maiiitiiiu bid poaitjou against the iJible Chnationy Wo fcnv that tho 
only tinitwwr v>'hich can bo i;i\'cn to thoso quentionB is that which M. do liiiiittcu 
lpv<.'s in bis " Koys of St. l*ot©r," "Ad Jivme tpeak." 

The tverruK of faith. TjOiidoft atifl I'Miiihnrgh : Bliichwood and 8011a. 
A SVOK, th« otiji>t-l of -nrhir-b is to shov, that Fnilh is trust in Christ, tbiit it i« 
M|iubto of inc.reaM, ami that th>7 tii>'«iub of iticroa.'wi nr« prAr1^r, the de>-oii«nii1 
ttody of the Smpturea, and a holy life, ae^ms at first to belonjt to tbe Hn>«* of 
books which the mviewer eAJ4t« on one fide t* having Hitlo or no inteif ^t for him, 
but which oll«ii vindicate for themselves a rniVwi'iVlur by a sale wbiehshowii hat 
they mt'nt tho Viints of many thoiuuods of renders. Tne " InoreiULi of Kaith," 
ID i>pit« of the appiireiit narrowness of its Bc>ope, belongn to quite au'Mhwr 
ailojfnTy. It is ovidoully tho work of a man of wide cultupo as w*dl as X'Xvtf. 
Piwval, Untlcr, Hooker, the Coiifewions uf the Heforiued Churches. IttHhon 
Bull, Dn Xowmao, Jonulban Edwards, eron Montaigne, utid " Essay* miiu 
Beni-wv," wud Uooan's '" Vie de JftsuK," all contribute in thi» wuy of ar^jjmiicnt 
and illustration. The student will fijid rauoh that will help him to nnder^innd 
the IfefMrmntiou cuutruvereics as tu tho iiatuie vf jui<:ifii.'uiiuu lUid tbe work of 
ju^tifyinjr faith— wh<?thor faith he trust in a liviug nerwin, or Ijclief in 11 ilog- 
Qtalic i^y^itvni. or tbu UKMUiiLUue ( ifduct'i) of porsuiuu luitTatinR — whether it is 
bent rull-pr*jwn in Ihe woul of the belioror, or paiiaea tbnuigh the rtnp-ji of 
infauey and youth (o the st:iture of the p'rieet uion. To tuany. doubtlefit, ■ h'-so 
wili Mtem aa forfrotten dii.]m1os that lie far beliind ihp iiioix u^riialiiift probl^ma 
of our own timo. To ut it is at ouco intun'tlioi^ and t^tiK^L-tory to tlnd n 
tfaou;;htfi)l mid wttll-inforiii'Hl vrriter dealing with tiuMit a'< recn^iiiniiitf that lh«y 
art) <|Ui-*tiuna which touch toan's life >!till, an<l yet making his diacosnon of tbcia 
Huboidiiiatt! and nuhitwrvit^nt to [trmonul rdligion. 

m« JHw)* TwicAer: fcftVy (Ae ilfc(mi<d .SnyVnjt o/oar Lord Jrna dhriai during 

Itit Mtuittri/ on KiHh. Lodoou : Smith, Elder iJt Ca. 

I^IS Tulunie is ■Irictly what it yrotvuanti to be, aud nothing i^lse- " It KvnUl 

dninble," pays tho e<htor. in bis {or her) prefuce. " that words whioh am tto 

|irMtuilN, and which muni nmiuin niuiJly ))n,%i[iuH to all gvat-nitions, "houM Imi 

Sthtred together into acempk-U) wnole, and jire.'u'ii imI in a convenient fi->nn for 
I iiso of thow who yalxiu thvui." All th»t niu been added to our Lonl's on-Q 
VOL. VII. K 



132 



Ike Contemporary Review. 



It vould bo difllciilt indood to Cud tho lifo that wuuld not yield Ha lesson when, 
Uil(t by filling linnds.itssoattoiwl mcideob vere stmag on those inner nndllnry 
Uuts of iHii[)ijfc'_', which, ck'ftilj- fV>lIoiV'.>d,arD Bo«iito niooptillthoymyBteriouily 
wmjiitt tho moBt insipmtioant Iiislory with the whole conrw of things, thus 
TuuiidiuK it. off into ft liiiily of its own. But wv bolierc tbiit jiwt in pmportiuu 
t^i luck uf Plaiiii tfl notieo on the part of tho subject sliould be tho insi;;nt and 
capability of him who uudurtukoH to toll tbu " iiiy&tic titlo." EujorwQ. says tlt&t 
htk Invtvift laj^irid man ; w*^, in cnm moo with the public at large, lore AavffieinVt 
biogn^ber. Whuii tb>.'u wo hear it miuarkt.'d u^'aiii and u^in, ovor a bit of 
^Kogr^hic work, that the subjort of it, bki- running's Knife- piiuder, had " uo 
"•tmy. wo may loiuludo, not uurt-iuioualily, that uio bio^aphur luu stanjoly 
Iinivi.">d him.'*iilf *uffi'-i'-ut. 
Mr. ThLwioii) Martin's miffTortimo, aa Profossor Aytoon'B bio^raphor, wa^that 
f CaiiiO t<i hin I:l'>Ic tiici v.A\ xnjigilii'cl wilii ^1 iJin ciinveiitioiial aids of the 
imoir-writ«r, and commnnded tmt en^'ucoesa to all poqiiiaito iutbrnuitiou. Thia 
Inay, pi'rlmpf, ■i-t'iii juiradoxical ; yui it w ti-uo. H«]Hintt4 fkctit anil dfltails, 
lyin;- cliuttfirfd on tht* inlelh'Ct, wonnded by rofwnt loaa. ofton act like Kpongra 
in drawing off iind itiiKiirl)iii){ lbc.< vitnl Quid, which they will M'arne ^\f furth 
again iiiilnRH HiibmiHfid to Buoh juunfiil prtvasurr aafaw, tor theaahoof truth, arc 
WiUinjf to trimblo thiajiKolvo* with. Wo all know how inouniiiij; r»lattTfi» ovor- 
Tay tl^ir Ifttters with incjdfiiitii and aayinga rr»mt>mborod by hlnnt contrast, and 
tbntWd down on tho pap'Oppraxxiri'lj', however nisiitly and iiiunically wordttd. 
ifr. Xlartin wo.'* for many yivars intimately aaanciated with Profofiaor Aytoun in 
Ut«mry laWur; h« aimed beei(l«n at to close an mwimilatioit of tliought and 
piiriiDv- with rhoiw nf his friend, that ap to the publication of this memoir thrt 
shiirpest criliiw wom »l «. low to which to ossi^ BQine of thu bappiwt jrux 
d'mirit. Mr. Martin knnw lh«i ontgoings a,n(i incominga of I'rofpaaor Artmm 
ao wuU, indood, that wh«n ho oamo to writo his meatoir, hv bad actually to 
akettth a sort of alter r^. All this was faTourablo enough to our bdoc told in s 
.oartaio tonu wbtt tbo proTossor Uid an4 ttti-J, but by oo inoana fiivouiablo to tho 
wrilor'a cluarly exhibiting to ns what ho roallf tvat. Wo have hero clew, 
lowing, gntiMtml narratiro: r>coaHonaI quaint «pintod turns; MSta^ sparkling 
with o|u|^aiDiiuitiG point aud itiuvrti , the pixifeaaor'ti boat oita of hnniour— 
and he nus a inu&tor in tho Uirhtttr Sr<:-work »ort which Bparkl<« britliantty, but 
does not Bteadily illumiaate — ^being rtkilluUy oonetoneul. But we lack Uiat aort 
of iuMighi wbich " opens a fonegroiind." and e» ahtiwe iia the main subject faith- 
fully. I'erhaps th^ jiriinaiy oonililion to tho attaiuni^ut of this is that the 
liu^^raphor should new his subject from a wholly forei^ piano of lift) and 
ight. Mr. Martin is h>cht whim ho says, " ll ii* ugt for mn to attempt to 
10 Aytoun's plaoo in litcrutnre, I lived too neat him. and loTcd the man 
< Woll, t<> lie an itnoartial entio of hifi work, own wore I di»DO»od, which I 
lun not, to ait in juiiement upon it"— (P. 248.) But, nerottheleaa. ho tells us 
, fiiat Aytoun 'a o<Ie uu thu IVinco of WalW luarria^ wi4X iuwimiKirably the b«Rt 
pabUshod. which is very like sitting m jndgnont a little haranly on the work 
.of other and highly diatin^iahod poets. Mr. Mnrliu's luvmoir will b« rwd as It 
[ doflvres ; but it will not bro long, nor will it kei')i Aytoun living. Tht^ro is a 
I eertaiii Gtaoss, and yet a c«rlaiu "saraoauiof doHtiuy," iu tho fact that Aytoun, 
who only wrote clever jmx <Ceinirit, should have had his laat chanco of retnem- 
branoe comuiittxd to ouu in many roepwlfi so liku hiuu 

Aytoun owed more to happy chance and cultivuttan than to natnr9. Sut l«t 
ns be ju»t. it i:) «oiuuthiiijj that a roau makee much of what he hiia. Uc boil 
, |bo knack of hitting qIT a t«rii>u.s nitttlvr with tiudi di!xU'rou>( H^'hljii-.-w, that he 
'was leniptcd to bo light in manner even when he was earnest in piiriwwo. 
Tlii* biwi in him a sort nf cytiiciil nian-of-tlu—worldiMLi which but ill- ex ji !>■■*« -d 
the real ^KHluvirt< of hia hiuirt. His ToTyism, which waa fliMimed. not natural, 
belped viry uioch tu tliis nutult- It wa« but suldom tbut the luut^r dupth of hia 
iBaturu w-iu* )-ttmvl: the wcU-trimmed floweret of fancy and la<>to. nintiinf;ly 
twined toguthar. Mmuiwl to fvnvu it off eQeotively &ont tho licld of oxpr««)aoii ; 
and bo waa nerer, perhana. puil^ of a poMtiro itiipropnftj'. Vet crf^n 
floweni may tbut out tho sxy, and keep the bracing bn^ith of momi&K' &om 
reaching us. It was one of the sinoge paradocEOs to U< m«t with in tiunmn 
ehamrter, Uiat Ay'ouu. while bo almost scorned lo »c«oi in eamoat. yet abso- 
lutely needed sotnething irhicli he could bo in eanic*t about. " Fmuiltan " is 



Notices of Books, 



133 



perlwps tho moet dorions piaoo of vork ho 0T«r did. But bis cbotow wore mnxtly 
unfurtiuLate. II« foupjbt wildJy for hiB party, yet hi* whole heart wa« D«v«r in 
tho work, oL«0 it i;< iw&roo poiMiblo bu coiild havo wriHon so pUyfullv : so that • 
chiu)K<> of sido mi^ht have been «asy to bim had circamatann.-^ loudly ciilletl for 
iL Ercn in reenra to Ja«abitism hii alloginncc viu unoortAiii. porBntutl. Rnd 
daflltod witit hX-ik' fiiuta«tical Tiuiities. Uad aijtuart oVtiiiilMl him. m 'fhuckerfty 
did ahoiit tho Stuortfl, ho would just have uuivorod as curtly, and probably tho 
remit hftd bveu vory diiforeut — a total eatniDgvineiit and a rovoLt on Aytnua't 
pntagauut the Stuart« beoaiuoof their Timitios and porsonol littJeneMes. Now, 
the pot>tj:>- of Jacutriticm llw iii tho atmo»phoro of «moli«ii which im luiitgiiiatiT* 
otkd impreudoDable race threw round tho tuunea of othtTwioe inditTor^ut iudi- 
vidualit ; uiid it in thus tlwt a triio jpoot munt viuw it — thua UuL Bums and 
Lady Xaime, for inatancd, did view it, and bo weiio jiutitied in aiogingof it, 
Jiut Aytuun uhvlt Tiowcd JiLOohitiiuii ihun duuply, iiovur rulatud hinufolf to it 
fotdr'illif at all. It Vixa with biiii a [lenioiial iirrference, piviiig naar scope for 
piolurcwjuu aiubidotui. Hi>uou. uutwiUuttauuiuj^ thu pulinh aud uie puwor of 
DM " Ijayx," there ii* now MtA again a aham nng, a dubious ciiuk, aa of s 
fitlM coin omoD^ a moan of MterUcg Bil\'Br. Well doea tho ptnaaat writer romeni- 
bar how oii«w, by » wholly )j:rutuitouH expriMHiuii of opiiiiou iw to thu lufty 
inttillectual charaoter of the Stuurtu, Profexsor Aytoun rjused mich u teuinoHt in 
bin cIaia(>rovm lo* vvwii hin wift iruaHive uiuiLunr waa acaixiv) e<|Util to fjuitll, hiiiI 
bow, almost ridiculouslv duFeatt^, bo had to tbH hia defeat by n reluctuob 
diachnjyo of humour- ai* insight wiur liuiit^td tu the raii|fti of uu<r« fimcy luid 
tasbe.as waawell twcn in his preference nf Uarlowti'a ' ' Fuiun " to that of Qouthe — 
an Qpiniuii, too, which iMilk<d forth Lnud a)i|jUuwj from a larfp; piirti<in of hie 
beorera. and rcpra'Mcd hiaflOs from a few of them. But ho waa a ran^ genial man, 
furtoixi for fricudebip nud eocivty ; uud it w uo woudur Ihnt hi« fanuliarii lovml 
him. Ho woll d'^Aerred mich a tribute act Mr. Martin haa paid to hia metnnry, 
which will be valuable for t^e e|>ccim<.'iui t^ven uf Eia humour and ma 
peonliar powen. 



Tht Imur L^e <if tht Very Rev. Pire LQcordairt, of tht Ordrr 0/ PrraeAen. 
TtanalatiNi from th« Fmnffh of th:^ Rut. PtRE OnooARWE, OP,, with 
Prulwe by tho Very Rev. Fatueb Aylw.uid, Priur Provincial of Kagland. 
Dublin : SViUiruii B. Kelly. 

Laoordairt. By Bora Ureexvelx^ Edinburgh: Sdmonaton and Douglna, 

It bos been well itaid that while in religion in<lividuality diaaolvea and dia- 
Bppetn. iu trui.' momlity it asBerts itavLf nud ki-uwh. LiWonUiro'it lil'u waa n 
SMMt retnarkablo oun, inaauiucliaf> it oxhibited tiie extremeaof aelf-Micritice and 
Mlf-aaMrtion — a reli^oua ititoaaity nuch ua Heouiud to need nothing frum tho 
worltL and a moral expaitKivvneaa Biidi ub tieeuitNl to neod nverythiiif;. L)i<-.kUy 
bis lofty idual of tho Church, anil of that uulhurity which be repirdod oe 
the (Jhnrch'a oomti-ci-atcil wuaptju aiiii the ouly way iow&rdb >jerf«<cl liberty, 
waa 9inn«thing difierent from the earthly symbola Borne holds forth; and 
hence, when tut Kubiiiittdd to In^r dictal'iM, it waa not blindly tut with F<'-n^lon, 
but with a fflanro of the inner eye at that ideal to which with bim .-the ever 
poiuted. 'While, thenifora, he had the aoul of a rocluae, hv bud thn h«nrt and 
brain of a r^furmer, and this lofty ideal of the Church held coneUuitly before hia 
•yea waa the u«xii» which united hit! nutwnrti and inward life itiNi a haiTUony 
nt DOM capttrating and uiiuiue. In him the OTCTj'OWdnn^ tendency to myiti- 
cixin aud laolatiuii recorerad iCMilf by the verj' uuud hu [«>U for 'iiitward aide to 
quick«u and intensify hia i^iritiial experiense and insizht. When he called 
u{>oii bin iriferiora to admjuister Lhs tenible aoreritiw of dbtcipUne, the fire of 
bU concentrated religioua iwal burne<l thmiich the very modiumx bi> adX up to 
pmtwt it._ HvQCO the truth and beauty of Mi»e Oreeuwi.>irB remark (p, UO), 
" While his horror of ostentation indieipo«^d him to public )ieuit«ncoe, yet hii 
ardent deeire of bunuliatioua souietimes led him to br««k throt^b this reserve." 
And thifi, indef'd, giTeannootLscion»ly the key note to hit* whAlii lifo, aud funiiahea 
the BBOiet of the thrilling power of his oratory. Ht> inner nature needed 
obstMtlos, hard aurfaces to reAeot back and r«tleot in upon it whatsoever it 
conld give forth, and it scuroe ever ^ve forth spontaneously until such a 
refiector waa held up beforoit and against it. " Tjicordaire a was a life mads 



134 



The Contemporary Review. 



Bireet 'vitk endcann^ pcmonal interraurse, and rich urith Uui wiLrin f^low thajrl 
ootitnct iiciil cnnimtiiiiori jifi*^": i"i) ynL tbi^ lit", nrnun'l which im inotiy uttiitf"^ 
tivoa (fruv and cliuttotwi. was )ip*<nl in a >«)liluile that watt uwful, ia a uoigh-i 
bourhuod that m-M mum uvftil xiill. "— ^Min Gr)»9uw»U, p. 131.) BfiulanHl] 
8wotohinQ ii) oortainly thn m'>!^ imjMrain^ and the moat intenatin^ of th'i«»l 
tires which rlui'l«T>'d round Idn-^wdwre'd (fi\-iini[ bsuk itHmyirtiogliiw; and Mint 
OrMnwoll ha^t in (lur opinion d<<alt with it in a wi»t and mtaterly way. MadaintJ 
Swetchi'ie did much to «M]uce, and to tifire p9rtQtin<>at direction U\ th« b««t in^ 
Laooriliuro. and to hHng into cleam«Sri, t.hmugh contact with certain fonriR 
life, ths tnost recundit« ^lementti in his tnily aiii^uiftr ii«tur«. Tf wb cotild 
OOQCi'ivo tho tii-o Kowmaos and .Vrchbishop Manning thrown into one iudi- 
TiduuUty, it might gtve U9 a faiut idea of Lacordaire, and ToUowwl out. might 
ini<;i^.'^ Atrani^ cjuosnonB a« to how it is that fiomci <)or«adiiTelaiin8ord«vol<)p%j 
Boch chamctcrH, nt onoe atroo^ and line, robust and tender, aelf-abnegatiufj 
and ao If- realizing. U 

It is BO far fortujial« that thoao two memoirs of the great reatorer of thtf ] 
Domiuic^ma in. Ftkuob hiive appearod in Eii|;l!i»il aimultaii»onsly. Tho litloi 
mi^hl wuU bo exchanged. Anything a1>out such a man oould not but bo in- 
torxstins; bat the Pfre Chocamo is difiUae and rambliti^. mid faila to »bi>v 
tia cluarly how thu iuiier tigtiio of I.4UMrdaini cauiv to act do {wworfully ou thfr | 
oiat«id» world. luatead of anything like scieutilic analysaa, we hava neap* a#' 
Isttors- uud rvmiiutwenoos and ('xtnc-tx : iuHtoud of tho " Iimar Life." we haw, aa 
fa ae that could poaubly be, the onbsr life ol' Laconlaire. Mim Greenw^li may 
totDotimoa nood to he supplomuutod as to mattura of foul by Ohoonmo or Mont' 
ftlemb^rt ; but her hno syinnulliiM, her vivid iutuitimm, have euaUled lt«r ta 

S'vo u» niru glimpHua into thu itubtlor aflperts of Lacunluire'i! Iwiii^ ; and oU' 
14 whole (the piiiiitH a ]K)rtntit whicli will bo reud, lUtd wn thould taict h<>i>«;j 
will U\-B ill Englinh litomture. Htsr style, ton. \n well suitt<d to thu fiubj'-ct. 
We notice aomn alight diift-iTtn whinh iiiiglit 1m iiionili'd in a iihw •iditioii. 'fhw 
book ia tantwliningiy eticumborod wilh nn undc-rj^rowth of noteti, "n^ch, ooniddor-: 
ing that thvro la an appendix, Hhoiild either haie IxiQn thrown in tJiuro or 
Wrought into the tiixt itself. Then, MiiQ Orowiiwoll unpurdoniLhly tloba and 
fipobt bar page^ with italioa, and ofton whtiii the ucw of them \a auythiu;; but a 
MUDplioMnX to the rwulur'e ptmetratiiia. 



fcfmNiuf Bvirkt : 



a IIt4toriK'ii ,S/(irfv- ^y Joujt MoRLET, B.A., Oxon. 
LoudoD ; Mucmillan & Co. 



Ttris book :h really wbiif il purporta to be. It is not a biography of Burke, 
nor in it a inom rfntntf of hi>> [Kiliticitl iloin^x, hnl il " hinloriciu Htiidv " of th(M0»1 
political and Hooial inflncnwe^ whinh oombined Xa make liim u uentraJ fiirnre at. » 
thuu whMU thn wlinhi tondi'tii.-ii'M nf Knplinh polilict tuniwl in a tinw i!tr«:tj<m, 
uud one wliiuh is only now reisdvinir it^ full and solid dovelopmont. Mr. 
Morley has tthown grtvitt nkill in grouping nil hi» iiintvnHU round repreiwntntiv* 
mail, and at the mmc time never ptirmiLfcin^ the individual to nverahiidow thtt 
baekgrounil nf jiritidplo* which is htT« bin <i:el ooiirem Kvbh the "dull, 
arbitmrj* " Kin^ Oonr^ he «ii(^'«edrt in mli-'Knting to hi8 own pbice and to his 
own pro[»irtion« ait ono of tbotto indiridual nieu with xtboia " bistory has 
etrictly only to do iw thn nrigiuuJa. iJio f^irtb«ror«, tlio oppfiiK>iits. or tho ropre-' 
mmtutir^e of some of thono thommnd diverse foroe* which, uniting in one vacV 
Bveep, bc^r along tho auoouMive gcaorationi of man ao n^ion the broad wing* 
of wti-w-inds to new and more fwtile ahorea." — (P. oa.l Uo may also 01811* . 
^Vcdit for n df^terminntion to hold the balanco stoodily. and to mote out uu im- 
' Mai judgment, not only on the chief chai-octor, but ou his moat distingujsbod 

nt*niporunc«,^l*itt, Kox, Bolingbroke. Lord North, Ac 'thia juKtico is all 
till' more notioeablo and [u-aiHewnrlhy. iiiui'mnch a« it 'vt very evident that oo 
tilOSO points mofrf liulcuUiLed to excite cnthusia-stio ayinpathy, Mj. Morley itt not 
at one with Burke. Yet it i^t pos^ilila to carry what w« may call " drauiatio 
ftpologiM" too fai, and to leail uh into a nortof Mntiinental nhudow-land, where 
UOre l» no ti-oe footing. Tha influcnci'M of two mn-ttor minibi of the |KUt half 
century are very noticeable hifre; m ii>itic'vab)». indcud, that luid it not been for 
thwm, this book hod icaivety taken, the form it hoA done. Them) ure U. tVimta 
and Kfr. C'ariylA. "nist peeuliar sort of ii]K>liip^tio Lom*. d^fttirtniii^d not to no* 
knowlulgo Jtwlf aa apologetie, which giree snob a peculiar air to tho esaaya on 



Notices of Books, 



'35 



Voltoira, an<] Di<I«gmt, and Mimbe*u, rtiiijinmm hwe, nnnhinad with ft pftMooB 
for exlutiative L'soctotisa. douIiUoda deririM tram the oracular sf^itna uf ('itmte. 
TOiw two thiiiy* tutrt hilt ixMirly ; :iii<1 ths r<«ult ixthat Itya kiiiilof ii»oi>n<<i'ii'iiiii 
mental tliimhleri^, ann tbin^ iaH]ma«it whirled ovftr into t^e plao»nf its opiK^ite. 
UurkfiH dtxlike to the Pranoh BaToluHi>niift« » explained away with th*T gnuiiida 
oo wtkicti it rei*lBd, and we havo s defi^iipe iKtUt nt th? Rnrnlutioti and ciio worst 
l«ad«n of it, iu n vvio sh^uiKely compoooded uf our trro hi«>rophAnti« imtnwl 
tibem. Hod Burite'fi opinions had the wvight with tho Author which hit* toIIfnI 
Kpalogy migbt almost lead on« to beliere, it is scaroe possible he ooulil Imre 
vrittmt thuM : but th4 apoln^ hn wrtto« for tbo Bavolutiotiwts mi|^it well be 
tak^o a* [trrMif strong th»u;;h indirec-t, that Kurke vna nothiiiff but a " rwpl*n- 
dent rhi-tonciaa." whioh incisivu charitotoriztttion Mr. Uorltty at thn ontA«t 
emmnuily dismi^wod. Yet thin ''^ludy" hiu* much valao aa a spocitiieu of 
literature in which, n'>twith«t4nilin^ Mr. Uiillam'a happy etrortJi. wo in Bng- 
IsDd are dt'feotivv. It im writuiti with poww and potntMlcltmrQAsa— provioff 
that the author haa nadfl hiinttoLf miiatBr of hia tubjctct ; and it abould M TMd 
lif arwy quo iatonntod in Ibo puliUoal history of England. 

Li/f itfi Lahntm of Jntm CampbrU, 0. /), By th« R^t. Hobrbt PBRorBrtS. 
LL.B., and the Rev. A. Moutok Buuw.v, LL.D. London: Bichard 
IVntloy. 
Aftss having &ithfhlly tried to diacjuurcQ what Mr. Matthew Arnold has 
called tho proper function of a-itidsta mm rvgurj to tiiit> book— thut ii<. to 
" disiDterectedur mek and »<bow forth the beat " in it — we confess we arc uiialile 
to ncominttnd it to onr nMulerx. Dn. FArgiiM>ii mid Browii huvu h>»t a gfiud 
opportunit\'. sinh an npjiortuoity ea the rooiinl^ uf IJisiwtiit luny ii'it B)miti pn*;«nt 
wr itmg. "ThrvfUjih Dr. Ciimpb-jll, thL-ymight faaro rocomniputlfd to Enj'liKhmL'u 
at 1*TW tliat Ntiilid Htmifflh. :i!id ru^^n], i:uiiilv iiultiiH-iiili'iK^ whi^li uiadi.- ttiifi, 
mafyt? his defoctp, a typiiail DiHacntur, and, tm lliit other hand, by care andjuilt- 
ciOUK trimtiDi-iit, fhrty mijrbt buvu nuiiiifainnrl ihi.' hiuh'.'it tiiJi'-in-irk uf Noiiofiu- 
formixi I'uiiiitMaml li^itniing. Thoyhav« notably fftlli^l in Iwith nwimi;f>. Tut I>r. 
Camttbell would luivaI>ecnaBrat'-nteaiibjectfor an original- minilod biograpbHr, 
eajv^ul in Ihnt wirt of p^rhological oomtHuntiTO anaUniiy of which vtv Iultu iinw 
•O ntairr examplnH. tie wan a man of tionoat character luid uiiW<?ariod energy. 
SoglgwUy p«rtiunrioUH, aud with thntrigiil iul''I]i>(-hial ctetu-Dww which <.>]i1y ctimtw 
of TnnTingro>gulai'ly in a nanyrw 'irolo, hr> was uevnr troiibb^d'n'ith d/iiilitfi.aiid waa 
alwuys ready to daeh into the thick of (»nfrovor<iy, and d<>iil about 1>I'>wm in all 
dirnctioni. Iln wswbynamni npoliinic, and thp same tendoncy would havn exhi- 
bited itself whatever wsilk of Ufe he had clwweu. That anecdote his bioKTajihera 
givo of bir* cbiMin^ .Stmtton, tho fomrnnii undor whom ho WTOiiiiht 00 a bWck- 
■Bkith, with a b-iT of n^i'hot iron, bocuuse Stnitton had challenged him for bad 
VBrt. ix typi»lof oU his activity. Ho hod a koen noao fbrhcrt^. and in tronlE- 
ing it out WM as watohAil, sagacious, and anrt)l«ating as a Blouth-boun(L Wb>.>D 
he declared war it waa always to th© — rod- hot bar. Undomealji tio sht^U of his 
eoovatricititw and egotiaju, buwov«r. tbero was a k<Tuel of ival goodtK>Hii uud 
qnaiht. dixtinctiv-taly-nitrked ^arscter, which all roadora would havo roapoctod. 
But tbv biugrephur» i^-izu ihu iibsurdi;^t poiuta, and dwvll on tbetn. oU uncoa- 
■cKiuu of their ulwurdity, thus unwittingly porpetrabtig tins moat amusing 
caricaturoH. They etriko u wholly f;ils>.' Koy-uot'j. Bt'ttinK up Ihvir iixt fur tLu 
broad world, aiid tlivir )/n'ut>-!<[na1i men lor lierui»<. Tliit letters ar^ thrown 
down on thu papi pell-tnoH ; thot»e riven regarding the Doctor's aucond marnnAQ 
being in<4Xpr««il>[y ridictilmiit. It ia a n>lii-r to find, in tht midst of ul 
this rhodomontade, that iJr. Campbell, in bia laat years, tike Dr. Canninphan, 
I>r. Cbalioiers, and vtben, dt-wply regruttod Ihu lii>ry m(T«rity wf bis thL-oIi>^'iciit 
Mkalaii^ta— a priint which mifrht barn warned his biogniphora, and moderated 
Uh tone in which they L^lobiiitv hio victonoa. 

Tie £i/e aivt CarrnpatuJntfe of Thamas Stin^tfy /luatom^, laie X.P.for Ftnihury, 

IvlitMl by bia Son, Thouas IL DlT^fCOUDE. Two Tola. Loudon : Hunt 

and Blackatt. 

Wx have Te«<l this bonk with intcroat — snfih an inl«r«at, indeed, as vd mu«i 

oonileas wo oooe or twice felt half aabamod of. Hut "man is psranniaUy 

intcrastisg to Dum." A book oompoaed of tbu aoandal and goasip of tho Begeuoy 



136 



Thf Contemporary Review. 



— piquant, pictuicwraa. adventurous — oould not bat be eot«rtamiiLe. But 
*' tlierti IB a spuod^ lioiit to tlio use of " mm of fashion a« voU as oi " great 
Ixneu." And vg uro uol siuv but \hi» iiiannor of eMaoaiug %.oA proAerving Uie 
- lunio and fnmo of « ponoo like rhomoe SlinR<>by Diincombo, b; aandTichinK it 
vilb uialtvrtf of ^i-ur» bistohctU uid polilicitl iiii|Rirl, only Hwociaud with him 
in the moat iwiventiuoiis mn.[iTier. is a little diuigeroua and over-TenturoBomo. 
It tB iivl vuough tLait, Uiu public ougofly seolui lubor imd dwuum euvh con^o- 
momtions; the public Unedfl somnUniM to be protected H;>aiust tamptation. 
Thubookproporly tlividt«il«lfintotwo— '•fublicMaltunsUuruig theBogvnoy." 
Iknd the " J'rivatu liife of Mr. |}u[icoinb«." Whitt«vei- h^ut piinnanent Talue, 
uid ouuld bo httid forth aa throwing li^bt upon past pi>Ucy, or oQl-rinfc Iho looai 
liAtuut ftoIationN to pnNMuL m<rplwxiltt>H, hiut tlu* moitt tuix^idtuilat itud arbitni^ 
Ofiiomtioii with Torn I)uncoml>e, and could bare beoa commiitcd tu th« public 
vithout bim lu Uim imiiu'diiitu pvtf to hung it on. IikImwI, Mr. Dunciiimbe 
uppuoTt) bore in eomewbat tho poaitmn of that amiable cbaracrter we have board 
of. wbo, ablo to Htand morr dnnk than bin a«t^o<:iuU>H, un-n^Lol hittiML-If iu tbvir 
top-^*(iatA, and likn a snbnr man, U^lt each at ita ownei'H door, as signal of ihs 
lti<l|>l>i»>* omiiiitioQ in which h<:< was lyiuK' This, of courBu, appUvs witb most 
force to the tirst portion of thti b<Xik, wbi^ro " honest Tom " is regarded aa the 
man of pltMunire ; it does not to the rams extent apply to the second part only 
bocauBe the writor Aov» not scom to fool thiLt there is any noccaaity for the per- 
tjonal raeerve he prautiwd in the lirrt half. Bat that aoea uot reduuod much 
to the or«dit of the inibj(?«t. 'SS'hilo Mr. Duncomho was lowing himtialf off oa 
tho fii«iid of politioal refugees — KoMUtb, Muxziui, tt hoc yatiM onme—ha wns 
ploltiiij; to pluct' Louiit Nnpoloon on tho throne of Franco. iitiJ hud evon cnt^i-ed 
into a compttot with the Duko of iJnmsviok. whert-bv bo wiu- to be properly re- 
waniird for bin puiiiA in that matter. In tbi: light of Ihvao thiaj^, and the bribery 
which is here openly oonfc.^fod to. Mr. Duucoiubc'ti «orvioe« on tho Eodioal aide, 
•von wh«ro thi>y wore undoubtedly betmficUl, seem somehow to lose their attme- 
tive aspect : and wo ara furcud to think of him Hiiuply a» u mean though a.iluta 
intriKUOr, ready tosacritice ahiiutst anything fur BubaUtutiiilddvantai^. Those who 
liitvi- btin-n Hpoudthrirt iu youth ofleu grow CAlculating and mean in ago. Mr. 
X>unconibo %as au instauu'j, uuly he was cunniu); ouuu^b to try and hide it. 
This may mt-m a handi juilf^ti nt; but when a son can tell ua that hi^ father 
" went in " to poUtitai simjily with tbu hope of pliioo uud uuuuoctiou, and turned 
Sadicniouly bec>ui>ehi)fiiri<'iDd it wniiht pny him bottei-, wi- tiundy do iio despito to 
his father's name. IndecMl, it would F^em almwt as 2S the ran bud somo seorut 
inteteot in olylv in><inuiit4ti^ tho exixU^ni'M of low niulivvH wtitirt-v'jr ho ciin on hi* 
lathor's part. We do not deem it eith<>r proner or praHLalile tu oxdobo enura 
in thisciiri>lu»wly<writt«n book, for that wuiilJ Vi to attach a wholly fulwr iinport- 
aocv to its iiuitti^r ; uor do vri: o^er anv outline of it« coutenLa. for that would 
only ho to rvpriut what we have hmteij b:ul bettur nob have been phtit^^d at all. 



ni.— PHILOSOPmCAL AND SCIEKIiriC. 

The Darwinian Theory nf the T^iumutation of Speei«» Exanintd, By a. 
Graduate of tbu Univeraity of Oambridge. Svo. London : J. Ivisbet & 
Co, 
. jtfun; il'hrrf:, Wfiirnrt, and Wiiitlitr. Bj Dm.tw PaoB. Ediabuigh: Elmon- 
ston and Tiuugliu. 

ts tako them two workn tQ;^thRr, as both treat more or Ipsa directly on tliB 
Bd questiuu of Ukv physical ori;{in of man. In the volume hmt named the 
raiionymouH author atietebei the whole tlicon,- of Mr, Darwin on tha diwieoting 
,tubli<. and w-itli iKailpel aharpeoed on the keenest whetstone of a lojfical and 
Ktbematical mind, be lays haro every joint of tho framework. He strips off 
^iDt«gum»ntaof "natural selection, audexposes the many dislocations of 
d skeleton. This ti tho fir»t time that tbe system of Mr. Darwin has been 
l^eolt with as a whole. Other cridea liavo treatod it in detail, have pointed out 
I the vaat hiatu.-^ hAtwMtn mammal and lower vertebrates, between vertohrale and 
[invertebrate, which not evoti Mr, l>arwiL's skill has been able to bridge. We 
■ Lave here the wholo quosliou exauilund from tiriit prinuiplus. Mr. Darwin ia 
TvleuUeeiily dnren by his exiimiuer lu tbe utmost consciucufiea of hiit hypo- 



Notices of Books, 



n7 



tliMis, and Xhtm. ht« st«pM ai« tnio^ t»auk to bu " cm» primordiftl bnn," and his 
proofs, geolo^<^ and pht'sical. examiued oi, e&ch halbnK-placo. 

Tts fanrt thri-n i }iajil«ri» ui» tlnvutwl to tho qaeHtiun of " specieiS." Here, we 
ihiiik, ia Mr. Ijiimiu's eU'eugUi Kud hiit waakiiew. Hia Btrength, fi>r tu 
utoiidiet)! tra lira compell^ to admit that uiany«o-ni/M ^Mcaea are merely 
horoclitar}* Tarirlioa; tas .wcoIeiiras, for, taking odnuitago of Uio reckloM 
moltiplicatioa of species by modern iiRluraltsta, be has implicitly deiii^ the 
vxiatonoe of tpipeciw altog«<rnt«r, and built his pymmid on tho foiindnlioa of nn 
iadiMriniiiiale amslpim of orders, K«iiera, Rpedes, and vari«tiea. Ttio autliur 
ehowa hov firaqiiontly Mr. Duririn luui contrHdict«d hiioujlf in his oxplanatioa 
of the idea of species, and how, after statjog that there aro " ^rood ftud distiuct 
»peciee," he writes;^'' To discuss vhether foi-ms are rightl; called specie:) or 
Twietiea before auj* dffiiiittoii of tboKO t^mu) haa Looq aao0[rt«d is TBiQljr to 
beat the air." The uuthor next exumixies Mr. I>ui'iriQ'a tbaorjr ol "nalunX 
Mfootioo." and hhuwtt ihut, aftur all, ho ueos llu« teiiii. upou wfaiih Lhu whole 
Adifioe is based, as sytionyiuoiui with "the sequence of events." The opertitii>iis 
of this "sequ«nve of o^viitj)" aru ucxt cxamiuod on to it4) fuiicliotut iu the 
structure of liviug thiiiKt*, aud as to iIa fuiiclious iu atxiimuiaLiug iimLiiict. 
Tnuumutatiou, thu SLMjlogit'sl qiuHiioa. aud the total abi»ui» of g«i!ogical 
eifidence, are very i'ully UxaLtMl ; lh<iii the organio ximiluritv and or)i;iiiiit' dii- 
tin^tions of aniinals. The writer concludes by boldly tWiwing <iavn\ the 
gauntlet on th» argiiindiil uf <lri>i)^ii ; acid shuvs, WS must coiifnw, tti our 
miiidsoonclaiuToly, that the argaiucnt of desis^ explains infiuite difBcultieS 
which Mr. rWwiii avowodlv adinitN aru iii«3EptituIjl» with our prMi^nt kuow- 
ledge on his hypotheais. &Ir. Darwiu asks, "Do they really l^^ievo that at 
iuiiuuerable perwds uf the C4irlh's history certain eli'mt^utal atoina h»Te bwwo 
eommandod imddeniT to flash into liviitg tisflues^" Yet, in alluding to abjeo- 
tioas, be «-ritee, "They rtdate to questions in which weaieoonfeseudiyigiiunuit, 
nor do we know how ignorant we are." His critic nbaenrea:— 

" If we deny Ihi^ will sod lliu work of a Crvntor in thu existence of onputist-d belli);*, 
we nnsl denv it in l.hi' coonicfU armn|[i«ments rIho ; we most carry out the thrary of 
natural •vleL'Uon to th» earth itself, and tbo wLi>le ntnrhiiu'ry of the sotur Bysltro. . . . 
Te allow that ths oulh wu am»Ked as jl ie W dMifrn. but to deny thst ornrantc life on 
the earth is the prodncbon of dlcngn, would bo to allow the greater mirseU- and di^y 
the Bmallcr. It anartiScvranddmrigiKan iMdiscovcved aayw^teia theunivotsf, Ihty 
wiU bs acknowledged everywhere."— ( I'. MS.) 

It is impnanbls in our limited spnc-e to gire even the barsHit outline r>f the 
mode in which the abeenoo of genlogical eridencQ is handled ; and the difHuul- 
tiM opposed to transmutation by th« organic distinctions of nnimaU s^t forth. 
Our author claims that " in ever}' tnrtance wp mnrt begin with what w known 
and present to us before wecoji speculate sKmt what ts unVrtown nnd remote. 
To this rule we- know of no excoption " (p. 'AH). But Mr. "narwin dra'mt Inrpiilv 
upou the imaginative faculties. Upwams of ibrty cases are adduced in which 
be oaU» for wu faith. 

" It i« lo be ramemlMml thst thn wholo system is proposwl as a cre«d, and that belief, 
and the necessity of hvUif lu thiniis wtiioh do not appear, is fVei|a<>iitly ar^f/A by the 
Isnaed author. How olten, bow very often, does bL> mako lura of the uxpivMiuQ, ' I 
■so no dliEcQlty in bcJievin^,* and almost always when the thing lo bo bslieved is most 
startling, and DC may aild, tuo imposHble:."— {P. 1^0.} 

We may g^ve a few of these inataocee. The grand theory of tranmnatation 
wholly dependa on it : — 

" It ix HHT*Mry to Mitiv that vhira a variety has ence arisen it again rarimj and that 
ihfse rsriiHJisaie proserved." "Analogy leads the observer to sappoim utthir thut 
(intermcdiaTe links) da naw Kmowhne exist, or tnay formerly have L-sisti-d, and here a 
wide door for th.. .^iilxy cf donW ami conjrttiird in opencid." " J/mji tht/tfy 6f Irut, it is 
tMJitfmliMe that bnfore tlio lonmt Sihiria]i kUHluiii wm denositod Ionic periods elapsed, 
U loBgOS.or probably bLrleitger than, the wboli) int'irTal from the Bilurianageto the 
pneent day ; and that during these vast, yt-t fm'rc uHhmm, periods of time the wwld 
swaraad with iiring creatiin-s." 

^1 great an ti -Darwinian argument from auidcctAl VDrifih'onf; i^ handled 
in a maatorly way. Tic. : thu.t ovi-ry orguiii/.«d i>oing forms a whole, a iiniiiuo 
■ad perfect eystem, the [>art)t of uhich mutually corroapond, and concur in the 
■aiDA definitive action by a reciprocal reaction. Kono of these parts can change 



rsS 



7 fie Contemporary Rnjh'W, 



without the whola changing'. In a ittrain of caastio imny » point«t oat tho 
dilHcuUy (which Mr, Darwin hiu himself eoafomwl) uf DuncL-iTiaf; h'jw the earth- 
worm ortha lniirt*ni, tha honw orthfl bisar, wnulil \in hutl-T fitf^wt f«r their posi- 
tioRH ill uuture by ii ohan^ throngh " natural Haletition." and it \s deniDiuLmled 
hiiw, in thai luirer Siliirimi olruta, th« mjo of thn tnlnbtte vn\3i a« intricate and 
perfbot an ocgiu as luiy oye of reoent times, while in any oaaa the earliest of 
ciadh claM are pdivmI l>y thi^ rpnon! i>f ^olci;;^- tn have iMen afl pcrTnrt a« th«ir 
^noo<«4iira. If tbe rscord at ^)ln^y \m iiDpcrfoot. at laiut we have no other, 
and by it m mii«t abide till fitrth^r •.>viilBnR« in tbrthoonung. WeoonowTO that 
this work, vigorous in atvlo and forcJble in ailment, majr do good aBrrics ia 
chflok-ns? tha npirit, of reckl^M «pecula^ion am'>n{p<t nHturanula, ainl reminding 
thorn nhAt thongh at pnrf&ct 1ib«rlj to adnuice tbe'>riM, ynt befhra thny can 
uiforo* their aooeptattoo they must nave some mora cogent argument than " I 
see no difflonltjr in bolieriag." Wo could haro willingly dit^naed with thn too 
freqaeot tone of banter and eareasm; yet, tiU snob dimcvltiee na thow here set 
forth an an9w>>^i•l, Mr. Pamir can scanxly again class Mr. Darwin with 
Oalileo as a perBOcatcd disoaverer. 

In referring to the other wurk on our list, we an put out of eonrt by ths 
anthgr at thi9 outset. "No man who has subaonbed to creeds and formalas, 
whether in Ibeotogy or philosophy, cau bo ati unbiaxsoil iQVMtigabor of the 
truth." Yet ho tuu no »(-mplo iu demaudiu^ subauriptitn to a oroed of his own, 
for iiumediatnly al'terw^irda he adds. " IlHliof in tbo ttnif>yrmity nod prrtwtofrtrx 
of iho methodtf of urMkUon ia all essoiuial Xf> our inqulrv." Mr. Pi^ ia well 
known aa a aucceaaful compiler of handbooks on geology, nut he baa here shown 
that the power of indeziii^ a imbjnut dooe not uocottturily imply ttuit of eifiin^ 
premises and di-awi iig ]ogicr«l cancluaioni*. The moat original parts of his worjc 
are thn vohitmeiit inTOcttroit against thoologians with which he i^ fond of 
winding up hta chapten. The rent iii a miminary of thn m<M " ad^-anued " 
views uf the aiithrupologtsts and othor 8poculut4»rs. the pretnitws, often put 
hypothetical ly by the uitthom wlmin hn tiuuttii', ramly iKUrin^ "^^t the duj^atio 
coiiolusian.1 at which he arrivixH. We can n^uure Mr. Pat<e that in reading 
carefully every paijo of his bv»b. wo have been influBOced by a eolo desire Co 
arnvrt at truth, and our hnnitxt ooiicliwion ia, that hi^ hiM thranKhoiit mi^tuken 
spoculatidQ for demonstration. Hp cat<«gnrici>lly ai^eerla what Mr. Darwin only 
hyj>rith«lic«lly BUfTji^flits. that " it would nut 1m difficult to «h<>w that the Turto- 
hrate ia a higher epecialiatiou nf Lha molluaoan. each linked to the othor by 
intarmediate forma, which are either still existing or belong to bygone guolngical 
periods '' (p, -10], If it bo so oa><y to pmro, wo can only say it is mmt cruel in 
Afr. Page to keep hi« proofs locked up in his cabinet. But Mr. I'ago is not % 
disi^rtnunating oolloctor. Hv approunaloft M!r, Darwin's hypulhe«d initslollaat 
exti^iit, applying it to man's ongji from the monad through, the ape, on which 
Bubjeot ho warnu to enthiuiusm, and then ho ao far forgets himsoli as to ?peak 
of the " (iriyimil txmesptCwt of the vertebrate ekeleton." After this he tells us, 
*' Though ohtiorvation has not yot h<wn enabled to mmploto tho argument, thoro 
can be no doubt of tho existence of the principle of varinlion, and we may safely 
aao»pt it OS one of tho main factors in tho law of biological devoloprnQut ' Thon 
he tells lie, "The idea of 'hiiiirjimrut iavolves that of snjvnttl'iitwn f" Not 
more lucid are hia motaphysical views. "Tho tnul is oasontiallj instinctiro, but 
superadded to iostinot, it possoases the power of atoriug up its seusational 
oxporienees." Farther on. "soul, reason, or instinot," are identioal. His 
etouologioal dogmjiu»in is roully amusLTig. " Phyaioal GkUMi alone ooold not 
accoant for the difraniiii^M (of maii), phyHiolo]j;iciil and psychological" (p. 82); 
forgetling that just bofore be had staled, " Thero is no uhuih) tor euuh divor- 

Snoe save what is of a physical natiiiK " (p. 16). We are told thut everywhere 
D Cauouaian has been procodod by the Mougiu, ho by thL> Bed Indian, he by 
the Malay, he by the Negro, behind whiim couioa the uniluiuijvni'nil ^iriuturdiiu 
man. Upon thi8 /nri (?), as it ia next nailed, many conduaions aro built. 
" There can be no greater delusion than that nations will over be hmuf^ht to 
the same bnliefs, or to ono common course of action." The oonolusion of the 
work is not Hiittering to our pride of race, " The eicistijig rarietiee uf mankind 
will pass Awar. and the Uiah<M b« sujKVMdad by othen man highly organised 
and more nobly eudowod.' 



Notices of Books. 



^S9 



rv.— CLASSICAL. 

'fit Contdit* of Ari4oplratte». Tranalated iuto Bbymod UetrM by LlWKARD- 
HAHraoK BUDD, U.A. lAudon: Longmans. 

ti'S[r. RuddTill Iw content vith k bnc^et in tho af>flnnd olawof Aristopltunio 
trwwliiiora, Johii Ilcxikliam Frwiro biiTini; Uie first cIbm to btiuMtf, hv may be 
Bkul to I» full^ ontitlcd to it. To Mr. Irere bo is not oompantbln oiUinr iu in- 
tinuta appr«cittUoD of tb» spirit of ArisUipbunic urtmedy, or in th4it Mlmirutile 
amiroxiiiiiitjaii of hU own humour to the aamu qiisltt; in thn great i>omic ptwt 
of Greece, whlcli has ea&blsd him to diEtanw uU bis compotitore. Uut. witiue 
Pi«n aside, tho cxc«Iloucie« in vhicb such trAndator* aa \¥alsh and klitch'ill 
OQtvig Mr. Eodd aro jEcenoraUy oooutorbolaoced by otbor ffooi points in the 
tniislatioii with «hi«h hi> hiu favourad iis ; and va riioald be inolinod l» rauk 
him pretty okiK to Mr. Kog«ni, whoso tnuulatioii of Uw '* Fe»uo " is flbanoteri»d 
by much the dame eremnews of workman«hip, and the uame oraditable approaoh 
to exoeUeaoo, as is exhibited in tb» ei^ht play* of Ur. Budd. This geDuemaa 
has tindurtaken a dilKcnlt Uuk— -to cotkvoy to ^neral tead«ra [for be dtaclaims 
tiiramng kintself primarily to 9uholar») photographJe mpraseiitatioiis of poli* 
tioal and •octal life nt Athens as piotorud by AristopbanM ; and to do this at 
llie suae time that he purges ihat poet's soMies uid plays of tho oxcoasive groaa- 
D«se which seems to have recommended tbam to an Atlwniaji aiuUence. No 
one vich any pretAusioiis to truo nfinemouC tn our days cau b« insetuiblo to a 
DStuMM ever aod anon supervenius' bi mar the plea-iure derivable froai the raoy 
humour n( tba Aubaniiaiis, Knlgi^htA Fm^, and Peace ; a nuusea ariiiiiiff from 
toarm aud fiHby jeat« which Chri«!iattity and Christian oiviliiMitiuit Ripiidiat<e. 
Tei it nniflt ba owuod that the process of oxponging these is very trying to tho 
tiaunlator. aiid lays hita under the inijiutafaoa, whirli it U not ea«y to aauipe, 
of iKu»ihau£ somu of the tiuo wheat uf AristophanGs coincideutlv with his tiues 
and dialT, We are not at all «iir<j lluit Mr. Rudii'iii expedivut uf oiuittiiiK whole 
pasnaytA which rnprtttoiit the ooutext, no to «]»'3ik, nf noma ijtijpclloimiile and 
aapreaeutuble iud(K»uciei9. is so satisfactory a mDue of haiLdliug :iti adiiutC«d 
dimcuUy as tho plan of v<^rl)nI otnisnoiiM ami nltwr:itioiu>, and Uiu MubstituUoii of 
Boma Taguer or less i>rDiiouuL'«d wurd for ibut which, in certain caaee, requirea 
•xoision. Wo h:iv(> no tirqiuuiitaijca with ltuwdiur'0 ShakiipearM, but juiigiiij^ 
from the tradition of it which we have rsoeiTsd from others, wo should any that 
the principle »t' the edition uf Shakiip«iu» by the MoMra. Chambim— niunely, 
" to Hubittitute for an objootjonablo word or phraw some other wonl in invort«d 
oomtnas, which doe« not «potl the m^qss or detract from the author's wit aud 
wisdofn" — was preferablfi to tho earlier attempt at expurgation, and more fitted 
Ibr imitation, where it in feHsible, in translating Aristojihanea. There is a liirgo 
UDOunt of innti«ndo and of "jesting not oonrenieut" in tho scene of thoAchar- 
nians, when the Megarian brin^ his daughters into Diueopolis's private market; 
bat TMlly it is hard to know whore one is. if at all vorsod in Aristophanes, 
when one reads the AchamiHsa " per saltuu," with such broad leaps as over 
fifteen or tveatyUnosat s time, <.g, w. 7U0 — 740. Under the control of his self- 
impoied rule— toe general priuciiAe of whioh wo commend, although we doubt 
its working well — tao wondor is that Mr. Hudd can carry the rooilor on m wcU 
m bo does, and contrive to conroy so much of tho llavoui- of Ahstophanlo 
homoiir. 

There ih another feature in Mr. Itudd's tranelutiuii which we cuaaot help re- 
gardrog fl-t doubtful, especially OH ho seekii the suirrages of non-scholars ; and 
UOt is hill adoption of the " iambic measure " for the ordmor)- dialogue of his 
tranalation. From time ontof mind it ha* been thn uwiifA uf Kn^IiAh trana* 
btifra to nproseut the Qreok iombiE! by the ordinury En^liMn blank vm-He. From 
IhtH rule Mr. Cayley has deviated in his tranrtlaliuu uf uio Protnv<lhHua, and his 
ear has helped him to OKcnpo failure in his oxporimont. Still bo has not, 
apparently, taken the publii: or thn rriticH liy iiUiriu : uiid [wrhajiH Mr. Hudd, too, 
is flati.^efl if he can 'l-nfrvf, without rowonaii'liiiit, suooen by a like Bxponmont. 
But Mr. Bndil )iup«i-itd<li| to hix addiction to Knglish iambioM an inHxpUoubin 
attachment lo rhyme. Urury iambic in his eight plays hoA a rhyming brother. 
JTorvi^H in his metre, he is '"itirr, Ihrii.^ witite, in uii4 lulhervnou to rhyme, even 
whAve English poets would di8pon»e with it. And thiR is Dcrtainly a. drawback 



■ 



140 



Ihe Contemporary Review, 



1 1 a moritorioQS work : ut. mora, it Ivadi him at \xtam into additioos and 
itniKx-ditiotts for rh^a'fi nko vhich, had he k«fit eroD to nnrbyn^ iambicfl, 
ht> would havo cBchcrwed. As a sample of tliit wu tako tbe reply of Uoochua to 
Hflitnilas' suggestion of " Iwmlock " oa a aliort t<mA to bell — 

which, in his deeire to get mme word lo rbyino with " membvra," IXr. Budd 
CQdgola his brams to tnuixlate — 

" That ia cold, u Wl u two Rectraberi, 
And graduallj- cbilb one frvta the lower raombero." — fl'. 863.) 

But, in tmth, the iambios, apart from the fetters of rhym*. ar« tbo l«aat like* 
able fnttnra of thf«o tran»iat«d plaj-t^ : and we r<joioe to be able to praiae, as a 
set-off. the ceaQral happiness of )ir. Uudd's iiaitation« of tlio Arii^topbaiiio atia- 
pntatiea, and indeed of all tho choral metre*. These all rhyme, aa it in meet they 
ehoold, BBve the llunoos choral prelude to the cauteat belwe«ii ^lichyluH una 
£iiripidc« (tv, »H — S'Jtf of tho Fr<jg»), which ihe tranalator has with much aac- 
ce&s reproduced in the metre and rhythm of the origioal (eee p. ai»]. Seme 
of bis «hoi-tnr utaTes thyme and read Tory graoefully : and any r«ad«r who will 
refer to the Frog-ohonueB in the Banio, or to the ohonl odea in the Clotide, will 
seo that we are not nrerttating tho tratb. 

Sir. tiudd i» entitled to thepnuwof not riding tho Ariatopbaiuti puna tode«th 
lika bis predfcessor. Mr, WaUh, Ilia hits have more warntnty ill theOreok 
text, anil if uot ulwuv^ livvly, are uovur " Loud." The play on ^t^Z—i^traxiZif 
(Acham. 89— 90) he'matchieB wilh "cbetah" and "cheated." The tesMin in 
tbe doKorter'a '* phmur," which Nicioe girea DamoathoiMa in the Kaighta (21 — 
in), roappeara here in the form of — 

"A wnj-, •way,— runaway." 

rhich ia as good aa any of the attempts of his forerunnora ; and a natch bom 

*•. chonu of the Ktiighta (983— 995], where Ihe point is the aUitmatuni of Aiupm'l 

and Aupolattiffri , to Cleon's discredit mid dijMulrantage, wil 1 Mrre at once to show 

that tha present translator can render humour humorou^lv, and that he cau 

rhymo and poetize crcditoiily. Ilo k withwl nonror tho Greek than WalBh : — 

" For tne 1 often hsrc admired 
Tinder *)int mnHtcr bi.< Ac^iiirml 
The miKti? of x hog ; hut th«y, 
Who wvn) hi« ft>Iluw*wholiin, say, 
He wjiM BO vIbcIc to l«am as lad 

I'o touch the lyre and sing, 
That all concludwl that ho had 

>*o taalo for flngwinK- 
la vaio his nuuter woola employ 

Each artJUco and shift ; 
Till, nn^jvd at the lant, " this boy," 
Ssiii hi^ *' will never, never, le&m 
To touch a lyrv : hb otily turn 

la— fin goring (I gift." — [P. lOA.) 

(^ the Choms mid Dtcii.*'i]>oIi8 over Uik p.'ickiiig of tho infommv 
. in t^ Aobartiiiiue, iri given in pp. 4-j. 15 wilh epirit and humour, UM 
with a regard for th** letL«r of the (JruvK not c<itiimuu m Aristophunic trans- 
latinv; and many other piusogf^s from chnral odes are not loaa HiicceArtj^il. It 
WDuli! be unfair iiut to givo a taste of Mi. Kudd's ianibiijs. nf which we haro 
already said that we do not afTect thfin, but they may lind fuvour wilh othors. 
Ww quote from thi> paango in the Kui(:ht>i where Cleoti finds that the omoles 
ara auainst hitn. The aauaa^-»ellor'A birth, school, and education, all fit tho 
Oracle s dwKTipliou of the coming man who is to supplant the demagogue. 
Then Cloon cnea— 

" Oh ! Lyclan Apollo, what muat be my fule? 
Whut t^illinif did yuu follow, wh^-n &i man's estate? 

Ctnm, Aliu! I am undunu. 'Tin aliffht, 

Tho liope that yet retuoius ere 1 tun ruined ^title. 



Notices of Books. 



141 



AnitwAr mo onljr LhuL In Uu) Buuket-]>l«c« did 7011, 
Or at the city>gii.t«c, tlut uuMas tnde pnnuo 9 
8. S. Vilwn «lw but M th« galoi, vhu« tbvy Imy Mltc<I ctnff F 
(TbM, AUJi ! tha pnphel'i wonli aro only mn enough. 

B«u- off tbt' baplcu wrctcli ! Away : tny ttun hiu tat. 
And, chuplrt, taxv tlino woll, thirtigh all ■inwllling yet 
1 port wiih li>«o : khi-e AtClX anvtber uuw poasima, 
Xo greatar thkf ptnfaape, but rogue with tdon soccmi." 

I'. 113. Knighti, tt. 12'(0— M. 

The parody of a linp in thx Alnmlin in the \afA ci! th«wt -vi'Tmm rvmA» T«ry natu- 
rally. iVa tar aa our cxauiinatioii baa goiie, Ur. Budd'a iiilerpretatioii of hin 
anginal U very nccumte. Wv dwubt, imlw^d, wlwthwr Ajoetupboucs voutdlutvu 
knovu hi^ own vrmLi. had ha read of DexitheuR " coming in upoQ thu t.-alf " 
{iwi tMM>xv\ Aohum.l^i and whelbur to rundvr M m^Mtffui' roTrik-lirirnir (" what 
we foe) nbout our horeea") U not to TniatnuiBlato. Ako, aa respecting the 
Qomo'b English, we do not udmire tnLiutUting (w^iu^i^fJcrcoXov "one who pat 
eomediM ot ^u your ."tlagia." But those are excejitioui: to Mr. Iludd'a rul» ; a»d 
WB can oommend him to tho gooonl Tuadvr lui u rt>liii()ii, pltiavuut, aod liiithfiil 
tentUtor of Axistophaniis. 

Dteii J\mii JwmrnUt Batirm XIIT. With EueUah Notes oad Introdaotioa. 

Hy G. A. SlXOOX, IkLA., Fellow of Queen's C-uU., Oxford. Londuo ; fiJTiiig- 

toiu. 

A Titiun inatalinent of that handy and proniisin^ eerios, tho " CAt«u Claswj- 

c<ontia." lina b«rurT> iih. It int an edition by Mr. Simcox of no much of Ja^tmal's 

'Eadrw lui is re(]nired in tho Oxford examinations; tho omi.vrinns being the 

Sod, 6th, and tftli ^atiri."<, wliioh »n iibli» Cvmhrid^i Mlit<^ir. Mr. Mayor, had not 

■ ^Iho Atshion of leaving out, as ill-3«iit«l for tba study of touiikli- rijudera. To 
mx. Mayor, iad^^d. )lr. Simcox ownt hiuuwlf larg^dy iiidvbtod ; and, in taking 
inth«inAia thft tmtof Jabn, be nTM a further security that hia Gditicnmll be 
up to lh(f mark in point nt " rOMinga" ns woU n» of int^rprotationa. Not hut 
that ho exerciwfl initi'p'ndent judgnrant, iind •■iipportK, with more or low snoeOM, 
liie deviations, vhero tJiey occur, from authi>Mit<'<* to which ho givea g«nenu 
oedtDoe. One of his niW, and onu, wo think, liable to bo puahwl too Hx 
tbongh exoollmt in moderarion, i« thu axiom (hut " potior onA loctio diffioininm :" 

h.ftlld la vxniaiuioK his »nnot«tioiiK, it hnn trtrurk u« that ho in ^i» foud of douving 
In thehaidor i«Bmnf;.cri.''n wht.>roitytvlrl»no voHip) flf jirobability. «Vii instanos 
of thii» oocunt in iho 3rd t^atire, v. 2LH, where, in the fate of tho Pilhon US., 
vhich he genomlly faronrs, of the Scholiast, and of tho edition^ of Mayor, 
Maolvaue. uad l*rtor, ho prefers 

" Ph.-iiciuiuioruiii TDt«ra omamenta deorum " 

to tho much moro probable " HtDo ABianorum," or "Hio Aaanoruin." K» 
thwo " omamonta" are amoagst the preeenla which tho mtiriit Kuys will pour 
io to tho rich mau, whose hooee hns been bunit down, from his ooiuduDux xatel- 
litw. it i» hard to mo how ttnir value would bo enhsuwd by thoir having 
belongod to goda dad in pri<^«U* woollen shoM ; and we cannot hot think that 
Ihia a a pasKaiKo wbiTo Mr. Simoox would have done belter to aoquioace in the 
earofuIly-woi{;hod u-xt of Jahn. "Hio AfflnDonun." avoiding- <u* it doe«, the 
iuounifruity of a solilary female aiiudBtiDaleinounM}ni(" Ua>cAiuiuioniiii"). and 
tb« difficulty, which Mr. Stmcox himself feele, as to what goda could bo mooat 
by " phit^'Ub'iiatii divi," 

At tho same Ituio one is hound to rospoct a principle which oeoesmily 
invoLvus " boui fidb" addiljoit of labour aud nsMwrch: and, aa there io no 
Wk of these in the wholo volume, our readfi*!' iiuvo in ile Mloptinn an oometit 
of solid fruits of inquiry i>ii<l ]»itiunt thought. That which wi> take, however, 
to bu thu maiii cbaraeleriatic of Mr. Simcox'a Hlil^>niil labours, ia the happy 
BuuinBr he has of throwing into a couple of Uhph or »i the gi«t of two or throe 
oUMTwiso obiccure vnrwis uf hio author. Ht^m Mr. Muyur is not always aucc«eit> 
fill, and Mr. Macleans is too ditThde. But somethin;; of th4 kind it<Yi<ry iK-i-tlfiil, 
enwoially in editionit which have not, an thu moritorioiis edition of Juvenal by 
Mr. Prior, ia tho " Onunmar-Schnol Classics," d brief running coiflmcntnry in 



142 



J'he Contemporary Revieie. 



\jxB luiuviu. And tidu irOiiiotliiri^ Mr. Simo:^ ia very linppy in sopphpn^ wban, 
t.g.. At lii. 0, yomjf rmdors mifrht not aco all tho point of iiuuBOlg aaoog 
tb» "miUe puncuk wi'Viu Uibis"— 

" AngTuto roribinUn moaM pooUM," 

iritlioiit i<itch a note as this : " Thoy nr* dnn^rotw, as thnr mnltci you hoar them 
ID orowd<si rdnins, in thtj hott^ Wirt of the holidays, wnen yoti cun huvo no 
cscuso for rcfuaing, if in town." Tho moaning of Sot iv. 86 — 88 — 



"8c<l [juiil TiolrntJtw nun.- tjrmnni, 
Ciim quo ilr- tiliiviiA nut ii-clilniii nut utmboBO 



Vera looutun fatuia peodobat amid," 

could not bo ttia^ more apparent by tho most oxact tnf«nm>tatinn tbrm 
this coadonsed but ^iilQdont commvnt : " You Lad to talk of the veatber, n 
Ml your lifb ima nt Atuko nil tLi> time." The manning of "fiunlis JActun 
clientiB," in iii. 125, oould not bo i>iit into briofir or njore ©xpreeBive paiaphraK 
thiin in tho nut«, " )Iu i» iMiId cbv&p for another fiilse suijIu bova k Orci-k," 
which fully fxptaiuii th« bearing of tho text uu iXa coutcxt. At tho lost line of 
tho same sillin? ihia concts* ula.iinci- of puttine bofuru th« reader the poitLf and 
CDiuoctioD of iho Latin is useftilly ap])lied. The Lutin runs — 

" SiitirBnim oga. ni padrtillsB, 
Adjntor {foliilo* \i3nUni cftUgutiui in aigrtA ; " 

and although Mr. Mayor takes " e.-ili^tus" to meun "jirejinred to do MrricA UlJ 
tho rniikih" Kud Mr. Trioi' uud*'i»liuidM it "e«iuipped for liglitiug." there 
f«w who will not Ht oiK-o i»eo li|iht and i«e*on, and iioiot and tiiroo, in 
SuncoxV brief ex{Hj!iili<iii, "I'll cnme up to yovr oool farm to ruiuforoo ywsJ 
■Ktiioi, if thoy atw not anLhum^d of mv bobiLailed bootA." I 

Auotfaur hu]>py i'h:iruoi«niiti<} of Mr. i^imvox'A oditiug iu hii) umiiiiar of iUuiHJ 
tnttiiu, vbere it ifl (lOAHtblo, uncient idttaM by iuod«ni. Oa " v«mA Cantipi*" 
(i. Stt] a'C notoif, ihitt "Cnnopud waa to Alexandria what Oreeuwich and R»:' 
liitho arw to Loudou ;" and lio pariUleU ■' Titio Sfiocjua" (iv. I3)by our " John ' 
iuhI lUihaid Koe;" " ArUmt ncimloiiH TlKOMlori" (vii. 177) ia " making a 
uf hin Liudlvy Miumy." Such nindltiluias, doubtless, hfq not tur to evek, yotl 
th«y hulp, in Uiutr DK-adiun, buLli to iu>}iv>'U and to onlightcii tlio onliiiary ruaf 
of readers. Tbam who look for wnwthiug doepor will guiKirally tind Uil- (fmin- | 
invticitl not<te good, iM ■« tho cwie with tliv uxplauatiun uf thf> dutJvM iti " F>|J 
tnare pcrcus.-'iim puem " (i. M) ; though wn think thGrc ehoidd have Lasn tioni^ l 
littis Kjiid nhiitit tlw "gT>nitiT(>ot quality or rewpect" in iii. 48, " ExtinctlV L'oqiucJ 
non utile d(.'Xtra>," which. Ixiin^ unnoted by Ur. f^imoox, might jtuxzle nut' 
reodcm n» bad :ioci.>»n to no other edition*. There are not m few itiinilar oma 
non«, expllimble, poswblv, by rpgnrd to the circumiftanoo that the " ratemi'* i 
Beriea is I>lcd^-<1 to go ns little as poMHiblQ 0%'er old and oft-trodden nvund ; >*ot| 
eenaideration ttvt th^ ]>ns4M0oni of but one book onght to Booure a few woriLi 
intopretAtion wbererer a wont oocura which is either eitremBly nipe, or n«»d 
in k mwe whicli tlotw not oammonly attach to it. 

In the tonRhor pnwng«a, tfaroagltout Mr. Simcox^a volume, the student will 
never lack nuntitl and "boni fido " help: and. us in moh cearo hp giTea ■< 
choice of interT>i'etutioiuii, thcTO ia ruum t'oi iiideppndencf> of deoisioTi, wh9r«, ak 
ia EometimM Iim oom, his ricw does not reoonun»nd itself. Wc cnnnol lliink. 
Am- instance, that bie punctnntion in right ut i. 61 : " puer : Automedoo. "— nov 
at i. 67, " ffiganter falw, qui." On the ofher hand, he is quite right, al iii. lUfi, 
in putting a comma betwiivu " a fnciu " and " jucUini mauus." 

The introductory matter ia entertaining and i kn-erlv put, which is aa^'ing a < 
great deal, wbero fuoli« aru few, data unoertuin, and oompunUiTo oatmiBtsi ' 
coaffodly "pcecarioiu." 

fTbrtnv: Odw, /5pnt/<w, nnd ihv Sreular Swiy. Newly tTftn^Intwl into Vereo. By 
('it.vBl,E8 Stbi'Hesb Mathews, M.A., i'embr. l*oU„ Cambr. London: 
liungmans. 

Mk. Matilcws, with somo povtic ti»t«. Las a vagmnt and emtio muao. not 
in tho leufti htted for tnuulating Horoco. t>iflbso where that poot ia emcdnct, 



Nukes of Books, 



m 



rouiitliibout wLoro ho i« pointed, iuTolTCd oud liord to undtntaind vhou hu 
uri^iiai i*> clcur as crystal, he ntlerlr fail* to wpresMit the lioman maater o( tiio 
XjTV. And tliougti, wlivrQ bu is iiuncl*.-^. hu uj lulurubly euccossful iii tuatvluilg 
a lirelj I.atiii nibtro In* Bonielhu);; kindred in lilngliKb lucamiii;, ^ot su fre- 
' iruGntly doo! he wuteot LimKlf with a sluv^-tily gmt hiuI u dufootiTV sjittax. 
Uiat«n-t'ri tliix proiniae of azodlriice in diruippoiiiUHil in evvry pwo; M th&t n 
tranRliiliuu i«n hiudly he otmcetTBd luee litidy tu (five ihoiM! uiirraJ iu Huram u 
Triir :i!i-;k of hiH poA^v, OT more Mrtaiti to outr^x') tlm lji«ti' i.if llio.'ui wliii ri'iul 
him und loTo hiin. tAiiH 18 pkin epenking, hut it in tbu truthful rt^t^ult of dcH- 
bcnit? conric'tion ; niiil any ono who vill Tolco a patient mmov of Win tir>t iKiok 
of the Oiles, origiDitl and trautdatimi sido hy sid«, will he driven to all«w that 
our 4?«tiinut« is not Mxtreme or unnRoamanly wT«r«. Hchoolboyx oftou find a 
great holp to thn undortttanding of the olnseio tho; nro ri:Ading by a ]>or<tical 
TOTBioD— R perfectly admisablo help for thom; but vhat gain would it ho to 
them (uid thia is, aft«r ftll, a tol«rably fur tMt) if, Mokmg to realize Ode U, 
i. 7. 8- 

** "Bmtc n mobilinis tnrlM (|uiritiiim 
Ortkt torgmuinla toUitre hoaoribu*," 

ib«y find it Mattered azid epaii oat into— 



I. 



" Thwi roim wtH Iulvo Qmrilm vie 
To pRM htm np to hontnm by 
The doMTi, with a tfmdy love 
Hot alwKys Dot inclined to nunre," 



th«on1y foundation fen- the laat tutgainly Line in the word "mohiUuia ?" 
vliat fruit arethey likely to reap from a«>iiip&n6on of theline, "Tmhuutqua 
ncou maohinw oarinsM " (i. iv. 'X) with itn rendering by Mr. Mathewa '^— 

*■ Thn TKty korlA, which drondMl high 
Witli K^Iiin^' Mnma. fiir [blli>n cry 
And tinr, to drink to ttm^ thrm l»f ,' " 

ft triplet which can havo no other aim. thau to ehow how far neglect of >;r&mmar, 
of syutax. and of due core in interpretation, can avail to confu^ what wad oaoo 
dear, 

The truth is that diffaMnom, and a tondentry to " slipshod," are mtnoitB pro- 
peuHities in a translator of llurace. " Uupliciw Ulyvsei" Bg^uree in this verviuu 
M " that complicated man, UlyBeoe. minglemont of foroe and cunning ; " and 
any one wli& will turn to the i>ft-i[uir:ed powagv deechbiog the etl'vctA of the 
appearance in the heaTens of tho constenation of the "gnat twin hrethron" 
( I. ui. 27— 3:!) will eom« upon euoh uu ermtjc. obeouro, and dithise ompUli^atioii 
of tlte original od will aatiafy him that Mr. Uothews has taken rope enough to 
hang hilt poetic prelanBioaB. In the bugiuuing uf Ihu 15th Ouu, the «u(da 
"paator"and" pertidus" notoiily trand himoHujion this sort of omplilicatiou, — 

*' From >hor« to vliore £gean wken 
The Shepherd, whc hu Uh Mini, 
Jbr fHutartt be /aitA/iti mca," Sec, *c ; 

hut they also lead him into a eenons blunder, that of luppoaing " pOAtor" 
{and not '■Sirtawt," which oomas after) tu hu the euhjcc-t to " iugruto ci.'k<nM 
obruitotio Ventoe;" for he goes on,— 

"In Honied wwkU from Ida'* oide 
Fatigued ths time, nnd Bkamed the brceso," ftc — (P- 32.) 

Thia i» a more mrioas Riii*t«ke thnn we have detected elsewbere, although tbero 
■w&a little excuse enough afrnr Milton's " Courts thee on rosM," in tho ode to 
I'yirha [i. ?■ '■i) to tnrturo the verb " tirget" into — 

" 'TiB yon 
He itfjfTM to thr nniEf-zviiiiA, 
And luiki^wliy i'uuip >uu not!-'*' 

it, to do Mr. MathflWH justice, he anmetimes lighlA upon a happy hit. In the 
(ihotn' of Nsn.uis, where he begins with u miatroiulaUoa (as above notiiwd), 
'poetioal jnstioo to the words— 




144 



The Contemporary Review. 



" Sems adulUroi 
Criaos pulv«ru TOllitioe." — (19, 20.) 

" "nwan cri*p [ituwictttiti'H t« lust 
Al biBt ahiiu dmggle in the dust." 

And in Od« tx. Umre u ^lOtilry anil funoy, as well u tolerable faitbfulness, inj 
thB tiiird stuin, — 

"AD else permit the goiia to puiiio, 

All e)ae pprnivra (ht^m nl Ihn hfitrn. 
At TcM yon tufU uf c_v]>ivm ri<l«. 

And thoM) two lines «f ag^ utm, 
8uon h« the goda tend to their tu.bvni 
Thfj bultlmg wind* with fervid bUlows; " 

and tn tbe conclxunoa of tlia last stanza,— 

"ITii' trnitrtr laugh from cnrtifrM wall 

Ul lorkin;; nuuijeii, and froiu arm , 

Or fingW) tapo pf toLi'n gold 
Let ifo with binUxt >how tu baU."— ,T. 211.) 

But firen poetic iaatiucts are sometimes a snare to a translator, ae vhen, ta' 
auuUuM- uila (xxilt. <i, 7), thi?<y Vmtpt Mr. Mnthew^ into tlie quaint ami ianoiful, 
bat queaUeuuble, etfgrt to improve oa Uoiace's aimile :— 

"beu virid<w rnbuni 
l>iiiiovwo Licumo." 

" Or luanl, for n peep 

At dav, hill drLiw apart , 
Brier-bKiid." 

When, to wbnt hn-i boon said, it in nddoil that there is a aaperabondaot ctm j 
of ■rdiaisms in ihia trauBlalioii, au allectation not gongeniaL to Iloraae or bia i 
admirera, aud that Buch fiilao rhymes qa " dawn"—" man," "old"—" afieU," 
occur, fogo after pace, a case has been made out fatal to Mr. MoUiawft'l 
praapeou of being bold in rBniotnbrmice as a translator of the Odes. 

The Otltf, Epri^ff, Cormfit ''^iFfiilurf, iiuiJ Fir*t S'lttrr o/ IJernitt. TnUQilafod into 
EDgliflh VtiTDR by Ciii(i8T0i>']iKit Huuiieb. Loudoa : LoDgmans. North- 
axQptou : Lionnau. 

From tho iimulter of attampta at tranttlatinr Horace, it trould eeem as if be 
were as popular ae ever; aud, tojud^^ by tliolailiu^ of tuoet of those, as hard to 
transfuse wilhcvtit Iosh. The bnnl'» captivutiiig uiaiiii«r viilistM imitatoirs, wbo 
do not foresee that it is his iinitth and giaco whicli vill be hardest to reproduoo. 
And though tlinMO iitt«niplw wiljii-m to mi upjm -datiou of the clnssios in days 
when SDiso, vhu owe inoHt to them, ai-o turuiiig their books upon eoholanhip, ft^ 
oenaonlup of HonuM-trausUtions, willi powor to imprison and conBiie sosig^] 
and to stiAngle nthora, might be an institution to be dRiiirtMl. To this view mt| 
are the moi-e inclined aftor perusing the translnlionp) of Mr. HuRhi?B, anattomey-j 
at^law, ire believe, who, aiiiid nroleesioual j>ui'eiiit« alien in the furthest dcj^red 
to poetn-. has fijuud time to cultirittct \u^ lloncv, itnpro\-iiig his own taste, au^ 
beguiling rare Itiisnru in tJie worthit^xi. way. With 8<> goud an intent, it is 
pity that he did not. before pnblmbinff, take " counsel's opinion." LI is pivfuoaj 
maVi^s one doubt, " iu limine. " his \mu]f alive to all thn diilicaltios of Ilorace;^ 
aud his ci^nfesaiou in it that he has traiitt)Hl<-d " frtjin now an old I-jIxe^'ir, uow ■ 
Miltnan, thou a iKiIphin, and lht*», perh-^ps, a Wobcr's ' Oonnan Corpus,' " 
eiiggcau ihe iaiii(;ivujg that us, of all thtse. only the poor I>uIi>!iiD hae notes, 
his textuuL mterpietittion is very likclj' to bo dLfccliTe. And whai is a traualator 
of Horace wilhuuL an iutiiuuto act], uaiiitauoe with Urelli, Oeciier, Bentley, and the 
like:' I'mt^LHsor Coninglou oJlt-u givt» Iho ^t of oueorotht^rof these in a single 
lino, und TliKodoru Martin diMluius not tbi^ pixicaulioii of lutciulaining his author's 
in»iminK lium the best cuuiuieiiiariea. Hut fttr. Hughes has mautftfutly over- 
looked liiia prtliminary, and thonby dauiwgtd his translation. With its metres 
ire haVH lilllo fuiiU lo tJrid. t?uinB are );oih3, Home indilfttri^t; none that wo 
hare cxatnitie^l ubeolutely bad. But, as ivgHi'dn th(? noet's seiiao and meaning, 
many ol' hi" traiiHUUona Kubstilutu halt wiise for wbole fteiise, uud many betmy 
a neglect ol Iiutin grammar. 




■Notices o1 



H5 



upon Odo II. Kx. 6— 



"Kao ego queni vocaa 
PileetQ MibcouA, obioo," kc. 



'sibi AiadAnA*' to 



a little iBon roaw rch votild have taaa>fat hiin not fo punettiat« as he bos done 
ill tnutxlntine, " And callod Miocenaa^ friead mortaLjty. I Kcorn ; " imd to avuid 
the awkvaranesa of having tiro Tocativos iiuitciid of one, by int«rpretiQg *' Cju^^m 
TOCM." " 'Whom you inrite to your Bodety." for which mujiu of " vtnaa " time 
iaaparallpl in "mo petit." ii.xriii.IU. jud ci nioer insight would lure bmught 
cut m Od. Ui. Tiii. 19, liO,— 

"Mcdiu ibf»lus sibi luctuosiB 
Diuiilot uiriii," 

the antitbeais vhicb is lost or obiKiurod :u — 

" Tho UhIh lii> u«m d<-(itli> wound hii> dtnitt" 

bcoaosQ "infeetus" jwinta to "war with Rome." and 
** intestine or citiI «tnfo8." 

i^ut much more serious fiiult Uos in omiision of intuottaul membura of een- 
tenccs, e.ij., in the " Lamant for Qiuactilius," (I. xxiv.} 12, where, iu the lines — 

" Tn fnutra pjnn haa 1 mn ila ereJiluai 
I'oRir-o* liuinr't ilium deoa," 

the words in italics mean either "intruxted to tbe godif not M," L9- "to be 
pneerred, not kst," or else "lent to you by them not do," ft.«. not abanlntetf , 
oat as a loan to be reeumed. Becent traiislaturn srlupt the former intarpruU^ 
tion — Proleasar ConinctAn the tattitr. Itut Tttr, Tlugheri simjily ignores the 
words and their difficulty, tr^uBlating — 

** By Biany good mm wept ht diod. 

By noae, my VirgU, moca ihwi you,^ 
Vwnly on virtue to\i rclit^J. — 

You with vuin pmviTK thu- (foda piirsat', 
Tn UH Uninctilitu in aonioil." 

Agdn. in £tirop«'s wordii, in. xxrii. 57—9 — 

" Potca hAc ab othd 
r«oduJum son& imi ir Mtnfi 
Luxluni willum," 

residee infinitely moro force nnd point than Mr. Hughes roproduoea. 'When he 
rondfi-s — 

"Tour zone from elm BOspdidDd inay vuggost 
A ready way," 

thaniabee altogether " band te eewutu." words monnt to telL a tale of that zone, 
which miudoTi» parted with at marna^d. Wmg retained by poor Kuropa, because 
her amour w^s illicit: retained, too, as t«he hint* In the adverb Jniic, to hang 
beRclf withal. Conington translates — 

" 'Tvnti w«U yon kept ytnit maiden sone. 
Hie neoeo to tie." 

EUewbere sense and perBpicuity euffer from misapprebeuKion of the «}-ntax, 
as in m. ir. I'd, 4c., q.v. wnorc Mr. Hughes doM not eeo that " mittun qnod 
foret," dtc ia s dause in apposition to that which precedee it, and that " ut " 
jnst afterwards depends on "mirim," atkd Tneans "how." And in the ren- 



deriugof- 



" Age die Lathtnin 

Barbtto CAnnen 
" Loebic priiniim lucdulate civi " — (j. xxxii. 3 — S), 



OOCUTS a minnterptetation which has puzxled as not a little. As Mr. Utighos 
Englishes it — 

"We aak the air tn wliicli Alciriu fint 

Ilia Latiau song outpoured,*' 

w» are Ottrious to learn of him when J!r»t, !a*t, or erer, AlcnniB ontpoured a 
LatJan song ; and how — oven if wo soltlu the first difficulty by wodiiig " Lee- 
.voL. vn. h 



146 



The Contemporary Review. 



biaa" for " LxHiui " — " moclulato '* can jMsaibly, as in this English it is, ha 
rwfcrrod to " carmnn." 

In txutfa. what i« wjinting throiighont in reviMon. " Hiirry-ftkunT " is a rin 
against U^to. Heuoe, io tursing the words at Xunua to Taria (L. xt.), 

" NMqaioqDBm Vpncru i>ni'Bidio fciixx 
IV-tm ci»««m»ai," 

" In Tua you comb your lock:! 'by Vcntu* oiil," 

tb» translator makes the goddess of lore app&ar, not as patron, but as ralet. 
lidy^e-maid, or uurao-oiaid of bur ofTemtusto fiirouxit«. Hence tbe nos of 
coininia«ion and omiaaiou in such a ■rendering as Ihia : — 

" Bt npeijecto i&vidiv natomnt 

" ■Whilst ofmid, 
" Stag* awaoi th« dolugv to o>-adi!, 

Whirh nntnre daoma." 

Of n truth Huch ■cholars as *iiter reallj- into lh« spirit of IIomc« might b« 
excused for putting a uuw mtarpivtution on his liou — 

" Exegi mrmtun«)tiitn ^re pvennliu," 

vheu they see whut uTotchod iviciistings of him in bwrr me^al are ignorant]^ 
rosortsd tu. In juHtico to the bai-d, and to scholarship and its interwts, it 
vuiilii be witiii^ !u spoftk smoutli things of the irell-meant but iU-fiUflhed oopj 
of Horauu'ti guLdon Qiouumout which u before lu. 

Sala Attici ; tf, the 3Iaximi, Wifijfand Wttr, 0/ AVteniin Tragic Dmtna. Col- 
lected, nrraTip?d. aad paruhraaed hy D' Alter WRTrvORTn TnoMFSON. 
ProflBHor of Ut'oek, Quern's uoU«ge, Qmlvay. Kdinburgb: I'^EOouatoD and 
Douglas.. 

" pAH-KHiouJor," th» itndf of the " uriBdom of many and the wit of one," 
has been aJwayn ho attraotiv«> tnat 0110 nuiy augur a lurgs amount nf trucr:o«< for 
this happy venture of Mr. P'Ari.7 Thompson. The Greek fathers of the Church 
eniqhrino a vaat tiumbor of prnvorbn atii] mnnm-i. bat the Oreok tragedians twna 
with "adagia," witty and wise. The "gitotnn.'" of Kuripides are amongst his 
most marked fi'it-turce ; and his ^!T«at nvnls, as it vill ho soon in this plons&nt 
Toluuiu, bad a giK>d title to the same churactor. And tburo is this ground for 
thankfiilaoss to Mr. Thompson, that ho has. irhoro posaiblo. contentod himsotf 
vilh giving o]o»> J-Jtiglish parallels for suob dramatic maxims as admitted of 
tbum — parallol» fi'om the "i>Ld'said aawcs" of Knglmh proT&rb-)ore. In other 
cases he hiu tbvowti into hio purupbi':ifo, or tmutnlatiou, a ^ood dvol of the ait 
and smack of our English proTcrb-lsnguaKo; and in others, again, he has 
turned thu uubie uml wi40 moral suutirui^uU of grvater lougth whiub arv fbund 
ia Greek choruiv. na well as in the iambic portioni of each drama, inti telling, 
poiutod, didaotic, modern drew, »uch as, when wo road it, preserves in a gnmt 
uitnaure the giiomic stomp imprsSMd npon the (h««k. liidK^I, although pro- 
Turb-lovurs sut most stor^ 07 biVTity, ono uunnot loo much t)muk Mr. Toompeon 
fur the utauy longer passages which he has vouohtafMl ; becauiH> thsy ambadj, 
as it weru, miuty pearls in oiw Mttlug ; whili<, to vary ihoaa, there is no lack of 
others thai abitic out single, simple, and MiiaruUi. Space forbidn us to ^^ at 
loogth tutu an euuinomLiuu of thu richoa of tnis volume, which has been but ft 
short Uiii» III iiur [iiiridH, yr,( which io ton viilunbk' to go unui^lic'-'d. Ooa or 
tvoTetns maybe traced by us a Uii1<a way, if we cnnn'it pursue the manr which 
invite mure leiNunjIy resMroh. 'tUvrv in, r if., tho roliipous tone of ibschylus 
and Sophocles more real and natabin than that of l-Iurij^idos, in aih«i(!Tiin^ tnio 
attribuiKK to tlie IV-ity. Qod's truth iebomo tortmiony to in the maxim, ■■Ood 
cannot lie : whal^ievet fie speeketh that will n« in Juetime bring to poM" 
(p- 7, 5 12). a prollv c'luso translation of the " Promotheuii Uuund" (v. 1033-3). 
His omniscience, Itis hearing pray« ft^>m Ilis tlirou(> in heaven, is owned by tho 
same dritmalist in lh« mliiga, " Though Ood is far away, vet He haaroib all 
that eall npon Ilim" (ittd., i Its), an English toming'of the .Sachyleon 
lino— 

" sKiii B«Xoir*T«c Mi wpiamOttr Ay Bi^c" — [B u m tH , 387}, 



Notices oj Books, 



H7 



\n bcpArnUflle^ bva Kntonc«orSnplu>clMi(f/<irtr<i, ITA), Mnplirafladiop. 71 of 
U>»" Sales Atlici: ' "Ood(lw«U«tlt inthf^ hvaveiiiioouUiiuftllyiHsiiMtiLairtfaifiga, 
and all thiaf^aro beneath UUfoot." Butif iWietvoor Utr«6 pmrerb* naik ont 
■ line along which to puifiun th» theme of tho rovvruueo uf tha elder Oreek dca- 
matuti, it miut be ownod thore are not a few others of a mtic^ moc* hoathsn 
and (Uboaod typo. 'Ibu, &oui tho "SopUiui c Thubai!," 710 : visnv yt iiiwon tal 
maKijw riftf 9i6(, or, na iir. ThompaoQ puts it, * ' God roDpiictoth vven a kasT«, if 
he b» n tuokr knar*" {p. 5&\ u on« of a cIam largelr re|iraBant«d in the pages 
boibro us, which will t«iDina the stndoQt, well v«»»al in prorerb-IitwatuES ol 
tbe low tjpo of th« lUtliiLu prorerbs. 

Bat we most gi^-« two or thr^ paralleU for trit« Eogliab mn^iipf la tts 
"SBpp^c««" of .^Hfarloa (4<M)> ailiMt tiw lioXXw 4 '•fk mi-v [pp. 50, 51), ia 
no &Qcted prototypa of our " \Vhero i^arsnoe is blisa, 'tis folly Ui ho wise." 
" Qod helps Uiom that help themnnlTOS," rcprcMnta. in p. AT, Iwu gnomio, front 
the ftrtrp, and bum a "fabnls iacerta," of which wo giTft the leoat known : 
um6t ri tafLiwrt mtntiiiiv Siic- Tlie germ of " Do at Home ha Rome doe«." or, 
aa Mr. Thompson roiidere it in p. 143, "1 do at Athens what theAtheniansdo." 
iaOoph-./'At'/udr/., ll>49: oiwtfr rtioiirmv eiJ, touvTit 4lii' ij^. " Second thougbtH 
arn beat Ibonghta," ia, aa many will remamher, attticipatod in the nipjiolffta$ of 
Euripidoo (436) : ai i»at,fimi trmf ffio-ritis oa)M'<'<|i<u ; and indeed tb* Utaat, and 
oummonly least eit«eined. of the three dramatiatt has what look like the 
ori^ualsof sererul scores of oar trite odagea. His tact, bowover. is greaLer 
than his moral sonmt, Alon^iidn of ooch othnr in this Tolatno (n. '101}arefiiand 
a maxim of guidance for dtuLy lifn, which i' exeeUnnt, " Good temper is good 
manners :" and tin Moota as to fahh and Antj which i^ stniply detestable : " In 
matters of religion, nty aoa, go oror with the tide." Both come from the eame 
plar. the fl<t«A«. 

We must not oIom Ibis brief notioa without rMO|7ii9ing the taste, elefpmce, 
wit. and hri^taMSa of Buny of Mr. Thompson's poetical rBprodtictiofM of sdsfteit 
of larp^n- dlffleawnM. W» do not know a bettor -vomion of Hophocles, CliW. 

r. lot),— 

ravr* tw' ^iu^> ipj(trat ' 

'*.What work the Night iaer*» incomplete, 
T>iy tBrm imt pnHshrrf, ronnd, md nt-at." — (P. 7 8-) 



And the sasie might be mid of many longer pasaag^a. 
iaTnlaable to the stodettt and to the curioos in adagea. 



Ihe ToUuna wiU be 



v.— TRATEL. 

TTit flVr*' TrihtUariet a/ Abymima, atnl Ihe Sword-IIaaien o/Ihe ffamran Arabt. 
Ily SirSiMCEL Bakkk, M.A.. P.E.rr.8. London: Macmillan &0o. 

Tms book, — which, thonghfint in point of tbo time and cfrdfir of the explon- 
tions which it doschbea, aiul iho sporting expluiix which it nnrraiee, is saoond 
ia point nl' pubticatton, — oonductM the roadar, in the company of Sir Somoel 
Baser, to tlie time and pltiou at which his former work, " Ttio .UK>rt K'yaaxa." 
bsgaii. This eocHutric arranguraent of material is not couducivo to tho scientific 
tateroet of the uuihor's work, ae his mulim already koow the issue of oU tho 
speculations raiiuHl in it« [>ag«D<. They aro familiar with the features of that 
nugaifioent luke-oounliy uf Afncu. which he ruached after the adventures. 
obaanratioiM, auii tixplontiii>n>t hure detailed had faded into distance ftoiu hiri 
onward txaok. The upshot uC the disoovmca, to u section of which oaob work 
is dfiToted, is thi« : — 

"Tho lake source* of Central ArHca Hiipport Uie lift of Eio-pt, hy «np|»IyinRaBtiaBin, 
Ihreuckottt all sciuons, that has tuflicitnt m>1uuio w sii{rp<>rt iIiq nxluiiiiitiofl of nrapora- 
tiua and nbaorption ; but this »lrcam, if uiisiiird, ocmtd nc*ur overflow its bank*, and 
I'iOT'. tliui d-priTcd of tho annunl iaundalioB, wosld simply east, and enltlTatlon 

I. 2 



The Contemporary Review, 



w&uld la coDfinsd to tlw close vxLTiuty of tho river. Thu imuKLttlon, whiLh, ty it* 
anDual dcpoiiit of mod. Iins wttialiy nrHtoil thr. Delta of f>owrr Kjrj-pl, upon tho otit- 
Bow of wliit'h thn fertiliij- of E;;ypl dqHMidn, bus an oriirin onlirnl)' acjiiirati' from ttia 
lak« Muivea of t."«atral Allien, and tte supply of wst«r is derived e\<-lusiTely fnun 
AbjinnU." 

In n, woTtl, (lift "rmatrtri*! \ti\i»/ttil Egypt, 1»nt the Abj^winiim riTr*rs t«u«c 
the inufid'itioH. All iilon^ tho 00111-86 of iaom beiit-Eoent rivers Sir Httmuul Bakor 
iniLTchtfcl, lainietinii.'M in tw ttotiinl l"'^ "f tlio Atbani iiiid by the BiiK) Ntl<\ wh-nn! 
itfl diineiiRiona hud dmudlcul to thoas <if » mpre Ftreiuii. Tho nurrjilivti in this 
\t>ltijniLi of thi" j*ndilMi floml which ni»hi'" int" " th« two gri-iit Abjsfimiui 
arieries," iiiiJ hew it cnmn mlling itml t}iUQil«?rinp ilnwti witmn h.u own (H^bt, 
forms a namllel to the dwcriptiou in hi» ••iirlicr t"!'""" "f hia lir»rt viw of th» 
Vietorift X'raiim, This graiiil phenoTUf-nnn wiu proredfid hv n "B-hirlwind, and 
Iho mi^fhty ruah ut tho Witters hcKan in the ni^ht of ihi' '2'ird Juiw- 

" Ob tliv moniinir of thi liUi." mys tliv writur, " I stood ou the btmlu of tbu uoIjIk 
Athnn rircr, at the break of dity. Tho wondor at Hus draort t Yesterday there wan 
m barren sliuct of f^luing sand, with a fringe of withorod buxh und trf<;M upon ilk bordcriL 
tli«t cut tiiQ yrllaw sxcanM ut d<-aort. Fur diiys wc had joumrycd .tlona ih» cclututca 
l)«d ; nil niitiiie, ovi-u tn niklurt-'s vovuHy, wua most poor : no Ifueh could ^oast n Itiif ; 
no tre-i ro'iH throw a shade ; criBp c-unu rradtkd upon tfafi stems iif the mimosas : ths 
np dried upon tho Ituret bark, sprQa^ with tho witlirring lirat «l' t.hi> simoon, tn nnn 
night there wiu u iny>ti.>Tiouii cbsagti,— ftn umy of wnUr wan hanUninK '■> the wiudMl 
rivor; time was qo drop of rain, no thunder-olond on Ihn horizon to ip'vo hop<?,^aU 
had hocn dry and siihnr ; dust and dcsohttion ycMttTday, tu-diiy u mniitiificrac ftri-nni, 
tome SOO jTirdi in wiiltb, und from IS tc 'i<i ft-iit in drpth. flowed through thp drfary 
dcsort! Biuntnjo^ itniL nx-ils, with tiiuh of all kinds, w«r« hurried along the mnddj 
watora. Whprri wcTd all llici (rrowdiid inhnlntantji of tho pocil i The {sriwn duun wiit* 
broken^ the prisonerti wcti' rvk-asod. and r^joicotl in the iul;;hty «lK&m of the Aiham. 
Tba nma wcra pouring in Abyssinia! JAcw hw* thttourtttof'the .Xttc." 

Sir Hiimiiol Haker's stylo is verj' much suporior tti thut of the cvn«rali^' of 
travellurA who t.ik« to writing. It is ImVf, inwrnve, and graiihio, though Lever 
pictiire»i{i]«. Tho Bentimental, poetic, or ri'ligioiw usjvecf •■< cif tho griuid eiibjoet* 
with which he deals have no uHraction for him, but he tipiils the pracdcal 
aspect, and tho reealtA nf his jonmoy, with grctit ftkill nnd luhiiimhlo amtnpa- 
meoit. In the present voliune he has only Arabs sitiou^ " nutiye- '" to mention, 
lUid tho rcnJ«r i» not piiinod nnd fihock(<d by thv hurd, popitivc inhum.iTiity of 
toQo which made tho ■' Albert N'yanKa." in K]>ite of its value and interost, a 
distrossing book to re&d. To the AnH> tribos ho grants Bomo good <iualiti«H. and 
no luck of intelligvnco in their own way, and ho Ehh no words soffi'iontly Btn)nK 
for hi& adtniration of tlie couni^o, tho endurance, and tho skill of tho wonderful 
Haionui hunters, whoso oxptoiti^ roquii'c to bo eeoii to bn biliorod. ]t ik whou 
to ban to Bpcak of tiio nogro triboa that ho ie so coarse and hard nnd inhuman in 
hijii tone. And yet Uio poor wretches on tho Wliiti? Nile were woiitli>i lUIly fuith- 
iiil and useful to him and his wife, and it is difficult to combuao that fact with 
Ilia atatemont of their unuuti^it'id bnitiehncwi. It si't-nnt to thv uiiproj udicvd 
reodor rather as if Sir Snniuc 1 1 taker hod begun his exploraiions with a furogiino 
conduaioii iu his miud, and mudo «verythiug fit it. Ku uuo, with the uxci'ptiuu 
of Commander Bodfbrd Tim. of uneninahle celebrity in connection with the 
"nigger" quortion, has written m OMDsvly or m hiu'dly of our black brethren 
as Sir Kaniiiel llakcr, and we intist confer to having opfned thi.i book witli somfi 
disttutfi iu LOiitci|ueiicv ; but thiTO ii: uuthiu^ to object to in it» pagcw. As a 
rocord of exnloraUrm and diwoveiy it ii i-iipn-iTn'!v intmi-sting ; a* an adilitlon 
to mir knowlodgo of llie animal life of Norlhom Africa it is most valuable ; na a 
atni-y of p«ntun»l adr^nturti iiud expuricnr^ tln-m in no )j<M>k iif iiinilnm date to 
lie ooinpared to it ; and as opening up Klmngc and nido fields of speculntaon 
concern iiig fViture pvn))iilii)itii!fl for tlio hiimnJi ittii*, nnd thi? spt-i.qid uf VMtcrn 
HriliKadon, it has an interest of wid(> and deep extent. The ehnjiteni deroted 
to a doscription «f Ihit utiihorV adventures in the oompiuiy of the Hamnui Arab* 
are mojtt interesting and wonderful. Tho during of Ql«Re men, who attack 
overy kind of Inrge "game," elephant, rhiDoceros. hon, jtc.ou foot, and without 
other tinn thnn a short hw<^, almost nirpAMM ])cliof. The atory of the pro- 
lonjrod hunt on 110 magniticent a eeule has great liLHoiiiB.tion in it, and works tho 
render up to such n pitch of enthueinain that ho is disposed rather to like than to 



hioiices of Books. 

find &tilt Tiith the illuftrations, vhich aro full of doali and oxpraidoii, Imt 
absurdly cxag{;erate(l. Uodb bigger tban luiiiaiiiothe, and rhiiio<:«rOMt in oom- 

Kman ititli which miu^todons would look Uttlo. abound m them MunettatLBOn- 
,0 picliu-c^; but Uuit ir^ a y&ry piinloiiabI« tiiult. 'Xliu YulumQ coududoa viUl 
an able and carclUUy-fltatod expositioQ of tbo fi^at roaonrces of Upper £Ryiil, 
and tlio «-ftDt *A Kiie&tific imeatiou fui- thoir dvvvlupmout. Tho autlior pluuda 
tot that, Inereaso the area of Ef-ypt. ho says, to tho t-xlcnt to which it is capable 
aS iucrcoeo, luid it will t^ivu yuu iku iumiuDfio umuuul. of cuttoii uud gnuu. A 
dam acrOAi tho Atbara urould irrigate the entire comitiy fiom liojtentgup to 
Berber, a dutuiic-- of Ujin-iudtr of 300 milcts ; oud tho vmuxa ayb-tgm upua the 
Niifi would cjirry the wator.'* throughout the di^*"Tt« lM«twcoii lOiiirtoum and 
T'ougola., uud thence to Lowei' Egypt. The Nubiiui desert, from Korooko to 
A)>oi)|Miitiiiul, WDiild btirome a ganltiti ; thf wholi' iif that nlunlv nnuritry <.iicluaeil 
within tho greut weHtom bend of tho Nile towards Dongola, wmilil he Qtabraond 
in the eyitlvni of irrigation, aud Ihe bainm i<4iTide. which now give birth tu the 
bitter melon of the deaert, would bring forth the vater-meloTi nnd heavy cropa 
of groin. Ho concludes with an ulutfuoiit appeal to tho spiiit of Eimjpeim gu- 
terpn.% to do fiomDthing for the fortilizatifni of tho de-'Wrt. Girc 8ahara water, 
bo siiys, and Siiham will n.<pay with amply rich gi-udtude. Perhaps we may 
think about this when we h&To'fonght ont our q^iiUTOl with Aby9«nia. 

NwTotiveo/ a Journey thnu^h AluttinSa m 1832-3. With an Apjtmdix on " The 
Abvuiiii'iit L'aptivfi (juestwn.'^ By Uesbt Duptox. Loudon: Chapman 
andUaU. 

Tu£ first iiiij]n?»tion tnndt? by Mr. Duflon's book npoin the reader is, that hi3 
is i^ngularly impartial and unprejudiced in hiit vien-s of tho AM-swnian 
qooetioB. uo doo» not, like mnny perfeoUy welUinlentionetl, but ill-judging 
Bngliahucn, m«h to the ronc1ii.-<)on that bcc«u»o the Emperor Thoodoro had ^t 
into trouble with Ub. everything that has been hitherto autted to his advantage 
must noc«<warilr ba Galse, all fuTOurablc nccounts of him, that ererj-tfaing which 
tends to eloTate him above the levol of u bloodthiitity savage, inu^t IJu mate 
fiction, and tli« splraetic outburet«orang«ruud vitupertitioc which huro lately 
l>een hurled againnt tho Napoleon of Abyaeinia neooaearily true. 

The emphatit'ullv inodvmto aud fair touo in which he treatti iho unfortunate 
aubjftct of i[niinvl botweon ua and King Thoodorti inclines one to accord him a 

rt«r mvai^uro of coittdeuue. of al>isoluU< bulicf, than i« ulwuyK oxteuded lo 
narrators of adTentun<s in unknown lands, and liis personal intercourpto 
with tho king, who, whulever may bo liiii fuulu, itj uuduubt<.-dly one uf the 
niMit remarkable men now in existenfe. lendahiA narrative a vivid and romantic 
intanst, Tha tauUli/iug position in whit^h a eoverei^ ie plau»l who rulee a 
large, almost savage, countrv. Iiouiidod im tin; nidi' wliioh loanx to tho light, in 
•T<ry senBD, by Kgj-pt aud tiie Suuduu. the monj^rel Chriatianity of hiis cuuntry 
ID oonvtant uutagouimn to tlm faiiatio Mahumataniaoi on his bordars, and th« 
bet Uiat 0QToys can roach hlin only throueh tho enemy'a territory, is well put 
bcibre Mr. Duttun's readera,— :i )>n«tiuu which lie e ride ntly belie vex to be un- 
tanable, oven wilhnut the ac^aeh^rating incentive to its doatructian of a deadly 
breach with ouch a [lowvr lu Knglund. All that portion of Ur. Dufton'a nnrra- 
tiTB which relates to tb<i king is vory tut«re^Jn,s:, and though we cannot ^ with 
him in his recommendation thut we should keep a footing in Abyaaiuia Jin 
plain wordK, annex it) when we find outvclvea thort',' wo oelinro the advioo 
which be gives, rclutive to the points fgr which our expedition should make, to 
be both sound and feasihle. The pi-ogramme which ne propoMX i.-t.^" 1. To 
gat to that portion of Theodore'it frontier which ia noarost to hia capital, for 
purposes of negotiation. Thia i§ Matammah. 'i. Those ne^tiatlona tailing, to 
march at onoo u[)on his capital. ^. lu tho <;vent of hia rottring, to occupy his 
capital and the nth wmi-gmwing and uattle -breeding dislricls on the ahoree of 
Laka Trtana, giving hiia at the miilu tiuio to undorstaiid that they nhall be 
reatored to him on the liberation i.>f the oaptivea." The i-easons by wluth ho 
snpporta this proposal ai-e, ao far an outadera can judge, eminently clear and 
conviucdag. Hn la entirely at varianci; with the idwi that in the intestine 
difficulties of King Theodora's divided country we shall find our upportunity. 
lis deuMM that the revolted tribes will help ua in imy way. The Abyssinian 



J 



^50 



Tike Contemporary Revie-w. 



viU uerer belicre ob that the force which he irill magaih* into W.OOO meu on 
nerdy Bsnt \o liIi«-raU^ our ri')iii:tryi]inii. In liiK t-jT" »iir oiitriiiiive ItUI bd lUi 
inTaaon, with thu object of making Abyaania auoth^i' India. Ue will reset ua 
u far u be is able, not »nil«<lljr, bat isiliTidually, bv wilbhuliljug «uppli<i« and 
bouta of burden. "We coed Qot reckon on gcttiug froui him u dotitury cow. or 
a bodul c( conk, or a mule to guit}' our baggage, and vns may expect me whulu 
Dotiaa to bo oil tho alert after pluuder. If alTthMe prophed«n prove thctinaelTes. 
tho Abfwiniaii expediliou will indeed be a disastrcms blunder, and only to be 
" rooonpod" by taking- powcMum of the countrj'. and proose<(lii)g to oolonin) it 
Ibrthwiui. But we are not inclined to we crarythiiig k* much rfi uoir u Ur. 
Doiton, OTflo though ho poaaemcfl the nndoDinble advantaf>o of knDwl«dg« in 
maUers where wo uuet stop at speculation and conjecture. As a nairator 
of travel he is more lively than tm a prognosticator of history. The dticf 
intonst of the book aLtacheo to hia uonoufil m^jtmintMn"" with King Theodore, 
tfae uUtrv of tun life while following uenuaratofv king about, uid the trequent, 
undeniabtu aT>iIt:ucii which he olrtainod of hiti fumirr friuodship towanla 
Eugliuid, and warm, aliitunt pA.>u>iotiuie, att^ichuu-'iit to hi.- uiifurtunatit Kttglisli 
fiienda, Uewrti. Bull and Plowdiii. The dtory of TbiHidurii'ii rinn from thii 
pocitiou of a oetniiiuu Milditr to Ium jii^mwI ii'iimpiiBrHjli' puwfr !:> mid uf the 
moat wonderful which uontemponuy history can unfold, and Mr. Dufton 
tollc it with much itn^ptablit ttilntuoi of dt'tiiil. Tlie hiKlciry of Mr. T>iifti>n*e 
jonmoy in not nartiouiarly inttirostin^. Hih styla is quite wantin;; in pictur- 
coquenees, and no fiUIn intu the orrur, ao cummon to tni^'<-1l)^n<, < j fiL>rgeCtiaK 
that hie nadets oannnt see thr placee he in mentioning, and that therefore it u 
not HulHdont to dijclnre Viiv\r bounty or Iht-ic jfrundnew ; he ebouJd p:Liat 
tbcm. Of Ahyatiiaia he esys micninetly that it ia an earthlf paradiae. lEe in ao 
■rdant admirer of Bruce, and is wr^ careful to verify and Touch for all his 
atateinonta,aq)OGiallya« to tbediagnatuif method and isittorial of the nutjvoe' food. 
He giTM an interesfans and fovouiahle aawunt of the Uission to the Abyaanian 
J«w^ tt iriiioh Sir Snjcane) Baker enoors m bttta-ly, and devotes oonaiderabto 
■paw to an aoDOoni of the eoctniordinaiT and bocrible casea of mania whicb ure 
oommon among th« nativea «f Ahysaiuia, and imputed by them to diabolical 
poweation. The book has aoilk'iMit iiiorit. in apilo of the taae tone in which 
the nanatiTe fwrtioua of it are writteu, to be intoraafeiiig al any time : tut a /JtVoe 
tk oroooatoior it is particulat^y arooeptablo. 

TUrmgh Apai» U> Ihi- SaJutra. By UA!rxu>.\ Bkthah BijWAiU>8, Author of 
"A Wintor with tlio Swallows," Stc Londcm : liuivt and Bhu.-kcU. 

Tbouoii Spain ts atill alittle-Tiait«dct)iintry,alarfopmpaTtiunof tlw tottriets 
who have viwilcil i1 hnvo recorded tttrir rxprritmri^s in jra-int, im> that it oaiiiKit 
be called a liltle-known land any lonr<^. Thflreif^ tinlhin^'newin SGbh ICdwanKa 
Wiirk, which Ik infi'rinr in »t.vl*» lo Imr " 'Wint*rwilli liiti Swailitwt;" btit, far ull 
that, blight and charming, bL-ariim the tnarka of Imr cultivated mind and cor- 
Tt'rt tiixto. Bhe iii ii Ittlln 1(ki fond nf ijiintin^ from Tjiitin niithiirx, iind nhe ttXlti 
tho reader ■onneopwuirily oftc-n that her objeot in gnins to Madrid wa.H to Btndy 
Vi-Ihjujuoz. One v iilwnv" pn-jin-rrd and pleaeod bo near abomt V^eljMunwx ami 
Murilln, — an iiifiTitsblc, and iiiuuitciv n>aro uttentdng ^an tho horrid hnll- 
fighte vhicb every oni> goew to m^. and vrery one deaoimoea. But I ^dy Herbert 
has Mlst^Tlnkenall read(TH rf"1mTrfa"oTer mwebdj-the mmp grotmd. that 
it Id iKTin««-bat tt?dioiH to tnti)c« tlii> jauroer in tliie inn&npe. Mirh Edwnrtk in 
a thwDugbly pood-hiimonrf<t and arprwiattTO tirovHIer, and nil th** piTr«^iial 
niuTstivo in her book is charming, one utterly denioc the charges of extorlioa. 
tnoivility, and nncloanlineaa eo met v brought tir Bntinb touri«td against SpaniflSi 
inDket^iwrB ; and though she givee a ludicrous account of the uspnnotmlity, fdow- 
no««, and tiiiurt-nlUr of th« mil war system , tho deecribefl tlte reeolta vm exceed* 
tngly Inxurioua and delifthtflil. Happily oh<> docs not go mnoh into the politioal 
situation in Spain, for h<rr abilitiPD nre nntnt'thitorderreqmred for the treatment 
of BOeh QuetttioBiH. 8he i« a little^ cloudy* in her htat^ftr erimetimoi)— a^. for in- 
etanoe, vhnn »be npoaka of the Inauintson in Bpain as *' the nxtiteni of Ignatiun 
Loyola," which is not iiii>t, uh w<> tniiik, la the j»--uitfi. or, as thfv would think, 
to the Doaiinicaitfl. Th»? iiatVn'n iOteteh«i orAlgwn*. Orait, f^mda, and the 
glitnpBra of dcerrt lifu euui^i by htT on her wny to Blidah, are rery bright. 



Notices af Booh. 

plaawint. and pictureoqae. Sbe reaohetl Kljdal) imin«diat«ly Bftn- » grmt idiock 
of eartbquakv hnil wmuglit irild niiii, nnd devcnlMs th« d^fnlatioii of the Mme 
OB lerriliu^ Uio despair of Uio no]>ubU4ua b« bnRrt-n-ndmg. Onljr tbo Arstw 
mDjioed imdisturlmd. " 'Itis toeuillof Ood,' Ui«)- rayvh^saf PvUhappeiw; 
and thoy rwign thonwolvw to it, outvntdly oalm as ^uUuos." 

jW ^Hxiy ; or, SktteluM u/ £cr>Hry oa^ £«ci»ty in ilmtiritimt. By CllA'BISia J(fflV 
lk>Yix. licmdoa : Owpmut and HalL 

Ur. B<n'LE wiit«« w(>il, ia ■ |^l>M«iiut, eliatlv tiyln, but his «-(>rk has not lisd 
ealtici«Dt or jadiciouB roviaion. and he has f*ll«n into the error which ao ftflrily 
boMts writwi who «oiiipilo books from cortoepaudoQCo. Ho hat xetaiued • 
Bttraber of ursoiuU. allnaioiw, nroronoM to common recoUeotioos, and snUkU 
jokes, whicm aro not very iiit«ni^blo ur ut all intorestiDg to tho goiionl and 
aiiinitiat«d rouder. Th« ■attirat.-doR of life iu MauritiuM afljonlod ity tbia book 
is very pleasoot. It hai« its dnwlmcks in tiim«iuItoa», ants, and ' ' Unlabars," an 
oil to* iintiTB iiihiibitaittii, nn nmtttn- nf irliiLt nu!o, an proniiHcuntiflly called. 
Ita adTontaees aro £ar rooro nutncrotis and important, 'tht^ planans climato, 
th» iroiidorful imtuial liwitity, (hv f^plvndid trvw, tha pt^nadiiij^ jirvHunrit of 
raperb colour, the |*Bnerat ease of life, tho utUTeiaa] hoapitalit^*, and ihi' absL'ttco 
of poverty, arft large mgntdit^Dt'i in tin- )i]ij>pui>.'st> atid j"'iu'o "f oxisti'tii.Ki. The 
" coLoarod " population are of various ori^, aud diU'er widely in point of ItitoL- 
ligeuc^', hut th<.>y ull viit«rtain the reckleaa diaroRard of life which la voiuiuun to 
Orientals. Tho Uiiidoas in Mauritius are of the lowest gtudo, and, otoq for 
Iltsdooe, prowly mporBtitioni?. There ie a rtory of a servant, a couvprt to 
Christianilr, quit<^ Ri'innl to thut «t tho K<vw SValnndor who conromied to the 
Chrifitiaa luw of murria^^o by enting his surplus wivce. " Tbo fomily lu vhoiw 
urnoe tfciK man was, wore nbout to start oa a lonft joumoy, whan hE> was 

caught in the act of sacriiluDg a hmb. ' Ilow is dtia Y ' said Oen. ; ' eacri- 

fiouu a lamb 'f liVhy. you ate a Chriatiati 1 ' ' Well, ym, ao I am, hot thouf^h 
the filowed Yir^Q ia eood, Vishnu is ^rood too. and hero we are, aoia^ a tonj; 
way, aikd there are elophuute iu tho jun^^te, atid I thought if I could please thu 
Tii^n and Tuhnu as wall, we should haTo a double cbanoo of getting throtteh 
safriy." A few ehaptors deroted bo the Fauna aud Flora of Uauritiiu, and tae 
authors deaotiption of tho beauty of tlio ^^iaat vc^ioitatBon of tlio foroAs, aro of 
trausoendaut intaroat. 

Fidurts in T^nl anti EUewhnr. Fjvm u Family Sketch-Book. By the Author of 
" A Voyage eii i^igKag." Jjondon : I^ugrmma. 
It if dtiQ<niU to tiro uf descnpUuns of mouiitaiu travel, Itfiwi'vcr multiplied. 
Tbo mapc of tho moimtaius. vhioh exert h ao potent a Fpell over the traTeUer, ox- 
tendit to the rsiidrr too, luid tMnpU him through Tolnine afliTr volnimi r>r the Itte- 
ratuit) of clinibiog. Ono of his ploasantti^t excuraioas vba that miuJ<! in company 
with the travellerH " en ZiMntg," and another opportunity nl' th« •omx kind ia 
sDretabeaoaept«dwith<lelight. In Tyrol. " and msswhere," thi>writ<rof those 
charming deecriptive i.-hM])l«t«, the artwt who drew tboee matcbUw 8k<?tr.h<«, eo 
full of tivth, humour, fun, aitd froafaiioee, mn^ be the mt^tct aocrptahlo nf rem- 
panion». Iliis Tolume iv only vupertor to ita prodecofRor inasmuch a* there is 
more of it. 

Vifi JfoxinmVioji iit Mexico, From the Nolo- Bowk of a Mexicm (.>tlk«r. By 
XaX, IIa&o:; voar AmEA'ALRRKy, hili! Licutouanl in the Iinperial Mexican 
Army. London : Lonpuane. 

Uax, BiJtoH voK Ai.uiL\fit.En£x, i.t an extremely wcU-intcnfioned individual, 
with more st-ntimcnt ond cnthntdnsm tbnn judgtoent end pru'lm.v. Impelleil 
b]r a itron)^ personal ttdmiralioii of the uiifurluDStc Emp--n>r MaxiiiiiUau. hu 
jetned tho imperial army ut a it^iiitd n-heii it«i fi>i-tuiio« wt.'n> rapidly waniiif^, 
and doubtieas oondiiotod hiiti»jlf nimarkiibly wMl dtiriiig tho biiiTf [K'riod of his 
eervico in the (alhiip rauHo ; but he wcmld have done much lieUer not to bsTR 
writtvn a book which, while prufoasiag to be a trihuli? to tliv memory of the 
ardiduke, whom he praiaeM in t«mi* nf abmunl hTpi<rlMtlt!. and iff whoso career 
hfl takaa an utlerly impractical yio*'— indeed, a riew totally oppwti.d to facte — 
ia in reiality a aiUy aad verbose jtii-oe of m)lf-storiBealion, quite worthleM as a 



152 



I'ke Contemporary Review, 



contribufion to the liistory of a Tory r?inarkabl« period la oar time, andwliifili 
tnio and Lonoft critidnn mui<t nmdctan. Of MiixtmUias, the iiaptilsiTO and 
" puhing" Bciroti hiu really nothing ■whalever to tell. The reader cannot dis- 
ooTftrfroBO the book vbetlier the -nritor wiis ht^t in tbo present'* of the Euiporot. 
Nothing can exceed the cloudiness of the non-atiTe, except it be it^ tliniRincuw, 
and tbe Talul^ of tho Baton* >; opinion on tho vholo case may be p«titnat4x) from 
tbe fact that he gravely deolaix's Muximilitin'n failui'i' to b« attribuluble t'> hin 
snporbuiniui Ttrtno and nurity of mind, vhich rcndtivd him ini'upahlt' of hub- 
pe«tin|Q; or belierinff in tne c-xiat<:-uc« uf uvii in othins. In a word, MuxLUulian, 
according to the Biiron, wna much too good to live, and he expects history to 
arrive at the Ktiue concliuion. Kur the rokt, tbe booli i« mwo rubbbh — dttiiuii- 
ciation of " fwijutod traitors." romantic descriptions <if Dtcrnal friendflhipa. and 
deadly treacbcneu, «udiug vitli a dud, iu which tbt^ BurunV udvoraacy " fiiUH 
bIcediDgat his feet," and the Baron iuvtantly jumiw itiUiabnnl, and, fortunately 
for him. makc8 his cacapo tma Muxioo. This buot is intended an a uiouum^'utal 
tribute to Maximilian. It i^ iimcb iu b« hop^ tiitLt the " Huiwonf Hapsbuig" 
will uut uudontaBd iUi muritu very doarly. 



VI.— POETKY, FICTION. AND ESSAY. 

Oaili! Cvtirt. By Georoe M-icDosTALD, M.A., Author of "Alec Forbes of 

Tlnwc'lim." " T^uviil Klviiilinul." Aa. Ste. Thmn Volamea. London: 



Howglun," " David Elgiubrod, 
EluniL aud l31ackott. 



WnGK ctiticiam has done it« worat upon a new hook of hii. Goot^e Macr>onald, 
the book remains a valuable gift. It is impoRaible to read him vrithuut puM- 
sionnto admiriktion oonstantly riaing into MtnethtDg better, though the abort- 
oouuugs of bis work may be oven g'laring. It is due to him to try and Ret it 
clearly understood that he never wa« intended to writo uovdla or three- volume 
fltorioa. llo u. by nature, a croaa — unique, bo far oa our kuowlcd^ po«fi — bo- 
tweeu the poet and the apiritual teacher. ^Luopiog, however, to the conditions 
of Iha novel, Mr. MocDoaald is atill himself— a beantiful. inspiriting, pfllucid 
writor. Of tho purity and brightueiM) of his work it is didtcult to speak without 
seeming to bring down an echo of Minerva-iireas — ccrulmn is tho lu^jcctivo that 
bdonga to buth tho brt^btuesd and the purity. It is not by any means as if Mr, 
MacDonald looked down from the idciua upon the life he sees, but rather as if 
the life iteelf were lifted upwardo : ub if a gruuDdswell uf glamour carried hiK 
soaoery and his people " up high," as childri^n Nay. It oftfn seems as if bright, 
oolourud clouds mtt<<d between him and hie ubjeut, so that it is for a moment 
seen with prifoiatic diatortioii eitiiI jimiuntio huoA ; but the li|;ht is there 
always in acimo Hhupe. A little eeiiBe ol uiu-etUity keeps alipping into the 
reader's mind, becuuite Sir. MucDonuM, though he haa a tine, peculiar humour, 
haanot the tiomu kind of humour as Jean Paul and Homoothot's; hviJuvurLaugha 
Ht hiniwlf, U never ao roughly tiikliid by ii thrtti>L from a harcl fact aa to get 
shaken out of the glamour, tie does not readily take to the deep, ])athotic /un 
there is in the ilifjiurititis of life ; or, perhnpa, for noino ix'iu«on, be doea not do 
himtwlt' juatico in thie respect, for Mr. ilBc6aiiaId haa grown, and la growiug, 

I much Hint it ill hu^anluus to insist upon de&ciencies in liim, though afaorV> 
liriga (a word which, ai* distiugaished from faults, is in his case tho true one) 
in his work cjmuot escape uoUce. 

Tho peculiarity of '• Guild C^uH" is that it is a Ltmdon story; that Mr. 
MacDonald has, in wilting it, dehberately cut himself olT from uuv suiinn of 

Euvcr, or at Iforit facility ot expr(>ssion. in ubjuriiig tbo Scotoh dialect; and that 
has also set himBelf the taak of dealing wiUi iiuite commonplace people. Mr. 
Fuller is more a mouthpieoe than a man, so he is no cxooptiou ; and t.ucy, the 
kind, faithful, little heroine, is doliberutvly paiuttd as an ordinary girl (vol. iii, 
p. G'i), who is oven capable at u rather " small " thing. We arc tolil (vol. i. 
p. 136) that Thomoa WorboiiK) " was not so rill-t«>mpurutlj as this always, or 
even gentle-tempered Lucy would have (|uarrtdled wilh him, if it hod lieoii only 
for the aaks of getting rid of lum." Of couxsu mrcug. noble natures do not 



Nottces of Books. 



^53 



bIooj) to tho meaiinoi^a of (ituu-rolliii>c al all ; and if lh«y did, it voidd IhOt ba in 
ordw to "get rid ofanvbody. Uut Lucy is simply ^^d. sveat, orastant, 
and capaUn of /nHi/ifitnj ■ oif^h initiiitivA. Aa (at TLiomM, tho honi, hn inixvit* 
nbly remindfl one nf wluit Luko, the miU-sorrant, used to say to &[aegie Tulliver 
&biiut th<i prodigKl Mil : " Kb, iniw ! " — btit ira furgct the exact wortu, only th«y 
implied a strong doubt of the pennaooiicy of tho yawing man'fl good resolutiona. 
Tho loTH-making of lh« story is ver^- swe^t luid pretty : but, straiigA to saj, the 
beet of it ia in the tlr»t part of t^o book, aiid aDut BoxoU, aft«r eihe getd her 
little ki«» on the shoulder, carries awny far too mnCQ of tlie vender's sympathy 
to permit htm to liko I.uc}' as veil u nao d&scrrtM. Thi^ tr&nt of moral foroe. or 
driving power, in Thomas, shown, among other ways, in hie utter inoapacitr 
to deal bravely (and as " honourably " aa the utaation pannitt«d) with his aolf- 
created Mary lloxall difficulty, is, to our Huuking, a far more huLoiliating thing 
than the tnnk, "h)^" semi-ammaliam of the borve; litaa Hubbard, whoso 
talk with. Tiuunas Mr. MavUonold dealmos to deMribe, iu tliesn words (vol. ii. 
p. -JUS);- 

" But why should I go further with Uu> record of such talk ? tt is not intciroting 1o 
ae, and Umvfimi can baldly be so to my readon. Even if 1 hnd th« nrt to u-t it forUi 
aiightt I hope I ibonld yet hold to my prumt holiof that nothing m which thu ut ts 
nppennostu worth the ait Axpcndi^l upon tL" 

In another place Ur. Maol>oQald makes Jjavy tell Hattie, an old-fa«bion?d 
little girl, that if monkeys diagoat her. that is what thoy were DiAd« fnr. Just 
BO : aud Misa Uubbord was made for MOiuething too, of wbi«b it ie a shame to 
eh««t us in this way. It ia too bfLtl to ride olf \ipao tbo " art " quostiort— it 18 
not "art" that in uiiijormodt in, eay. Fioldiiig'e picliiro of Paraon Trulliber, but 
free-playing sympathy. We know how dilfieult it is (if not impowible, ur at 
least uncxamplud) to get this free play along n-ith height and purity like Ur. 
MacDonald'a ; and we should not harft waid n word if wo did not believe that Mr. 
UacI>oaald has the requlaite "art." if ho will only rut bin cable aud trust him- 
self, Ebewhere [vol. li. p. ITfl) Mr. MucDoimH xay.H, ""niero are nn iiatoral 
typos that do not dimly work their own ('|)iiitTiaI reality u|>oti tlio open houtt 
<n the human bciui;." Deep and tiuo word«, of a far wider siguiBvauce than. 
they bear upon thi> pugn in rjniftioii. If nny mun living wuld mint hiiuaelf to 
sketch f^y n typo like llifui Uubbard. aud yot remain faithful to Iiii^ beet viitiou 
^fif the best tvpti, thill man is Mr. MiiclJonald. Id all bi» writing we liave novor 
iMea Bemaibie of one jarring not<>, of a single moment'?* moral di^-t^unl. To 
return to ii point just touched upon ai lie l>e^nning — th" griind«ur uf life and 
doty may o& huggetited by showing n-i fremly a figure like Mine Hubbard's (tea 
tiBK^o more rifil, eren as she is left, than Mr. Fuller], bBcauxe there in infinite 
I humour in the irrelevance of mirh a figure to tho awfulnow and boauty of the 
• great niectacle. It is in not availing himself sufticiently of tlii« inx-Ioviuico, aa 
''* tnoral jwwer aa well a^ a relief to hi^ other " cffecti*, ' that wo venture, with 
the deepest reepeot, to think Mr. Macl'onald doen a little injufltice to himwlf. 
The man who eon do that natural oldMrt. Boxall mity tnu^it his "art" fnr homo 
other matters, and wo hope he will. 

For tho rest, "Guild Cknufia a story of strong interest, monng on quiet 

middle-cla!« leveU.aud among tho domostio puuuons aud thodumestic interests, 

[There i» an sir of Atime-ness about it all which i* im-omparably sweet. Wo 

[•bould think nobody will bpgiu it without reading it through, aud that nobody 

tvill finish it without feeling exhilarated and tttrengthencd. It i^ the most un- 

(Kiual story Mr. MactJouald baa ever written, bat it contains no ooufuiting «'/«-•/• 

Vou havo ala-iiya Iwfore you niOivr gold, ur samptbing which you recogniM for 

exactly what it ia. And if you are a I-ondon man, yoii abut up the book with 

I ft longing wish that rou knew wboro St. Amos'» if, luid could drop in whuu you 

[pleased, to hear ^fr. Fuller read jirayom in the quiet while the traffic wa^ riiging 

f mttside. Let the reader buy " Quifd Court," and find out what this meaue- 

The Gu<irdlan Anoti. By Oliteii WexTiELL HoLMBs, Author of "The Autoemt 
of tho Ureakbst Table." Two Vulumi-«, Loudon : Sampson l^ow, iSun, 
andMatston. 

Ha. Holue.!*' '■ Onardian Angel " has some tbIii» as a story, but more as a 
I pcychologieal study, and more still as being at onoo the symbol and rusult of 



'54 



"The Contemporary Review. 



poAulur aociftl a&d intdlar-bial oonditiona. Thoie clianteten in tho -vaik whic 
hftVQ naUy ui iadopoudout existence — that is. which arc crAtivoly rvvlizotl uidl 
deTAlnped from Tital oeotrM — u« Hcitbrnwn iutatita backcKiuad that the intAmifc 
in.tluNiiiscailyiiwkeD«dto Iw tontulizLagly sucked awayuy thoeo poroas buflins 
vhich bave beOtt M davarly iutrrjacteii tn keup Myrtle Eliusanl — tho h^rotnn — 
from beoommg oowntiiilly u ^ort o{ secoad EUte Venner. This wl> shuU exvluu 
mor* tally in a monwnt. Myrlli' i* mijiiiriitrHl to inbiTit thAprodiMpoxitioMiof ndu 
leas thma fleron progeoitars, and sho lirea through tJioir lives iii sopomte abigm 
of ban. Rh« is, in fuel, " ptwwww c d ; " being a witch, k Piiritau inuiiyr, u woman 
of be«i^ and fashion, a Bed Indian, and bd on by turns. Nov, th« vhola cbanoQ 
of iDMpiug thi« sort of •xooptionsl c«ntinl iut«r(>»t from bocomiiip m morbid and 
opp ro ai TO as to po«tiv«ly repel, lay in running uj. in tb« pataUeb of Mj-nln 
Huwd's lifo admioe lines of normal, oommon iDduoncee, 00 powerful as to-j 
reli»n, and yet not to oompl«t«Iy oonnterAct. the dominating ptyohologic*! in-| 
floencee personified m her. itt, UoUnee 'baa not wholly auoeeoded in this' 
because hLi mind i» in tho luaiQ Aoiontttic. Civorgo Ntui^Donatd, for inatmnoe, wfao 
more than almoet auy of our KngUsh writers inoUuee to thlJi sort of itady, loica 
hiaboldwhoroMr. [iolmMidnwat powerful. luid rt!«nina it«xa£tlywheroholo«Od. 
Ur. HaoLionald is ooiutuuitly atriTiug' to throw inside theooohouted oircleof phy- 
fliAo-psycfaolocical uonditious apintual olMrtnc lineaot>DTeyiogourTe)it« thatovofJ 
charge the oNiiiary vLomeuta of lifu, till at laal breachaa are made in Ibo outer^ 
bulwark* : imd. by theae, ordiii&ry men and women may adTance to the lunost 
citadel of Lho envmy. iind dnd iu ihu ralitfiouri iiutiiuota a maoau of approaching 
Biiiliudine poorfeUitw-creatui-enpoBaeuwi and beaten by devils in whatever Eonn. 
Kuphra (.amorou'a lc-lt«r to the dead DbTid Klgiubrod in the mj-titie breMjIi 
by which the minlatiy of Miir^iiaret KIgiubrod — who, it rIiuuIU b« rfitu>in tiered, 
kad no Kpuciu! furc« o( ^^*ill or reinotsat possibility uf counter- l»iMuuatiuu— 
becomes poaaiblit. Ur. UolniiMi MeM-inii really to Iw cif old Dr. }Iurl)>:ic'« <)|>tuion 
tbaflivu folks are only doad fulkrs wurmod uTer;"but at the antue ttmo ho 
tvffitd» Natura aa coiiHttt.ritly workiufc tunanU criw^ luid r«Hdju»tiiM!>iil«, Ibw truo 
cure being the careful help and acoeleration of her prooeasea. " Bilea Gridley, 
A.K.,"i8th'erefore a meet commonphiro "Ouai-dian Augsl," who seems dynaoii- 
cally •«parut«d fruiu the very personativy bo l» xo intimiLtely bouml up with. 
He, after nil, lires ontdide it — a strun^er to ita mydter^'— one of the porous 
buSen, wfaiob destroy dramatic continuity by the very interest they excite. Mx. 
nolmee is the poeitivist ; Mr. IfaoPonald ia the myotic. Both to eoine oxbent, ^^ 
tboufifh from opposite sidea, slide olf from that tnagic centre ^hich lim b^tweeD^^H 
epirit and body, idoel aud aotiuLt. making thorn «t once wonderful and uiidi«-^^| 
tiiiffuiahable. And the result is thai both, at oertain points, destroy the oreutire 
modiuin, and hare to iitiL-hor a certain elam of Uicir charactOTM within M>parato 
arbitrary circles, aud to work theut togethei' by mvre triokK of the intellect. 
Judt in the degree that Dr. Fordyoe Hurlbut and Clomoct LindMy~-two of 
Mr. Ilolmea' uwwt Bmbitii:>u.-i olu(rac(«i>t — aj^ bixiugbt ut:d,«r the fasouaatioo of 
Uyrtle. ofewo separabcd from Kitty Vagan, Oynthia Bedlam, and the reat, who, 
H» (K'nuiiiely uatural bc-iiifp<, most deeply excite our c-urio»itv and our sympjith}'. 
That subtle impalpable olemeat, in wtuch art has ica very hfe. is excluded, and 
hard wienlitiu oxactuesa tAkos ila plac*. Uoiv inhuritaiKO seuuis FaM, and the 
spiritual world becomaa either a nonentity or a Ue, with doe result of doubtfol 
teuchiug. Whim Susan Puee)''s eimple lirtter douidos Clement Litxlsay, tho 
sculptor, to titn)w oil the yukn aud decide Eitr duly —making him (>mualt to 
utoais the image by ibnnint^ which, iu iha passion uf urtistio crt'iUiuu. ho had 
link^nl and laahed hiH iinHtablu ooul mon) liMnly to a penlout> itmhaiitment'^tlM* 
moral tmprosaion is pwnl -. but that must yield to aomotbiu^ like a hard eden- 
tifio law of nfliiiity, of niKXfiwity bringing liku U> bkv in dui> litrnt, wbnu {'luiiitKit 
Lindsay wodit KTyrlleHaaard. The lawa of art'e kingdom, which cometh not 
with obHvnation, are do<.>3H>r than those of adonoe'a kingdom, wbich so uones; 
and all clever mi)mpiilatinn— and Mr. Trolmoa' manipulation U unspeakably 
dernr — will nut umke the one set of laws covm the field of Uie othwr with any 
■atasfactory rMult. We havo here acientitte materials used to enda of art, bnt 
with no artistic result ; aud though wo heartily rooommend this story to our 
rcadors, ve wish tbetn to be fully alive to the^ fncU, 

Bat we aaid it was mainly valunblo a9 th« ermbol and result ofaodal and ia- 
tollMitunl eonditi>in.^. M'c beliovo mcb n booK was poi»«iblo in no countn- wiTO 



Notices of Books, 



^S5 



I 



. at uo tlmo eavfl the preseoL A viUlYaotor which has iloinmautljr 
•ntered into aay BaUonttl liftt can nuror, in our opiuton. he practicully elimi- 
nated frwu it. Calvini&tic PurifaDiAu lies deep lu Uie Americcn diiLmctor, 
and though atteni|itN nrv now Wiu^ 1iit;^]j tiuu)« to gel rid of it loi^cally b» a 
raeremodeof thou^t, asa fact of life, it mturDs in the stnuigoat maiuior, coloor- 
iugBad d««iMH]iiig alL fontiiiof thouehl, notwithstandiag \£a atrangv conglome- 
rate eti-sta the stmam haa to rise taroug'K aud flow otct. And t^Aac straogo 
•timta ilo not imitetlo it; tli«r but impart to it a tiaoeof their own peculiar dyes. 
Amartca. with her boundloss nhyAicnJ reaouroos, Kar etiango admixturmof raoo, 
Iwr •piritaal cramped n^sa, and h<:r eager, aUoost Caveriab reaching out Uit, an<i 
aharp aanmilatioii of, all ttsv facta and cjomoiitaof ririlizatiofi—in ouc word, tritli 
li^r r^Mtlws mnxi aud deroair of the body even is the blind voi'sluj' of thut 
whirh pertnina to tho body^ — ia i»n iutoreKtioe pbeuomt'uoa ; and waat form 
nnild her Calviuisni well take but Uwt which Mr. Uolmcut hu« hero so skil- 
fully VTOu^tt out, uttd which bo has thwt aucdncUy expresiied r — 

** And now Uta rutdur, if inch thimi br, who iMtliMrai in Ubb iA>mAa\r, intIt>pMt(l«<no» muI 
■•tf-d«lariBin«Uon of th« will, and th« comayicnt lotil laqxmJhilJl.v of «very human 
being' toT vrcry irrv^liu- nurroua (utinn omi ill-coTMiird muBcalar enatnuliiiiii. mar aa 
wall Uy doK-a thin nanaUvc, nr b« oiky Icn^. iiU Sti\h ic poor Jiyrtlm iluttrd, ana all 
pAticnc* villi hini who Utlln lutr kUv)'-" 

It ia from tho old dcop CulriniEtic idea in oontaot with transitional iU-aaBOrted 
axtamal ttUiuenta ruuuing into gtytaequa arrauiftimeola— jnitt »» thinva lt« 
mixad in a backvond'H " ntore "—which baa given nn at once tiio far-withm-awu 
ytai«tTwaa of llawlhoniL', th« (k«^-*haded humour of IIoInKM. and tbo in* 
Unitable drollery of AneTnu.<i Wnrd. All flpring frAm th«) aaniA RamMfcacaa 
l^yinK aKHinat caprtciuucily-asmfted olgmtB which it sew a profomid 
MMaing in, yet delights to Tiew with one eye rloM or wiakin^. Ilirre are 
aitiglv aaaiteuoea in Mr. Holmes that, like the stonea on some soils Btr«n(^en- 
ing tfaem, might haye been pickad out of Art«miu. 

Svrvxfod: «r, VUl'iae Life in Stw Kn^atui. By Hexby Ward MKIXIrtP 
London: Sampaan Low, Son, ondUaraton. 

>* NoKVooD " i« no inorv a novel than it is a table of logahthinA ; liut thun, 
M the rersrend author artfully abstains from oalling it by that uuub. it must 
bot be eritidi'.eii by ibf lam of the novel. It belongn to a typf nf Htory of 
which Amerinui litnralure haa given us a eood many epecimona—Urs. Stowo's 
** Mtiiiater's Wooing" iiad "The OByworUiys." for exjuuplo. But v)iil« ita 
fitonuTqualitieji and its suggestive power are much higher than thuae of a work 
Kk* "Toe OKywortliya," it ia fiu- iitferior, u a story, to "The Miniabar's 
Wooiag." We put the oaae in thia form, not beoaaae oompariaona are as a rule 
4eaif«Me, but for the aake of givittg in smaU oompaaa an idva of the rank 
" Norwood " may tak«, and tho gonoral chnrai-tor of itit contonts. Mr. Reeober'a 
atrangth liea in character, and in the moral criticism evoked by the ooUiaioo, or 
mbor jnxtapoaitieo. of character. lo other hantU tho iKibnao of hiH Tolninos 
■i^it well have made a more aSbotiug etory ; but in fiit heads it is chiefly Ur. 
BMcfaflr that alTocte na, vid not ao Tn^h the narrative, thota^ that ia tonohiug' 
In. FoitQnawly, he is atruiig enough to wiold a good deal of power, evsn ia 
nttB of llu) ^rroM mistake of interweaving the etory of the Anerimn war with 
w» fiotiou. Ur. Kiugaloy made a aiiatbr £ftlao atop (though not to eoofa a 
Jifciui) in "Two \'ear» Ago." 'ilie nature of the nuMake ta obviotia. When 
MKhiog is aaid uno way or the othm* aa to what ia " rual " and what ia invented, 
Wa accept the illujiion of u Ntury. and ask tio mittRtions ; but the niomcut any- 
body aaya. "founded on fact," or the likf>. or does what ia eiiuivaleut, nauoly, 
iBinMlucea newHpapwr umtiTitLl, *» Mr. Itw^Jwr dinw, we ant reminded that cet- 
tain of the evente narrated have really happened, while aa to othera wo must 
be unoertaiu, or loorn. Kwii what laifhl be uewi>i<aper nateriid, if it oomea too 
cloee to faniiliur matter of fuct, ia damaging, aa wiu au imbuppily ebown in 
" Aorora Ijwiifh.'' To this day it in alxnoet oa open question wbetber lui his- 
Ivical novel can be a true work of mt — i.e. , aatiafaotorr as to tho illttsioo : 
bat one thing is oprtain, tbnt to m iK up tho well-known facte uf i/nkTv/u u with 
aa tnreoted story is sure to produce a very imporfeot reanlt upon a reaaar of 
to-day. 

In mpitm of this, and that other drawback of tho preaoher'a too freqnoat oyo 



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The Contemporary Review. 



lo «dificatioii, "Norwood" is mifficieutlj- vticoosful, even as a work (vf fiction, 
to be a surprise te those vhn prErriuosly knew Mr. Beecher ouly in onoUier 
cspttcity. All the clianirt«r in voll dniwu, ttiid tiio gi^ncral li&udliag ohows 
an iRKight wliidi goes far to codhoIo us far Uio rni^bR art ile touter, Sotno of 
the little episodea are admimlile : the aseodotfu) uf O'ld Pftte, for instaiKJe; 

ATnericoQ literature may, porlinpe, bo eaid to fumifih a crudg anKver, or a 
crude BOggestioii of an answer, to thowi wbo, in our cin-ti dny, so haughtily 
decay " eentiiiMnit " an incompatiblo with ntiit^tly " human " energy titid the 
houeet aervioe of I>uty. The American nation w as wntiincntaT as Jo»e^]i 
Surftice — the book before lu is a porfcct eruption of .aerilinient> most of it, 
iodeed, noble and beantiful. Br. Boecher is a man of tiied euergyand actinty, 
Tot ho goes on hc<ro like " foolir<h niiict«cn." 11o is too pnutised a writer, and 
has too iuui!b humour and truthfulneiia m him to ooadesoend to mere higli- 
Dklutin' ; but if wo were to de»cribo " Norwood " aa"a story written by n young 
Ajuorican profcswr of uiucb ability, who was over head and eara in love at the 
time of wilting it, we should HcarcdlyfoU to convey aomo oortot'truo impreaaion 
to tho rcadur. Ono of ibt most obvious faults is that it is too crowded : but, 
Avith a hundred poinla to irritate the critic, and too often heayy with ' ' pomtivo 
fu«t" or uuiltor "fouudvd on ftiot," "Norwood" is a book which no one who 
has learned for other reasons to respect Ur. lleecher should omit to read. 

M^bd'i Prwjme. A Nove!. By tho Author of " Aunt Margarot'a Trouble." 
Loudun : Chapman and Hall. 

"irABEL's PKtMiKitfH" is BUch an improvement upon "Aunt Margnrefa 
Trouble," that nobwly would ^c^wt it wm by tlw samo author; but eertain 
passages in the theatrical fixponeno<v4 of Mabel make it almost impoeaiblo not 
to identify the author of the novel with the author of certain charming papers 
whirh, appearing in another place some months ngo, o\cited considorabl« 
ciuioeity. In all tho three instances we &nd the same kiud-hoavtednoss. the 
same (juicknccs of observation, th« same (luoiit ttympathy, thi^ same histrionio 
bent, and, above all, the same utter openness or wont of reserve. If Mabel 
had not left the utage, it might be worth while to remind her that this (lueiit 
opotmeas is n ^oat dofcct in our actor, who must \x- oblo not only to take on 
the individuohty of another, bat to suppreNs his own. In tho laoffuage of the 
phzeDoIogists, he must not only have largo Imitation, ho must have largo 
SeorotivaueBS. And this is the very lin^t particular in which " Mabol'i Pro- 
gresa " Btrikea an experienced eyo as foiling short. In spite of the atory. in 
ipite of tha multitude and variety of thu c'hiLiii€t.ora, and .the intwoat of the 
Bituations, tho bo<Jc ia a revdalion from hr-ginning lo end. - A more winning 
peculiarity a " new writer" could not have. Tho f.ict is, you (aaoy aa you 
read that thi^ kind, gay crnature \* going to otftir you her hand; and, at 
parLiug, you drop ceremony and give it as sound u shaaing as you can 1.>Q for- 
giTCD for. 

Tho greatoBt faul ts of " .\imt Margamt'a Trouble ' ' lay in the story and the 
people. "Hw latter, vxcf-jit Stock Ihe ganb'nw, worv lay figur^K. and the pa»- 
siona and the tnamirt of the narrative wen< Jfjuw. In "Mabel's Progress " this 
ia mended. 1'he Moeom])liHhf>d author bus Iwldl}' walked up to a larger canvas, 
and felicitously fillfid it. ITio storj- is good, tho chamcitGrs am wrfl conoeiwd, 
tli0 ntyle la nalural, and the moral, moti/, or intention SO admirable, that it 
remains unalTected — a great triumph— by tfao imporfoot approboQsiou of the 
" evangelical " type which has permitted a caricature like Uisa Fluke. Sven 
Stock waa wide of the mark, though ividontly intended for a copy ; )mt HiM i 
Fluke is a figure dashed in with a pencil that can do mueh better if it likes. 
Still, ;tho ia a powerfully-drawn caricature : it ia impossible not to laugh at her, 
and it must be n'mvuibi-rud, by those who find it UDpIooaaotiuiweU aa powerfol, 
that tho " Hani ChurL-h " type may show more disagreeably than they know to 
one who bus wicKiutly buoii brought into activo ouUiiiiou with it on points of 
conduct. 

'■ Mabel's Progresa " ia strictly a novel, ueing that word in the moat obvious, 
accepted aidHMe. it deaN with (-<?mm<m .Httiiir-i' and onlinnry srx-ioty, and it haa 
□o romance in it pxtopt aucb aa may ha seen by any one who wiilka throngh 
London with his cy«B open. Such niaturiul as cummorcial fuilurw, ihp drv^ 
down of a well -to-do family, the elTorts of a mn in one rnae. and a daugbtur in 
thsothvr, lo retriovo tho situation; a. "courao of true love" made rough by 



Notices of Books. 



^57 



I 



mUfortuoo. hoDoanblo pride, and br>Qoara.blo delioaoy. but Qovr'mg into bavoo 
at last ; the self-bctrayiu of churActen of w«ak fibro ; tho de^^radfttioii of cba- 
ractara o( du (Ibi-o at ilII : tho cniolty of oliaraoten tJut aro OTor-fibroiu; the 
Iialhetic g:a(>dno3a of childltko ioexnerience. — out of these and their natural 
accassoriea tho author of " Miibol> I'cotfrow" hius novoii u muviiiff. uaexa^- 
k,t«d ttlarj. Ita Apontaneity makea us hopo that the author may !«oiiie ilny 
I h«T way to a cluas of work fux hutt«r thuu tho uovol. Ooo says, looking at 
**7llHb«l'« l*rogri>«4," the author haji frixliutd a chnriatng book ; it in 4>viitt)iktly 
" put together." howover BwuoUy and uaturally. Uut only a peniiy-a-liner 
-WTiulil nay K<«tK pm-l'iffl the " Kv>\ rif Ht. Aj^iidh," or l-'ouq»^ " Undine," or St. 
Piorre " Paul una Virginia." Whateror Lhe facts of her career as a writer may 
prove to hv. we do uov h4.>!(iute tu isny that her afHtiiUee, though aot. no fiu- %» 
yat appoara. of the deepest, do lie, weaker or stronger, trith a nobler school 
tboa ttUt in which the now appoare desirous to take her dej;t«e. The £^itre 
and itory of OoTda Tr<^iKv>tt are deoiave OTidoDce upon that question. 

Old fUr OuttijUiM. By tlie Hon, Mr». Nobtos. Aiilhor of " Lost and SaTod," &c. 
Three Volnmefl. Second Edition. I/ondon: Hurst and Blaokett. 

It ia aeareeljf poeaible, whitu turning over u uortd by tlio Hoiiouniblo Mn. 
Koston, to avoid a piuuiigicouaciousiiesa of the spend witli whii:h thei lituniture 
of fiction haM beun otuttuig ite skiu duiing tho buit fivo -and- twenty years. 
Wh»i-e flhall we now liud a tityle or a manner of coiiceptJoa like hen f Both 
the method and thu ui'iro superficul charactoriii:ic<i belong to an era which 
mif^ almoat i>e cullul pTe-Wiii\lHVi>rthi>iti. Th9 vrilir of to-dny '" murcely 
acntatomed to handle such material ; ha fuirls us if he wanted to co tmd 
t«lk it o\-«r with somobody liko Lbi< liitit Mr. T. I;. P>.uc<i(:k. lo-t tb^ habita of 
ihonght engendered by what he is habitually forced to read ahould do it 90me 
tDJustioe. 

One thing is clear— the gifbod author of "Stuart of Diinloath" has not for* 
gotten her anviunt cunnine. her noUsh, her varied knowledge of men and cities, 
or har «qiiaUy varied readuiu. Nor has she lefc behind her any of her powftr 
af sxpreSBtng. without obtruding, indignation at wrong ; or hnreift nf rhotorifl, 
loKhfy oolonred with poutic feeune. " Old Sir Doufflas" may Be said to fulfil 
aUtlio oonditinns of thfi nnvol. Wo hare anon numeroiw objections to octrtain 
part* of it. but none which we do not believe Mrs. Norton could instantly 
aaewer. Her WDrk ha.i evidoaily boon planned with oare, and ciirried onwam 
with a r«eoIute hand. Nor can all the delicate self-control of the artist conceal 
Ota senM of dolieht in doing "justico" on a scoiiTnlrol whi'^h underlies tho 
inercilew irony of hatred that pursues the man I'rore till he gues horribly to 
" hia own place." It is a portrait, vhoovor tho original wim, or \b : no, ivor- 
bi^i«, is iiog Carmichael. At all events, sho is sketched with much reality. 

PTob narratiTe ooatoins at least one highly dramatit' sorpriso. 
Oao paasagv made us laujch aloud, lh<^iigh it was not intended by tho author 
to be funny. We are told (vol. i. p. 129] that Lord Brougham's theory of 
dzouaiug is so and so, " in proof <j! which, be aayi), you have only to go and 
mnapin aharply into a slumbehng friend." Only! This ia veiy like tiord 
Btougoam. who has in his timo run a good mauv pins tharply into a good 
DLinyp'iople; but any one who has contemplated the welUknown bunt of tho 
Honourable Urs. Xoflon oautiot with conuilaoeucy thuik of her muniug it pin 
tharply into a idutabering friend — Li^rd IJuIfi^in, for exaniplo. to whom the 
Borel IS inacribenl. in ouo of those strongly-phrased, and yet delicate dodtca- 
tians, in which tho auUxor is »o felicitous. 



Vn.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

The OoPommtrU o/ England, itt fflrtuiure anii Dtvelopmenl, By WiLLLUl 
Edward IlEAsy. LL !>., Profsasor of History' and Politiool Economy in 
the XJniver'tity of Uolboume. London : Longmans, liolbouroo : George 
Boberteotu 1867. 

TirElact that ft bulky octavo on tjift above snbjert, from tho pen of a Victorian 
prafsMor, should have found ita [way to the mother country with a Victorian, 



■S8 



The Contemporary Review. 



imprint, hiut attracted tnnch notice almady. Pr. ItoamV Immod and infffnitrtiTe 
work wonld dram-re r f«r morp wlabnmtr rtn-ifw thnn i-^n p«>«bij' hn ppvm to 
it in ihnto pagm. Ito plan i» nriginal, nnd evAry pii{|;p lK>ar» the irmrk of a mind 
which hae tlwnii^t onl its saljjoct; whiNt the"«;<'iwtrtn»I rpfi-nncmf (ooolnnial 
hiiitory nnd pnioHrc ^tc— /or an nld-irnHd rr«dfT »t Inast. — n rertAin zntt anil 
Davoor to it« matter. 13itt the tnofit n>mnrknble fi>»turD of the ^i-ork is liy no 
iDPnni its noTclty. TNHiJit fihonI<) w\\ r«i.**ii(T thrwe who. nt <>vcrjr poltfiiml 
<'Itftnj:e amnns iia, we (lie " Jlf>od-piit« "f r^votuticm" rwdv to Iwrat on our 
dcvntM i-oiintry, is to find tliat under a ri^int'i^<A unifcrsa) niffhige. artimii 
reitrvwDtalion, and fYnnTn-m Bchonln ■upportoil b^- i-atc^, I>r. Heam imperturb- 
aoly set* ftwth the old rmilitinnni th«inr« of En;^li«h comrtitutioniilifln— declaring 
on the one band Umt. " whaterer may be iU morits, democnun' hun no plaoe in 
I'njflinh law ; " carefully prorinpr. on the other, thai " tho roral will in rontom* 
jilntifiR of law n* by no nionns thf men poraonal will of tho kins'," bnt "hia 
o(]i>.ial will," carrim into efl'oct by eertain iip^^itl orj^R!< proridra bi,- Inw, all 
diHiintft, iuid noiiti of them " ootapetaot in porrorn tho functional of tht- othior.'' 
Iji tennfl, at I«u«t. Dr. Ueam iiidmd falli; iJiot-t of iba currant doctrifiM aa to tha 
WToruigiilT o^ ^^li^ment, iiiuintaiuiiij; timl " \\v: jKtwvrof lcgii>latiDn nndM 
in Qnetm Victoria no loss llian it resided in William tho Nomian," pnoftpt that 
" the eonrfitiomi under wliioh that powi^r is cxcrc-iwd are vpiy difforont." Ho 
g(>w to fmr n* to di^ny l!w IfiioUity of iindden rreationJi of jwien* lire a KpAotiU 
omergentry.nnd dPTulc* botcthI pagosto provms»rh:i( " thrrftuppngeof mivpttBs" 
L8 " r\v limgtT n iwiistitulioiKiI remedy." llr. IlfKim's chi»]i!*'i~* oti " the Ci^nat" 
Hiid on ■' I'olitical Hepr^RpntaTion " may Iw poinlofl onK aa fttTnnrablo spMrhnans 
of hix litHtoncal rattunrch and acumen. Bnt ooiiM ho tint havv tdiortmied hia 
work ? Its bnlk must ropel many a rendor whom it wonld wdl deserre to 

;i(tnict. 



S. Barixo O0UT.P, H.A.. Anfhor of 

Second Sorioa. London, <!)xford. and 



Cur\ma Uijtha of thf AfidtlU Agf*. By 
" ro«t-McdiiM*.iI Pmichora," 4c. 
Oaathridgo: Kivingtons, 

Hk. Barijki Gould'a aeoond doven of " Curioiu Uytbo," if deuling K«aenUy 
with Imb fiuniliar aulticcts than th« tint, will Ixt no Icm df^ligihu'ul to all who 
relish a atuunt tule luid tlin huntiu)^ up of iU p>«ilifn<w. Tho twiiL uf hts mintl 
it to roeolTO ail Icgewls into naturc-mytha cono-min^ earth and sky, sun and 
moon, dooda and rain. dew. li^'htniiii;. thunder. )>u(iiutf n^ide vutiraly the Tiow 
which connects thorn with the myatcnca of liring nature, both o£ maa and of 
iiuimu]a,miikintf«|)uriDg um of iihilology , Dr.Uaz MiUler'a aule atoetor^k^, and 
(ox(.«pt for tho ugend of Thoopnilna) wnnUy pnK^rmittinfc the poaaihili^ of aa 
undwrlyiug hirfurio viemvut. Whutlivr a ntdly (Miiiprahvuiivu phytiolony of 
It'jrond can bo eutabliahed oth<>rwise thnu by an imTwrtial roco^tion of all tb(»e 
vanoufl «)<nnent« (to^ivthcr with au ufton uiurmous adnuxturo of aitn iyiiiff) */> 
otitoring into ita composition, may perbiijM he. d<>ulrt«d. 'fo what eiitont tiuch 
laai adventitious mult'>r uiiiy bv prvranii, Mr £arin^ Oould abowa axDoUimUy 
in treating of St. L'rsula and the tlcren tbouMnd virgin*. ThMO he does not, 
oiJDonLng bo the currout I'rutosttuit riow. rusolva into a St. Undocioiurtta, bat 
traces the whole logonil back to thoSwabinn nintm-fcmUlt'Ma UoranUlaia, qooou 
of tho many thonaaud stum : tolling mvaowbiln how the bonm in an oldBoman 
ci-ntAtery havin); been onc« identihed by t^-sUitii- vi.-<i(>ti with thoae of theTirgin* 
luutyrM, such visiona bad to he repeated A^aiit and njiain to acomint (or the 
prt-'M-'titvi of iiiul<! biioL-a, nf nrpiihihnf HitiliN. of thii boiivw of chililmi. Mr. Uaring 
'iuuld hiu} a N-isiblo b^aning townrda thu Romiin PufhiTilir ( hurch. but forttinatcly 
f.ir iiim b« haa aWt a tnu* Protiwtnnt ami tCntfUsh horror of fabwhood. which 
fhiclili) him from her swUictionB, Some of his vipwn ha In the lingering under- 
cuni'iit of l>m)dii>m in nur luwor l'on»s of ilj«s»ntiii^ worfhip ib'«i-n,'o carvful 
weighing. But h<? might hnm looked hifrhor, Riijhtly inrrHliiig that tho Christian 
iUh ti-iiw w that of thv rwnuToctioa of tho body, he might have obeorvml that Ibo 
popular theolngyoftheday. in iM iilmo^ oxchi«< vti him'^Iaiicx; on tho immortality 
of th« (Will, ia, oven on llie lips of its most rciiiied opp-nents. far moro »lun to 
the Iftanhinp of thn Phrrdu than to that of our .Suvionr and Ui;* apo-^tloa. and 
thnt tho oiiTtniiry Tartnrolo{;y tluwa far more directly from the aixth book of the 
iBtioid than l^m anything in Holy Scripture. 



Notices of Books* 



'59 



Smrtptam AmtameiiU in iStii: ba*td upon L«tUn reprmied, bp pfrntttum, 
frtm thr TiMB9. By Captain C B. BuaokxkbckT, B.A., Ajiuiutt-IXrectov 
of Anill«r>- 8tu(li(S.'«. IjoaAan : duiptnnD and Hull. 

CAtTAOt hoACKESBXTBYs book. boAcd npoD UfftcM deacriptiTD at iht> tmple- 
nuataof wv Ut«ly vxlulik-d ut Par». in just what u r«<)ui»d by thow who 
would ltk<! to follow witli iiib?liiprr>iit iutoroet the diaciuiQoiia eoiu1*nUT aruioft 
OS U» sKbjwt. HHm otLlj muit Mt )'T tW r>.-ult>r ie tkut vl illiurtnttiuiiH. witlicnu 
whi^ the MAt deacriptiona of ninrhincrv uu neccHMrily obacniv. I'hc imtJwir 
vnten Cully into Ihu rti4ui^l/js for ^ooa onloaiice, and duschbcH iliu lUtlfnmt 
vx])^nmutiU which bare Licen madf! in Unropo and Amenck ia the »uiiiufiti:tur« 
of guns : luiil it it. ootu»Uii;r Ui Uud thut he i.-utmdi.Ts us ut tiii' li<nfit fully ubreuiit 
of othvr DiiUoDH in o\ir |>tu]wir«ixu-iu fur wur, :i« fiir n» miitijriid in njiiciirnMl. 

In ihpw (lays of ctinttant chiin^ and improTi-mant it was, porliupB. na well 
th'it Cutttitin Ilnu'lci<nlmry% I'l'iticiHiiiH Kliouldlm ciinriiii-il to fu-bi-niiui which hsvo 
stand the teet of practictil trial. He thwefiiro. in hiB t-huptpr on naval arohi- 
UnrttiP', «ay» nothing aboat the pl:iti wf iiirlf ndnl jxirlx f<n* uliipi*, wliicb )>rDmiMn 
to rombinfl the adTsnta^p^ nf tha hroadaile and turret nyatetiiA of armament, or 
of the 8Ui;K^«tinn of intrndtirii])f into largo KUiu an iat«nial rin^ of motal joined 
tn thr> bo<ly of th(» gun at thfi brrwh onlv, and so connhTictmi that the powdor 
tHU lie n-iihin nnd .-il) rutini], tlio object Wiii}; to loem-n the ••tmin on the Dn«>cb 
by dtritrtbuting thp fnrr« of the Axplnnon oti't a Inrgpr *urfafK of metaL 

Otptain itruclti'nbory is, indvixl, quito putb«Lic ou the woes of inwiton. 
"A hrtlliflnt id^^." b« nayn. " occurs to sfinn?h.)dy ; ho Tnfflk« dnnrinoA, or 
embodies his thoa|rht8 in a modQl. and from that momont bapfnaesa «KMrt« 
hitn and MAce fliea frum hifl jnllow for ''Tonuoro." On which ptuAuc take the 
following oy way of conuuput-: "Warren's cooking-etove," wntes too anibor. 
" bM Iho dcf-i^t. of only c-nkin^ properly in u »tdt«* of r*>vt." ll i* within the 
kaowlod^ of the present wi'iter tLot. ut tho time of the Crimiian war, one nf onr 
,«1^[M»r»hMl dc!tienetl a military cooking-stovo to ficcompnay the tnfopa on 
the march and cook tk«ir mliomt while in muttou, lliia cooking-waggon bo 
iatmdad to hare ntatki at bin own expenno. ai^d to have driven it Uuoagh the 
vtieeta el JjOndon in opomtion : but be woa m dis^untod with the remit of 
inuttirtM uadeat tbo Uorw Guard" p>a)>o<.-liii^acitnn<'?ii inrentod by» fonagnor, 
itad rocommendwl to oar OoTcroment by an nmbaMador, whoso letter, with 
BUtyset, had b««» /tW, that be pwv up tlio matt«r mtirrlff. 

A Taper read br/on f&e /."« inrniii^ Ct^Jfgr SltuitJiU' ChrUUim Ata^^ialion, By 
Profenor Sekuiv. London ; H. K. Lewis. 

EasATS of Ibia kind have »t>ldoia more than a local aud pasainc iQtorMt. and 
for the moat part ma; wall be left unnoticed by the roriewer. But there an 
many rewwaa which k-Mltbow who are watching Lho " ngna of Uw toaaa." in 
IliAir bt^aring on religiooa thought. tx> rc^rd any utteraticea of Profeaaor Saetejr 
widi special attention : and uu tbia ground wo cuuuoeud Uua " Fapar," alight 
and fugttiTO aa it ia in form, to their careful notioo. 

It is, indeed, so brief us hardly tu boar epitomiziag. and yet it Boeina neoae- 
•sry to gitw aome ncooant of it. Ha begina, thmi. with nv^ognisinff t)i»t mnonir 
iiiideolB, ap in other dasaoa, tharo will be many " not made lot inquiry. 
"ThoM who ni'jiire it altogothur iiiny liiid a. linppinow, may attain a xnitcfa 
KimpUntA*. which the most eonfidoni and eucoesaful inquirer may envy." Bat 
thnre ara 'lUmni cii1I<k1 " tn piipjile with tlw pn>lil"m» of th» linM'," ai»d to 
thaan be cbinlly opeaka. He ti^llx them that in apila of all attacks on ortbodnxy, 
f «U ■ppearattoea that "the Church ia breaking up. and Chhatiaoity dyinjr." be 
iMlieTBi) that " the influence of Chriatiaoity waa serer an vide or commanding 
aa it ia new." I(» "principlea" are "ardently ptvavbed by the bitterwt 
4UMmi(«it of ecokdaatical iuflueDoo." The reaaon of nion'a bitterneiiE) agatuat 
" all Chxifltiau cbunibes " ia, that they have not " made war against abusee." 
but "preanhed resignation and aubmirttion to the pow'*T« that be." What the 
CfauroB needs is " a philosophy of sociaty." It luiould be " a tribune inter' 
Coding for the plebeian." an " incorruptiblo critic upuu alLsociol questions." 
If " any nivolattou bteak out in aCbriHUao country, if any olaae remain un«n- 
lighlened. uneducated, barbarous, the Church i^hould r«ckou it her own sin." 

" That philusopby," 3d>. Soeluy udd», " Jo nuit to bo fuuud iu tho Bible." Tho 
" great and uuiveraal principles ara tbei-e," but "new powois have begun to 



i6o 



7he Contemporary Review, 



TTOrk in Ui« world — fn>o lalK»ur, iiidu-olrtal onterprue, political liberty, acienoi 
and them demand & now trcatmeut." " Thero uro two boobs in wliich th 
Cliri»tinn ithwI [inriMtlnidly ruftd, tha Hiblo aad the Time," " Charitablo iiiitLi-| 
tntiiuia aro bat patubworli." Tbo Cbiircb muat gird herself, if ahe will keep 
or zwuu b<»r iuKiiencA, to thd task of maoting enij at thoir ^ouron ; if nntid t)«, 
" to ubour for orgaaiQ chaogs, for the abolition of bad institutitma and bad 
CUBtonui." Into tho widv ijuvntioiui which aro thuf> opened W4 will Dot now 
•nter. It is eiiiingh to have called attontJon to woitb that well dtkserTe it. 
Those who bflliwve thnt tho I 'hrimtiwi OKurch hoJt j-wt ii grniit work to do may 
tluuk Mr. Senlny for indiuating, from hiB piitnt of viuWt what that work is. 



Th' Kfcry of tftt i'niefrsHiri Miuiou to Cmlrai A/riat, £-e. JJy the Ber. 
llEwnr HowLEY. London : Saundors, Otloy, & Co. 

TiiE principal events in Binhop Miick"nJ36"n miasion are known in mo^t 
readt^rs. Th'.i (^ri<'fK"lt<- uppfJil of Ur. l.ivinK^toii" (liitnwlf fonni.<rIy un a^int of 
the Ijondnn Misaionary Society) waa heard in tho old I'niversitips of thnrhnrch 
of Kngland ; iind, aftiT two vi'ar«' i>n'punition, tJire«i fli.'r(iyiiii.'u :iiid four laymen 
(followed by otliera aftftrwanis'i fsct ont from fiiatfrbiiry in October. IMK), as iiii«- 
eiouariee toCentnil Africa. Tht-ytnikn-d lii<f uiouth uf ibi- Z:imWBi rivur ia May. 
1861. And iQ Jnlyocj;upicdJrafiMiifiro,hi?lwf-en r.ako Shij-wa and the river Sbirv.us 
their permanent etutioxi. The f^ltowinK nin<: nionthii bmuRfat them dieoetifjiiii 
ox|.cnonoti of war, f-'vor. and HCitnty nt fr"id ; and ihiy lost thr'ir noblo-hoart*'<l 
Icudet and btsbup, and tlie Buv. D. >V. ItuiTUp. Uemoviu^ thi3Uoe to C'hibir'ii'i!! 
TiJla^< on tliu Shii-i? in May, I8ti2, ihoy niaiiitaim^ tho ^rusgltt agitiuKt the 
iiicrt-utiin^ iamine, diaeaHe, and tlic de«)futin^ oU'ecta of iatertribal wan in thoir 
neighbourhood. IIcix;, on Ilishop Tuzur'H arrival in June, I8fU, he found tho 
rolicii of Bi«hop Mackonzie'a band; and by him tbi.- mi^iion was truiufvrrod lo 
Zanzibar aa the best means of ultimatoly r6n<:kin(; Onlrul iVfi-ica. 

Mr, liovley, oug of tho two enrriTin^ olor^ymeu, bat) admirably Gllod U]) tho 
familiar outline of the history of the nusBion. Ili» Htr&ijehtfurn&rti tiiminor of 
toltiu^ his tale— so ditforent from tlie sontimcntfll and afli'cted stylo which the 
public (whvtbvi' juDtly ur not] rvcanlt as tibai-uDti.Ti>'tit: ni a missionary ruport — 
L4 in itaelf an aa.inraiice that tho oomparatiro failure of the mtaaion waa not 
owing to any want of muuly (iiuud MOM.oiuU'gXt auddoTotion in thosowhooon- 
duot«4l it. f^t tur iLi till- niU-iifiii woa nnaucceasful. It woa fa m Gooaaqoenoe of 
imperfect orranizatioD, rj^iUtiug &oiu tbo impurfuLt knowlodgo poososaed by ita 
projoctor*. With n birgor Atalf of men, thnro would hare been no nocMKity fur 
the olorg^- in take np arms to iuBiu'e the saft'ly trf' tin.- heiilhcn who came tn 
them. Vl ith nn .idoquate mipply of food and mi'diial ajipUati'Ci'n, tkn iniiwiouanKB 
might have livwl and hfld tniir iMiL^itioii. in which they hud iLwcertained that 
"Tfc-ith a iittlo outlay and mutliran\ you might iiiakr Un- country produnmnno^ib 
for the wanta of mnderato men— mitficiont, therefore, for tlie n-antA of the iTirin- 
tiun micsionnry,"— (P. 'Ml.) Piflitultifx. thouuh ffi'iNit, wi-m not o>-»rwbelming, 
if mifflL'iont i-esonrcpn had been pmTideil in hugiand. Itiidiop Tazer probably 
decided lightly, that, fr'nn vn (lintAnt a biwi) of op«nitionB. Hutfirient meana 
would not lie placed at his diapiiftal to enabla him to bold his ground on the 
9bii«. 

But if in Olio itenao a failnro, it wa.* bo noMo and pnn^ nn pffort— bo airong a 
teatimony to tho vitaUty of ChriBtiau faith — bo likely to increase a spirit of 
Chmtiati heroism in n Hlf>indulgont o.;^, that it cannot bo rvgardod na thrown 
away. Wborovor ChristiaQ readera aro Ibund, they must bo iniloenoed by the 
apectaclu which Mr. Etowley'a book prcM-nts of a few doTOtod m«n, with their 
calm and hojiclXil leader, pationtly enduring privation, and wisely carrying on 
their work, animated, not by unreasoning euthu>iiaHm. but by sober faith. Wo 
had marked many paauigei for q^uotation, but we muitt content oui«elvea with 
apeoial references to two anhjecta only, namely, proofs of the cruclttM and 
denadatiori which the !<larc-tj-ado to tint; duyuntuils on Aft-itu (pp. 58, M. 1A7). 
and the pmdmit meUiud which the zaiaMiooarie^ naed in imparting religious 
knowledge to their untaught heurcTH (pp. 140, 161, i;0, ITS, luul 230). 



THE UNION OF CHRISTENDOM IN ITS 
HOME ASPECT. 



lUi^HAT can 1» more deairable, a consummatioa more to tc hopod 
" * and prayed lor, than the union ol' Cliriateudom ? So wc i'oel at 
first flight of the words ; ho we foel after long pondering on them, 
uid uppreuiating their dupths and their di^uultiuti. 

In the interest, then, of iLe fulfilment of thetw hopes and prayers, 
vre would phice on record Homo of theso our ponderings. M'c aro the 
more indaved to do ho, hecause il Heems to ua that many in our time 
have taken up the words without any such pondering, and are 
striTing aiter their realisation, in fact, in a manner which may 
prove rather a huidniuce thzin a help. 

What ib Christendom i" What is union? These are tn'o pre- 
liminary questions, without some di&cussion of which it seems to ub 
▼ain to expatiate on the subject. We must clearly know with what 
material it is purposed to deal, and with that mati'iial how it is pur> 
|pQ6od to deal, before we can pronounce the muuipulation either 
pomiblc or desirable. 

I. }i%al is Chriateudom / Let us iUcc the question at once. Is Chria- 
lendom the agglomeration of Kpiscopal Churches throughout the 
world, or do its limits extend further ^ The former view accms to be 
that oi' our fricudu who are proiessodly working for union at present. 
In their oatimation the sitw qud non of a Christian Church is Episcopal 
govcromcnt, and Epiijcopal government with a traceable euccesaion 



VOL. VI L 



M 



l62 



T/5^ Contemporary Review. 



from the ancient Catholic times. Kow, if the quention were asked of i 
09, aa Churchmen, which of all forms wc, in our conscience, bcliora 
to be the bust one and the right one, our answer would probably ba i 
giren in these very tenns. But let it bo carefully observed that that 
is not the question now at issue. Wc suppose that the man is hardly 
to bo found who would seriously maintain that a mode of Church 
government is an essential to salvation. Wc say. svrmtahj maintain. 
For that there are those who hold it us their theory, and in argument 
inflexihly keep to the position, that all grace comes to the individual 
soul at the hands of a ministry descending in formal finccession from 
the Apostles, and so from our Lord Ilimscli', we are perfectly awaro. 
But there is an immense difference between what a man iuQcxibly 
maintains as his theory, and that to which he ts driven in his serious 
moments, when hi» heai-t ia laid open, and Truth looks in on him 
with her irresistible power. 

It was onoo the lot of tho present writer to introduce into a large 
clerical society, meeting monthly for discussion, the question, whether 
an orthodox Dissenter (using, of course, tho term orthodox in its well- 
understood 6CD8C, as applied to Christian doctrine) is to be regarded 
as a member of Christ's Holy Catholic Church P It seemed to him 
very necessary that his feUow-membcr^ should be " brought to book " 
respecting this matter. Some of them were very high Churchmen^ 
and were in the hnhit of speaking on it as the clergy of that school 
usually do — vi?!., of designating aa " outside the Church" all their 
Wonconforraist countrymen, and oil non-Episcopal, and some of tho 
Episcopal, foreign religious Ijodies. At the Rame time, it was a patent 
fact that the families of dome of these ver}' men were Dissenters, and 
equally patent that when any members of those fitmilios were 
spoken of by them, it was always as Christians, as living a Christian 
life, and dying in Christian hope. 

Here then was an incon8i.itcncy which obviously wanted clearing 
up — which could only be elearod up, as it soemed to the proposer of 
the question, in one way — viz., by the abandonment of the high ex- 
clusive view in thoorj', a« it wds already abandoned in practice. The 
debate lasted far into the evening, nnd wna adjourned lo a second 
monthly meeting. At that meeting it was at. last carried unanimously 
in the affirmative, that th<> Disaenter, holding the artielea of tho 
Christian faith, is to be regarded as a member of Christ's Holy 
Catholic Church. And I may mention that among those affirmative 
votes was that of one who very shortly afterwards left us for the 
Church of Home- Magna trat tcrilm, tt pratnlehai. When men 
came once to look this question in the face, and to bring it to the 
test of their own consciences,— of their verdict over the holy lives and 
hopeful deaths of their friends and neighbours, — the artificial barriers 
fell, and the righteous u«tion which keepoth tho truth entered in. 



7/S? Union of Christendom in its Home Aspect. 163 

The oulj true test triumphed — that propounded for us by Oar 
Master, — By their J'ruitt (not by their hierarchies) shall ye know 
them. 

This was seventeen years agv. How Buoh a debate might novf 
tcrmiuatv is, perhaps, doubtful. Bat any other decinon than that 
at which we arrived is, I submit, impossible to the fai]--jud}>ii])^ 
Ohristiau mijuid. If tbe term " Christondom " is to be interpreted by 
botfl, and not by a theory prior to facts, it must include those bodice 
of professing Christians at bomo whom wc call Nonconformists: it 
must also include those foreign Churohcs whoso form of goTemmont 
diffina from om- own. 

I flud, if tho term is lo bo interpreted by facta. JUut many will 
•ay, in such a matter we ho.ro not to do with facts, but with a tra- 
ditional belief, and with laws and canons of tho Church. 1 answer, 
that with regard to tLe former of those, tlie fact of a general tra- 
ditional belief on such a matter may appear to us a sufficient reason 
why we ourselves shouhl, in our Church arrangcTOcnts, conform to 
it. Hut by the very conditions which our own branch of the Church 
sets forth in her Articles, no moro t]-aditional beUcf, even were it up 
to a certain timo uniTcrsul among Christians, is to bo rcquirec of 
■ny man as necessary to tiis salvation, or, which is the aunL* thing, 
as a requisite of his membership of the Church Catholic. In order to 
constitute a Iwlicf thu« iioccflanry, it must be capable of proof out of 
Holy Scripturo ; and hdwevcr it may be eridcnt as matter of fact, 
" unto all men diligently reading the Itoly Scripture and ancient 
aathora, that from thi; AposthV time there huTo bcc-ii thoiw orders 
of ministers in Chriat^s Church, bishoiw, priests, und deacons,'** none 
will, we proBumo, bo bold enough to maintain thot anoh three forms 
ore bid down in Holy Scripture as easrntial for the Church. Xo far 
is this from being the cjiso, tliat tho " bishops " of the later Kcw 
Teeloment Kpistlcs have hurdly anything in common with thcChnrch 
ofiicors which huvc since Ixjmo that name, but were merely pres- 
byters, as is acknowledged by tho early Christian futhcra. In 
Acts XX. wo read that St. Paul, paudng by MUetns, sent for tho 
elders (prosbjrtcrs) of tbe Church at Ephcsus. In his oddreas to f bem 
he admonishes them to take hoed to the flock over which the Holy 
Ghost had mode thi-m hUkopn ; for the word " overseers " here found 
in our English vcriiion is one of those pieces of disingonuousneas by 
which its text is, though rarely, yet sometimes undeniably, disfigured. 
Again, in Phil. L 1, St. Paul addresses his Epistle to the saints at 
Philippi, " with tho biahopji and deacons," where Theodoret obsorrc-i, 
*'ho calls tho presbyters bi!d)o[)fi ; for at that timo they had both 
names." Thci-o iu, it is true, in the pastoral Epistles — probably the 
latest, except one, of the New Ttstament writing* — an apporently 
* ftdan fo tlio OrdinatioD Berries, Oof&mon Vnjvr Book. 

m3 



i64 



7ke Contemporary Review. 



oloBer approjumation to tlie superintendiug; oMce of our present 
bishop ; but uot u woi-d, tLer» or auywhere^ of Uiat or any other 
particular form of Church arrangement hcitig universally presoribetl. 
It' suoh preacripfiou hiul beou met with, of course it would be binding 
upon Christoudoni ; but now that such pnTiuriptiuu is riot met with, 
no usage of (ho ApostU-a, no subsequent prncf ico, however wide8i)read, 
oau oloac up or proscrilie that which Sunptiiru has loft open. It ia 
very probable — ire hold it to be certain — that the safeguard of the 
individual coui;cience is more effeotual fur the guoil goverument of the 
Churchc-s than that of the ooliective conscieuoe ; but to this general 
rule there mi^t be exeeptiotiH, and this widespread opinion might 
not be held by all. Agiun, the Apostles made their arrangements 
for a particular time uiid condition of things ; we have no right to 
say that they themaeh-es would have enforced the same arrangements 
on other ages and in the presence of diileriiig circuiriHlnuces. Indeed 
they seem, even during the short period covered by the canonical 
Epistlejt, to have departed, at least in some instances, from their first 
eeclesiastival dispo tuitions. So that we cannot concede any right to 
either the IraditionuL belief, ur the common practioe of the Church 
Catholic, to enforce episcopal government aa one easoutially requisite. 
If any portion of the Churcli, in coming out of the corruptions of 
Home, or out of subsequent cori*uptionB of faith and practice in any 
rcforiued communion, had rfasou to believe that Episi;;ij£>acy in that 
purticiJnr case had stood in thf way of the work of Gud'a Spirit on 
mankind, it had a perfect right tu abandon episcopal for prettbyterian 
government : it wa» not thcrtby rumovwl ;i whit farther from the 
Scripture model of a Church ; and we, however much we may diiFer 
from its concluoion, and deplore the st«p it took, have ah«ohil«Iy no 
right whatever to look depreciatingly on it hi a branch of Clirist'a 
Church ; still less may we preMiuic ti> unchurch and uiichristianJse 
ita members : they are in the direct and legitimate exercite of the 
sacred right* of the Chrimlian conscience. And let it not be cast in 
oar teeth, or in theiii*, that ihey are guilty of the sin of schism. 
Whether they are so guilty or not, is a queation btjaring not. on them 
only, hut on us Churchrneu also. If, in cousoquenoe of offence given to 
them by laxity of life and morals, we di'avt- them to seek Christian 
purity in separation from us ; if, by ignorance of thf first principles 
of Chriatiuu charity, wo persecutL'd them whi'u we ought to have stood 
rebuked by them, then the sin of ^L-hisiu lay at our doors, not at 
theirs. To say that now, when they have a suecet>tunii of ages and a 
traditional Chui-ch -belief of their uini, they are eelitamatica, is a 
height of folly and pedantry, wliich it would be difficult to believe any 
intelliguut mind to have arrived at, did we not see it far too often 
exemplified. 
And thitf brings us to the second rule, with which it was supposed 



TAc Vnicn of Christendom in its Home Aspect. 165 

^■1 in this matter wo have (0 do, rather than with facta ; viz., the 
laws and casona of t!ic Church. Here wo ore met by what we cannot 
BToid ajrnin cjillino^ a prdontie, and at the some time a capricioug, ^^cw of 
the subject. The pednntrj-of theview is found in this — thai it insiats 
on applying, to an actual conjuncture of manifest gravity, rules enacted 
with reference to a slate of thinf^s hn^-inp nothing in common M-ith 
the time now present ; rules, the framcrs of which never contemplated 
our diffieultiee, — never heard the call of God's Providonco wbioh 
summons us to action. To fall bock upon such rules now, by wav of 
diaoonraging those who would wsrvc God in their own generation, is 
to be " nnwise," not " nnderatanding what the will of the Lord is ; " 
which conduct, as we bclierc, is of the very essence of pedantry, and 
that of the worst kind. 

But this view of the subject is also one admitting of any unossigned 
degree of caprice and arbitrnrinpss. Of the particular rules which they 
who hold it preis on us, by fur the greater portion h»,s become 
obsolete and impoRsihle. The burden of them is, " let him be cxeom- 
mnnicated." Whv is not this done!' Simply beeniise it is impos- 
sible. Because, il' it were in any one case attempted, the whole land 
would ring with indignation, and a storm would ho raised wbieh 
might bring down in ruin the outward fabric of the Church. Well 
then, if the aspect of things, and the public opinion of a Christian 
people, haTO thus far altered, are we to awume that the Ohurch 
which once said, "let him be exoommiiuicat*'*!," has learnt no 
wisdom, but remains where she w».<t in >*\n\v uf this immense change p 
What has operated the change*'' "What, diKguise it as we will, but 
the conWdion, deep as ihc inwanl sense of right — real as the daily 
groands of thought and life — that CliHstianlty I« wider tliau Chureh 
hitt^rchies and canons ecclesiastical ; that the Church Catholic itj 
made up, not of those bounded by a certain pale of artificial Ixirriers, 
but of those who, in (he lunguage of a well-ltnoMni definition bv the 
Church herwlf, "profess and call themwlves Cbnutiani*?" 

But, bctndcs that the hard atiioutcrrf view \n both £>eduutic and 
capricious, it posses»«es a peculiar demerit of it* own, from the circum- 
stimccs under which it is held. There can bo no reasonable doubt 
that if the Church of England could bt) assorabltMl in any fairly 
representative body, hiwfuUy empowered I0 deal with bur canons, 
the whole of this mags of illiberal rules would be ere long swept 
■way. That the body which assumen to repruaent her is not so 
empowered, is fact of which none are ignorant. Few also can bo 
ignorant, that the Inst thing which Convocation is likely under 
present circumstances to rcpreticnt, i« the collective ]vublic opinion of 
English Churchmen. That Hsseinbly is for tho most part delivered 
over to the guidance of (he »ssertor» of exclusive sacerdotalism, 
against whom the general feeling of the members of the Church is 



^ Contemporary Review. 

in open rcboUioD. But it ia not Bufficicntly known that, if anything 
like the whole of tho mombora of tho Lower House thought it worth 
while to attend in their phicca, tho mlDorities which now in vain 
oppDBO tho dictation of tho Iligh Church party would be tranaformed 
into triumphant niajoritioe. It ia mainly owin^ to the apathy of the 
ao-collcd ETangelicoI party, and to their want of appreciation of the 
importance, oron ot presoul, of tho docisiona of Convocation, that 
tho )>ricstly moroment at homo and in the colonies is able to cito the 
official voice of tho Church of Kngland in its favour. 

And ift this a time, 1 would ask, to be throwing us back upon 
canonical rules more than two conturica old, and to be requiring the 
Church to etamp on herself thn brand of felly, and of incapacity to 
do her duty in tbat fitntc of lifo to which it has pleased God to 
call herP If in this and in some other rfifi]>ecte her position bo of 
necessity a false one ; if at every i^tcp »he require comproraises and 
charitable interpretations to enable her to act, or even to exist at all, 
why 8honl{l not those oompromisee be mado ftir the benefit of her 
fellow Christians, as well as for her own ? AVliy should not those 
charitablo conatructions be yielded to the love of her noighboar, 
which she is over eof^r to accept for the love of herself P 

1 »hall assume therefore, that wo are called on to deal at tho 
present day, not with theories, nor with traditional beliefs as to 
Church poTomment, Init with facts ns we find thorn. I will proceed 
then to inquire what those facts arc, as far os they cMicem our 
praient question. 

The Christianity of this oar Innd is made itp of the Church of 
England, comprising pnrhaps mther the larger half (?) of her 
inhabitant"!, mid of many sects of Nonoonformi«tJ», Among these 
latter, Komitn Catholicfi are nf course included, though, froiii their 
peculiar position, tliey belong to our present inqiiiiy as a foreign 
rather than as a British denomination. Taking fnct« again, and not 
thoor)-, OS our index to character, Woman (Vthnlics have really now 
become an Italian sect, inasmuch as their riaiblo Head must always 
be an Italian, and, by the newly-proclaimed tenetof Ultramontaniim, 
must rule as a temporal prince orer n portion of Italy. They har©, 
by this regulation and this doctrine, for all purposes of strict inquiry 
on to the limits of ChristiOndom, receded from an c&cumenical into a 
local ijosition. dwelling in Britain, they must always be tho 
kpiritual subjects of an Italian prince ; and the union of Christendom 
in it« home aspect doe4 not concern them, or concerns them only 
remotely. And even were this otherwise, there would be another 
reason why Roman Catholics cannot in such an inquiry be taken 
into consideration. With them, union implies absorption. Their 
position with reference to auy accord between Churches differing in 
government would be simply antagonistic. That this is so as matter 



J 



^he Union of Christendom in its Home Aspect, \ 67 

of praotice at tlie present time, wtui clearly (thewu by the correspond- 
eace Wttrevu the Englit^b prumoleraof what is called the luiion ol'Obrin- 
tendom, uad theexistiugautlioritiesat Uome. f rum these lutterthoy 
got, aa they always will get uo every uppUealiua for reoogoitioo, the 
ourtwt and twA'crest answer : — " Our arms are open to receive you ; 
nothing hinders your union with iis but yeur own folly and obsti- 
aacy ; other way to the union of Christendom we know not. God 
bring you to a better mind :" in Bub»tancc, by the wuy, the some 
reply as the nonjurors were fUvoured with Irom the "ortbudox" 
■Ch'eek Church, when they made a aimilar propoeaL 

For these rcusona wc are eompellcd, not by ineliuution of ours, but 
h^ unvarj'ing action of their own, to pass over the lltnuan CatholioB 
in our present inquiry. 

But as regards the rest, wc have a very large portion of tlio Non- 
coaforming bodies divided from us by tlie thinnest posaiblo partition, 
M fiir as theological doctrine is conoemod. The Church ol' Knghuid 
has long used their bynuis : their printed aermou« and works ou 
divinity rank, in not u tew cases, high in our cltwsical theology. In 
sacred learning and biblicnl cxpositian and oritici^m, it may be 
questioned whether their present average attttiument be not above 
our own. li' wc dcsucnd from the loaders to the people, noue, I 
suppose, would presume, in the mattor of blameless walking in the 
commondmcntB and ordinnuccA of Uic Lord, to HCt oursoIvCH above 
thom. As to tbe share which each have borne in moral and Hocial 
improvements, I imngine nil will allow that they have oflcner lod us 
than they have been Iwl by us. Tht^ir unittii missionurj" efforts far 
ozceedour own. In schonU, in charities, in good works of every kind, 
they have been our honnuriiblc, and not seldom our sucocesful rivals. 
ConBidering the amount of discouragement and disparagement wliich 
they have hftd, and still hnvc l<» undergo, the progress of education 
and cultdvation among Konconfbrmistit is one of the most wonderful, 
AS it is one of the mo.st ntiidactary phenomena of our time. 

In estimating then tbe elements of that Chiistcndom for whose 
onion we hope and pray, I onbmit that wo have no right to rcfnte to 
include — wc have no right to overlook — these vast bodies of Gbris- 
tians who surround us at home. 

But a question here cometi forward, and requires an answer. We 
have spoken of a very large number of Noneonfonoists whose 
doctrinal differences from oumeWes are slight. But when we 
advance beyond that number we are met by the inqutr)', Uow far 
are we to carry our inclusion P 

Now this is evidently a question not to bo hastily distnissed, oa it 
would be by the rigid Churchman oik the one side, and tlie Latitudi- 
narian on the other. First of all, we mu.tt be careful to ascertain 



r 



w* Contemporary Review. 



teh/tt doctrine w ; and then we mnst also be carcftil how wo proceed in 
laying down its limite. 

W7>^t tJocfriup in. For there nre not a few who would bo disposed 
to mnke Church government itJteK into doctrine ; there ore more who 
would charge with doctrinnl error those who do not hold Churcb 
orfUnances, or who, in their view, practise tliem umis^. The lustoncea 
'easily occurring to all arn the IlaptistA and the Quakent. The former 
reject Infant Baptism ; the latter reject both Raprism and the Ijord's 
Supper. Now thp whole prac-ticul system of ihe Church of England 
is ba-ied on the baptiHiiml covenant, entered b^,' the child, and accepted 
by tho young person at confirmation. In the ^-iew of that Church, 
*' regeneration " of necessity accompaniea the act of baptism, and from 
the time of that cu-t parting on any person he or ttiie is regarded aa " a 
member of Christ, ihe child of Ood, and an inheritor of tho kingdom 
of heaven." She aUo hnUs the other Sacranumt, in which " tha 
faithful verily and indeed partake of the body and blood of Chriit," 
to be, like hajitisin, generally necewian,' t<i salvation ; and charges all 
bcr memlwrfl to receive it three times in the year at the least. Now 
all thia bears strong nimilarity to doctrine ; and yet nono of it iW doc- 
trine, in the strict seiiw of the wmd with wh Ich we are now concerned, 
"We may believe, and we do believe, the Baplint and the Quaker to 
be miagtiirle<l in their judgments, atid to be acting inconBi.<itcntly 
with the implied mind of oui' Lord and his Apostles, in thus setting 
'Bsido, or iu thus wrongly administering, the Christian Sacramenta. 
' But, notwithstanding this error in judgment, notwithstanding this 
■(to ue) apparent disrogard of Scripture, tho Baptist and the Quaker 
■ may hold every article in tho Creeds as Hrraly as we do; the "one 
baptism for the remission of sine" of courso receiving at tho hands 
of the latter a spiritual meaning, as the texts would receive on whiok 
the article is founded. 

So far, I should conceive, there would — supposing the way cleared 
of prelirainan,- objections (m hto) to all difiercrs- — 'be no groat diffi- 
culty. The extension thus won for our definition of Christendom 
would now include uU holding the co-equality of the Poioous in the 
Ble««ed Trinity, the atonemeut by Christ's death and resurrection, 
and the action of the sanctifying iSpirit on those who believe iu llim. 

But here comcfl the real difficulty' — the difficulty at which every 

attempt at general iiicluhion has found itself arrested, and has boon 

oompcUed either to i>hul the door, or to incur imputations fatal to its 

cceptanco by the Christian world. And the difficulty i^ how to 

[deal iu the case of ihttse who deny any of the articles of the faith, in 

rhich all hitherto in view arc agreed. Of eour.sc, thi» notably bcara 

one body of religiouists — those somewhat curiously known as 

Unitarifim. 

It will be hardly nccessar}', after what has already bean said, for 




The Union of Christendom in its Home Aspect. 169 

the present writer to guard hinuelf against bciug supposed for one 
Bimuont to depreciate the raagnitudo of (he contrast between tho 
CathoKc Christian and the donicr of the Divinitj' of our Lord, 
liolhing less is at issue in this diliicrenco thau the nhole of tho Chris- 
tian faith, vta understood by any of thoBo who have been hitherto in 
our view. Hut our prcaint inquiry docs not concern any discussion 
of this contrast. It niay remain in all its incompatibility, unaltered 
in any man's view by the issue of our inquiry. That issue will be 
the affirmation or tho negation of the question — Is that body of 
religionist.s who, in Borao sort holding Christ, yet overstep the 
limits of the creeds which tho Church has deduced from Scripture, to 
be accounted a part of Christendom Y 

It will assist lis in this inquirj' if we make another, simply of matter 
of fiiot ; and it is tbi« : What latitude of doctrine are wo allowing, at 
this moment, within the Knglish Church herself y Because it seems 
to me that this is the proper measure within which, at all events, we 
hare no right to narrow our recognition of Christians without. That 
liberty which, in apitc of articles and canons and eoclcaiaatical courts, 
we permit to (Jhurclimcn, we can hardly, in fairocss, deny to 0i»- 
aentcrs. And, if I am not mistaken, anything like a fair reply to 
this last inquiry must be such as to cause any honest man to drop 
the stone which hfi had lifted to throw at tho rnitnrinn. 

The fact secmji to be thin, that you cannot bound Christendom by 
a doctrinal test. You may honnd certain Ouirclica, you may limit 
certain sects, by rnifh a test ; even then, when the power of ihc test 
is tried in any really doubtful caac, it almoMt universally faiht. Wc 
vant for Christendom a font, not a doctrine, as the test of inclusion. 
And wc are thus driven buck to tho definition before oUuded to as 
fiimished us by the Church herself, when she exi)lflinfl *' the good 
estate of the Catholic Church" to hc- attoincd by "all who ]>rofess 
and call themtwlTeA Christiana, being led into the way of truth." 
Christendom 1* as wide as the f'hristian namo; ae wide as the recog- 
nition of Christ as Mnster. Let each portion of it, as conscience dic- 
tates, defend truth and protest against error ; hut no portion of it has 
right to exclude or to unchurch another. 

II. If thifi lie Christendom, then, secondly, *rhtii 11 union ? The 
answer generally given is, that it is that state of mutual recognition 
which is Rymholizcd by infrrrommumon — o Ti-ord itaelt* we fancy, 
coined to serve the purjwse of this union miiv^ment. But it may be 
suggested that, though interrommniiion niny be mo«t dc^irablo as a 
pledge of union, it muat not be considered us the object to be aimed 
at in striving for union. For it requires both too much and too little ; 
— too much; for there mny be that in the customs of one Church 
which may bo distasteful to another Church, while yet Christian 
union may bo set up and maintained between them : and too little ; 



170 



The Contemporary "Review, 



for the ritee of two Churt^cB may be almoet oomctdont as ibbtg 
matter of form, wliiit; tho aidtudu and unimiis of the two may b« 
aabstantially uatagoDislic. It is phiin that intercommunion will bo 
rather an aoddcnt, thnu the sabstancp, of the union uf which wo are 
treatiug. 

And the same reasoning may Uc carrierl Jiirther, and extended eveaj 
to all formal acts of recognition. If any such formal act is to be eat I 
up UB that without which uniuii is not, and (hat on which unim follows 
as matter of couriHv ire ahall have made the same donblo mistake. A 
formal recognition may be inadmissible in cases where union may be j 
eaay and obvious; a formal recognition may be, from concnrTenti 
circiimHlanccs, easy and apparently satiafaofory, and yet no true uniou. 1 
may fuUow. 

Those considerations lead up to the inference, that the union of J 
which we arc in nearch wilt consist not so mnch in outward acta, 00 f 
in the state of feeling ami temper of Christian bodies one tou-nrda] 
another. Ir: will then have begun to set in here in England, iHbea.-| 
uU disperiigtiig thoitght-s of a man in rouscquanoe of his r^igionsj 
deoomi national position shall have oenscd ; when trr shall haTO'i 
learned to treat the tact of a man's being an Independent or a Wea-| 
leyan aa no reason for distrusting him or shnnning his company H 
when tho Dissenter, ou the other hand, shall have forborne railing atl 
us by reason of tho apparent ground of nintage which wo poaaoM iaj 
being the EstablitJied Church of tho nation, and shall surcease from 
his endeavoarM to minreprceent and (fuhvert xis. 

To expect such a time to arrive, may be lliuoght somewhat chi-i 
moricaL But it may uot bo altogether protitleas to have indicated 
at least a desire for its arrii'al. At uU eTent«, thii) paper will 
serve as a protest, in the namo of the Christian spirit, and the spirit 
of fair dealing, aguinst the present attempts ut formal union with 
Churches abrofld, while the Christiau bodies at home are left entirely 
oat of the question. 

It may be askod, whether it would bo possible or desirable to aim at 
martdug tho imiou of Christeudcmi at home by any outward symbol? 
As we eaid helbre, wu would not have such symbol to bo cotLsiderodf 
as of the essence of tho union itself. It woiUd merely be a sign oj 
its existence, tending to carry its reality to the hearts und tho sensas | 
of those who {Nxrtook iu it. 

There can, wu think, be very little doubt that any who an; pre- 
pared to sympathizo with what has been iraid would regard such a 
symbolical act as tirairabie. The profession of good feeling, eT.-en if j 
genuino, n&idB some outward occasion on which it may bu reduood 
to a great and tangible fact ; and the habit of kind words aud 
charitable thoughts requires stimulus to prevent it from falliug into 
a mav habit. 



/ 



The JJnton of Christendom in its Home Aspect. 171 

If then an outward avmbolic aot -woxilil be dwirable, have 
we any reason to tliink that such an act would bo possiUe ? It 
is obvious that wo mu«t not look for an answer to this inquiry 
in the direction of that which t8 commonly kao«'n as iii/^r-communion. 
For we should tbiie at once come face to fate with difficulties arising 
out of the constitutions and liturgical Kaseo of Ihe various Churches ; 
and a oonoession, by way of eompromm, would have to be made,— « 
neowaity which we wish to avoid. 

Bat, though (»/«--DommuiLion may be out of the 4Qeation, might 
not the highest of Christiitii ordiuuuccs be so udxainistered, by the 
abeteatiou of each body from the use of its own liturgical forma, as 
to include all who iuturpret the command of onr Lord as the institu- 
tion of an ordinance at uU ? Suppoito, ut all events, that the com- 
memorative portion of that ordinance were shared by on ustKmbty 
of various deuomiuutious oi' Christiaus, — the only word^i heard being 
the Scripture narrutivi- of its institution, and then breud and wine 
being administered in silence. 

*-)f course such a proposition would meet with no favour from — ^nay, 
woidd probiibly uLrike with honor — those who bulievo the virtue of 
the sacrament of the Ixird'ti Supper to cousint in the liturgical form, 
or, in other words, iu the priestly consecjation of the elements. 
But, aeeing that such a belief would probably be commensurat*] 
with the view of the oonstitntion of tho Charch which is held by the 
opponents of the whole spirit of this paper, it would introduce no 
now element oi' opposition, and roqiiiros therefore no special notice, 
ezeept it be to say, that any such view of the efficacy of the Holy 
Communicoi is totally unsupported by Scripture, and tliat, conso- 
^uentiy, even ebould we liold it ourselves, we have no right to 
rwiuiro it to be hold by another. 

8() that, even biippoaing this to bo our vien', wo might yet llnd 
a way to tho s^'mbolical act of nnion. It would be thiH: that each 
body, or as many as thought good, might use such previous liturgical 
service as they might think fit, and that tho administration might 
take place at ono time and spot, each, or again, as many as thought 
fit, using ttie words belonging to their own liturgical form. 

Either of these, or some other method which might easily be 
derised, would serve to unite those whoao hearts were already pre- 
disposed, in a s}rmbo)ical act of nnion. It was the fortune of the 
present writer to witness such on act of nnion performed in two 
difibrent ways at Berlin, in 1857. The first time, exactly as described 
above, in silence, and with no words but tho reading of tho institu- 
tion by onr Lord : the second time, bv administration to the members 
of each Church in the words ut*cd bvcach Church, without, however, 
any previous act of consecration. It then appeared to him that the 
farmer method was by for tho more offcotual as a symbol of union. 



i 



172 



7he Contemporary Rrvtew, 



The olwterition of all from even the formB irhich tJiry clearly 
valued, and th<»ir meetinjj on the rommmi ground of tho. flolniin 
narrative of Holy Writ, seemed to carry with it the reality of their 
serioDH and incompatible differences a^d the reality alw of the One 
Word f>f tnilh to which all appealed ; scvmntl to iittcr at the lame 
time a confession of the fallibility of the Churches, and the infalli- 
bility of God'« Word. It might be worth considering, whether tho 
rcritatitm of the Apostles' Creed, or, if thought better, of nomd 
declaration of Iwlief made in the words of Soripture itself, might not 
form port of the act of union. 

It would be matter of further inquirj', whether under any, and if 
80, then under what circumstances, the pulpits of one Christian body 
should be opened to teachers of another. It i« obvious that such, 
liberty, though it mav seem a legitimate corollan,- from what ha» 
gone before, would require the most jealous guarding and watching. 
It must be strictly confined to ita exceptional character, and never 
idloircd to beoome customary, nor of course in any case to extend 
beyond exhortation from the pulpit. In the Church of Kngland, the 
morning sermon ia so strictly bound into the Liturgy, aa to form part 
of the Communion office. Foi- this reason, even were the above- 
mentioned license given, the morning mhnuld be exempted, and reserved 
without exception for her own ordained ministers. It willarioe to 
everj- mind, but is uecessaiy to be stated, aa supplement a ry to any- 
such proposal, that for every case, as it arises, special license, j'fo Ma 
vkt', should be required from the bishop of iUo diocese, with whom 
it would reet to obtain such satisfactory proofs of soundness in doe- 
trine, and Buch undertaking to respect the differences between the 
Churches, as he might think neceasary or expedient.* Probably any 
such admiiision mig'ht be found in praeticc undesirable. But it may not 
be amias to have at least indicated a dc&irc thut it should be in 9ome 
ca»es given. I have read Noncoufonniat sermons, which have begotten 
in ine the v.-ish that they could liave been delivered to our congre- 
gations, and could have served both to stimulate our somewhat languid 
preaching, and to eet us an example of eameat, and at the same time 
careful thought. The practice would not be altogether a new one, 
even ia our own time^. 1 have undt^rstood thnf Mr. Venn and Mr. 
Simeon were in the habit of pi-eaehhig in the pulpits of the Kstublisfaed 
Church of Scodnnd : and the present writer knows of two occasions 
on which the oiler of the pirish pulpit in Scotland has been made to, 
though it wa« not accepted by, a minister of the Church of England. 

Itut it may be well to conclude l^^th an indication of a course 
already and easily practicable. The monifcetation oi' private social 

■ It will be of coune nndentood, but may he italed Tor funr of mutako, Hut uicom* 
patibilUy of doctrine, na in tba cwa of Uie irnitniiiui, would of m-cauitj [>rovo a Uati to 
ffach'nimimaon . 



: 



^he Union of Christendom in tts Home Aspect. 173 

^mpatfay is in every oae's power. It is in erery one's power also, 
tt> lay aside all those dUparaging epithets and insinuations which un- 
I'urt imatcly arc now go plentifully cast about in the disco urae of Church- 
men with reforenc© to Dissenters. It is also in every one's power to 
Ijonish denominational jeulouenea in cotomercial dealiD[;s. Of course 
tlioso of the clergy who do theee acts of Christian justice, or any of 
them, must make up their minds to incur the hittorcst obloquy at 
the hondtt of the exclusive High Church party. The agents and tho 
journals of that, as of every other extreme party, arc perfectly un- 
scrupulous, and will not hesitate to eall in question their Churchman- 
ship and their aounducsH in the faith. There is nothing in tho eyea 
of that party more unpanloiiuble than the following out, with regard 
to non-episcopal ChriKliuii communities, of the principles of the 
Church of England. They are well aware how entirely they them- 
Bclvee are in opposition to those principles. They know that the 
Church of England has again and again, by her Convocations, 
tacoorded to tbose bodies the name of Churches ; and that the beet 
>«nd most approved oi' her i^Titcrs liave declared Kpiscopacy to be 
not essential to the being of a Church.* Knowing these things, and 
keeping them in the background, -they trust to being nble to bluster 
down those who are more consistent Churchmen than themselves. 

But it is at length, we believe, beginning to be felt, that bluster is 
(not proof ; and that tho advocates of common faimcas, and of Chriatian 
■ charitj', ought to be granted a iLcnring. In this bc-Uef wo have ven- 
tured to put together the foregobg remarks. It seemed to na that, 
while to the superficial obsorvor the Church of Knghmd is casting off 
her moorings, and drifting buck to Komatiism, there is in the hearts 
of tho great mass of her children the earnest wish to make her faster 
than ever to the Rock which has for three centuries held her safe. 
We Churchmen ycani, as much as any can, for tho union of Christen- 
dom ; but wc will not seek it by reaching out tho hand to distant 
I'Chnrchce, while wo are fostering disunion ot home. When we con 
say to them, " Look once more at the sccta into which you charge us 
with being split ; behold them, while maintaining tho differences 
incident to freedom of thought, cemented together by the unity of 
tho Spirit of our common Master ; " — -when we can cbuUcngc them 
to witness our success in having reconciled the rights of conscience 
with tho mind that was in Christ, — then also wc may say to them, 
" Unite with us, be followers of us." Then, it may he, some of them 
on their side may bo given to reply, " AVc will go with them, for God 
is with them of a truth." 

Hkjtrt Alfobd. 



* Soma of the mott remaricaU* of diwc teitliitaniait ouy Iw found dhxl la the telliog 
and aTithontatiTo reply of tha ArchbishQp of Aimagh \a Aichdi«i;on l>uniion, La>i3i>.-d 
in Um Gtardian otjpsfoaxy 1, 1I4U8. 



ri 5.c;-3Ci«:^^=5:t,3:cv3:cL ^ 



THE FOOD OF THE PEOPLE. 



Thifoca^iAtJii^itit^au. ttfJomattBuoinJSJi. imaea,\ 
Oi Fm^. Bj Siift'Ui (.jUiKJWtKB, M.T>„ F.B^. Xoiulim. IMI. 
Sink Apert e/ UW JTerfwW Offfor o/ lA* ^riiy CnnwiJ. 
ARWdU. IrfMVteO. IMS. 

/ir ABVfHMi martieU. Pr«wMed to PnflliBenl kr oaaiaBd 



rpHE traditional John Bull in a well-fed animal. From lUodaj^^ 
-■- of Gilray to our contemporary Punch, his tjrpical representatii 
u stout, wcU-to<<lo farmer or grazier. And it' this be meant 



IS 



deuot*3 that many classes of the commonity have enough and to epont - 
it ift no doubt so far true. Bat if we suppoAe that there are not larg« 
masses of the people habitually and thnroiighly under-fed, wc make 
a great mistake. Long suspected, this fact has of late yean been 
demonsttittcd by aearcliing inquizy, and can no longer be qutiatioued. 

In the year 1863, the Lords of the Privy Council, acting undarJ 
the powers which they possess as guardians of the public health, 
directed a mndical inquiry into the food of the poorer labouring 
tiluiMie«, and the ruijult appears in one of those Blue Booka in which 
Mr. tijiiuou, their medical oi&cer, annually makes his report to their 
lordships cu the subject of health and disease. And here we pouse 
fur a momeut, just to eay that these Blue Bookit (now ejLtvnding vver 
nine yetiifl) ought to be better known than they are. Ihey (.-outaiu 
a great muss of iuibrmaliun, iu a fairly readablo form, on many topics 
which closely affuut the national weli'are, and which are, or ought 
to be, Bltruutive to ull who take an intelligent interest in the wull- 



^he Food of the People, 



^75 



beinf* of the people st largo. Coming from bij^h uuthority, they 
place the reader, so to spcnk. ut Ibo foaatain-kead of kuuwlcdgi! uii 
mauT social questions uboul which very ignomiit and mistiikun 
notUHia are apt to prevail II migbi not bo umim to eadsavour to 
introduce some aketch of their loading contenU in a popular fona 
to goDorai readers. 

But wo moat return at prosent to our imtnodiaUt Gubjuct. Hr. 
Simon, in nunming up ibu result of the Inquiry U> which we havu 
Teferred, takes a cortjun (itaudard (deriv^l from experieiioe obtained 
during the eotton famine) a« the minimum by which "starvution- 
diseBBca '' can bo averted. Tliis standard is, that au average woman's 
SaHf food ought to contain at Itwst H,9U0 grains of carbon, wilb 
180 grains of nitrogen, and an average man's iliiily food ut least 
4,300 grainfl of earhon, with 200 grainit v^ nitrog^-a.* He then 
gives a table reprc-stc-nling the actual weekly cojiHiimption of food 
bj varioas claaaei of in-door oporatrvcM, into whoiw circum^rtaiices 
pxamtmition wm actually iiioile, vxx.., silk-wuavera, neeiUiMvomen, 
kid-glovers, shooiDokcn!, and ntoiikiiig-weavuns the result of which 
is, that " in only one of the examined cloKiea " (the tihoemukers} 
"did the averago nitrogen nupplyjost exceed, while in another" 
{the stoeking-weavers) "it nearly reached, the eulimated standard 
of bore sufficiency, and that in two daases there was defect — ia 
one a very large delect — of both nitrogen and cnrbon." Our readers 
will hear with regret, though probably not with surprise, that the 
most poorly*fod class of all wcro the needlewomen. 

Pursuing the like inquiries iu rural districts, Mr. Simon t«IIs 
OS that — 

"As rogonls the cxamiu&d ramilieg of the agncnitnml popnlntinn, it ap- 
peared that mOTO than n Sfth woro with less than tht; ostimntcd snfBcienoy of 
cuboQ&ccoofi food, thut more than ouo-thlrd wero with less than the (wti- 
mated snfHcicncy of mtrog«QOua food, and that in threo oonntios (Berkshire, 
Oxfordshire, and i*^niers*tshiro) insufflcioncy of mtrogcnoua food was the 
ftverag« loesl diet." 

The same anthority reminds us that as food is the first neceasary 
of life, n spare diet telln a tale of many other privations. Clothing 
and fuel will bo scanty ; dwelling space will have boon stinted to the 
degree of overcrowding; honsehold fiimituro will have been parted 
with ; nnd a thousand other suifcrings will have been endured, in order 
to find the mcnns of keeping body and soul together by the purchase 
of nourishment. On the whole, he says, *' There must, I feel assnred, 
be much direct causation of ill-health, nnd the osvtciated causes of 
djicase must bo greotly sti-engthened by it in their hurtfulnesa." 

* For >ucb of otir readers m hnve no imoTixuj nciiHfiintunco with the fiibjfwtv tt miy 
be weU to m^nlion thnt rirbon in th« mnbirial whntoo raimiU h«at ia deriTtxl, uid tbit 
aitngai ntfipliM the fleah-latmiog cubsloBM, botk hang ononlial U> lift. 



^ 



fhf Contempwary Review, 



Other medical men haT« written yet more stmiigly. Dr. Brown, 
of Sunderbtnd, in h work on " The Food o( the People," speaks of the 
result of Li^ own meilival i.'xpt^rieiice amonij: the poor as showing 
" the diminishing power of Englishwomen to suckle their offapring;" 
and in treating oi the anhealthiniB8» of constitution wbit-h results 
from under- feeding, he says, "It ia tranttmissible from aire to sou, 
and is the great instrument iu protUicing that detorioration of a 
race which is the concomitant and cause of the decay of states." — 
(p. 1",) Not only a great mortality at curly ague, but eoftened and 
yielding bones, distorted spines, and feeblo limbs in those who survivci 
are emimerated by this author as the coiismiuenco of deficient nourish- 
ment. The Heed (be says) is thereby sown of tubercles in the lungs 
—the deadly toe ol' youth in this cliinat«, or of swollen glands iu 
the neck and abdomen. Well, therefore, may Dr. Lunkester say, 
in his lectures " On Food," " The question of food lies ut the founda- 
tion of all other questioos. There is no mind, no work, no health, 
no life, without food; and just as wu lue fed defectively or im- 
properly are our frames developed in a way unfitt«i to secure that 
greatest of earthly blessings — a sound miud iu a sound body." 

These thiugw speak for themselves. No one can help feeling that 
their Toioe is u very serious one. Moved hy tbese considerations, 
the Society of Arts, at tho close of the year 1860, appointed a 
Committee — ■ 



'• To iarjuire anil report rospecUng the food of the people, especially, bat 
not eiclasively, the working L-lastws of the people ; iini) that, having regard 
to the pablicfitioQS of tbe Privy Council and other documents, wbiob illas 
trato tht' diTcL'tivo amuont ot imtritiuus food available fur tbe popolatioa at 
liurgu. thu mid Coamiittec do report respecting the resourte^ wlucb arc. 
uiigbt bu tcudercd, itvailable for tbe production, importation, and prcscrvatioi 
of sabstauBOs suitable for food, and for improving the methods of cooking * 
DM among tbo working clnsses." 



Orcr this Committ^w the Right Hon. H, A. Ttrncp, M.P., was chosen 
to preside ; antl aeveral members of Parliament, and other gentlemen 
of influence, consented to join it, and to tako part in iUt labonrs. 
It entered upon its work early in 1867, and it-s proceedings were from 
time to time publi-shod in the Journal of the Society during last 
spring. When the session of the Societ}' of Arts was about to cloee 
at the end of the season, the Committee presented a Report, stating 
the amouut of progress which they had made, and asking leave to 
sit again. They wore accordingly re-appointed by the Council of the 
Society, and have resumed their inqnirie-s with much vigour. 

For the purpose of this paper, we shall draw oui- materials partly 
from the first Keport of the Committee, partly from the published 
evidence which they have taken and partly from other sources. 



at 

1 



7 he FoodofUte People. 



177 



It is of course obvious, from the terms of the resolution under 
which the Committoc were appointed, that many lines were open 
to thcnij and that many subjects required to be considered. In point 
of fact, they havo entered more or leas on several of the points which 
that resolution mentions." To follow their steps in bU thcso diroctiona 
would extend this paper to too f^cat a leni^th, and would, moreover, 
tend to nuikc it too multifarious. Wo propose, therefore, at the 
prcMDt moment to confine ourselves to one subject — that of increasing 
the supply of nutritious food in tliis eountiy. Xo fMOner did thin 
subject come before tlie Committee than they intttinctivcly looked to 
the vast hcrda of South America nnd Australia. Was it pojifiiblo in 
this nineteenth centur)*, with all itt ncicnlifie discoveries, and all itn 
ingenuity in turning; them to practical use, that on the shores of the 
river La Plata, and in the prairies of our own Australian colonics, 
there should be untold herd^ of wild cattle slaughtereil .simply for 
hides and tallow, while here in England a labouring population was 
in wont of animal food ? 

The paradox seems startling enough ; yet it must be confetsed that 
the problem of bringing the fleah of those roving herds to fill English 
months has not hitherto been clearly or indisptitably solved. Indi- 
cations there are, and not a few, that some way is makmg towards 
the solution of it. Public attention is being more and more directed 
to it ; commercial catcrprise begins to gee that thcro is a prospect of 
success and profit in that licld ; scientific men arc addressing them- 
selves to overcome the physical impedimenta ; and, on the whole, it 
mtty &irly be hoped that wo are on the eve of a great success. Oar 
present endeavour will be to bring our readers up to the actual 
position of afiuirs at tJiis moment, in order that they may follow with 
greater intelligence any subsequent disooverioa or improvements. 

We shall not need to say much of " charqu^," or jerked beef. It 
is a very rough preparation of salted meat, not likely to be extonaivoly 
used by any clasa of consumers among ourselves, though it is the 
ataplo food of the negroes in tjouth America. It can be imported 
thence cosily enough, but it is worth little when we have got it. A 
hotter article is oficred hy Mr. Morgan's process. This consists in 
forcibly injecting the arterial system of tho animal through the heart, 
immediately after death, with brine ; and tho cifcct appears to bo to 
produce a fair quality of meat, well preserved by the saline fluid. 
A good deal of this beef has arrived in this country. After oil, how- 
ovor, it is saltod meat, not fresh ; and on this ground it cannot be 
admitted as a complete solution of our difiiciUtics. 

We pass on, therefore^ to Liobig's Kxtractum Camis. By this tho 

* As. fbr iiubiaee, tho mpply of milk uid iU ndultorationft— tho ninltenitioa of oUier 
UDdn ut fowl — ttu existing 'iiBtri)>iition of fiod — tiio marlMt quottion, 6x. 
*^ vol.. VH. X 



178 



I'he Contemporary Review. 



meat is not preeerred wliole^ but nxluced to a kind of essence. Tho 
method employed ib U> teiir the carcu&e to pulp by means of iron 
rollors, aud then to throw this pulp into a vat witli wat^, where it is 
[ sllowed to steam for au hoiir. It \» tlieu puMod into a reaerruir, from 
^which th(3 liquid of the meat is permitted to ooiee into another vessel ; 
the fat is atrefully (idicn off, and the pure gravy eubeeqiiently put 

ito open Tute supplied with steam-pipes, mtd with belluii-s on the 
'.Burface, which help evuponition ; finally, it \» filtered and drawn off. 
yWc all know that this, and the almost identical preparation made in 
unstmlia by Messrs. Toot.b, are now largely imported into and sold 
[in thiacountr}' in small pots, contuining a reddish, pnrtiully-hardpncd 
'wihstance. But it appoars clear, upon the whole, that they cannot, 
cither of thorn, be relied on as an article of constpnt diet. 

The chcraical componcnta of the flesh of animals used for food are 
Tciy various ; but tho most important nutritioua prineiplc — that 
vhioh goM to huild np the mnsolcs of the man who Utoa on it, the 
albumen or fibrin — is insoluble in hot water, and is, in eonBequonee, 
left behind by all «uch proccssea as those of Liobig. >fony cftniiti- 
tuentd that have their u«e are, no doubt, eontoined in the Kxtractum 
Comis, which closely reMmUcs bcef-teo ; hut then, beef-tea, though 
auitohle for a sick person, whose nen-ous power is low, and for whom 
it is requiaito to impply a «timolant, without tasking the digeation or 
loading the sTstcm, pives very little noui-ishment. In other words, 
it does not contain the great materials for repairing the waste that is 
hourly going on in tho human frame, and for making new tissue. 
To a certain extent this defieiency might bo supplied by the use of 
peas, bcan», and other vegetables containing n large amount of albu- 
men ; hut this presupposes that such vegetables are easily attainable^ 
and can be well ami thoroughly uooktxl. And at best the Bubstilute 
thus obtained will be hut a inako-shifl, for a larger qiuintity must 
be eaten, and what is otiten will Tiot be ho oaaily digested and 
awimilated.* While, therefore, noinething may hero and there be 
accomplifihod in this way in HnujHkilcheiis, Ac,, the great superiority 
of the form in which albumen in proHont in the flesh of animals to 
that in which it is found in vegetable etructures, renders it impossible 
so to deal with the Kxlnirtnm Carnis as to make it a general food for 
the people nt large. Ita uses will be more for hospitals and the sick 
generally, and for aoupd for those who are not obliged to miike Miip 
their wholo diet, but take solid meat besides. 

But it may be ad^ed, Is there no plan by which the albumen «m 

be prfisorved iti the making of concentrated meats * We answer 

(hat (his can certainly be done, nnd is done in Dr. HasMll's Klour of 

^cat, and in other like prepoi-ations. But wo escape one difficulty 

• Bee crJdraiM of Dr. ThitdicliitiD, Soc Aits Jour., HiiKh 8, 1867. 



Thf Food of the People. 



179 



only *o fall into another. Wp have now got the nutritious principle, 
but TTP Karo lost the incormptibility of the snbfitance prepared; for 
it is thfi albumrn which tends so rapidly to decay in animal bodies 
after death. Do without the albumen, and yoa got an eTtra/ium 
which will keep admirnbly, hut is of small value for nutrition ; re- 
tain the alhumcn. and yon have a preparation highly nutritious, hut 
which rjinnot he prnservcd for any great length of time except nndcr 
fiiTourable circumstances, and by a considerable amount of care. Thus 
far, then, we have not solved the problem before us of bringing the 
meat of South .-Vmerica and Australia to England. 

A plan of an entirely different kind has been suggested by Pro- 
fessor Redwood. His patent contemplates the preservation of the 
meat as it is (the bone only being removed) by immersing it in 
melted parailin. This concentrat«8 the juices of Iho nicnt and expela 
the air, and an external coating of paraffin being added, the process 
is complete. Tliis plan, however, has not hitherto proved very buc- 
cessful. The great heat used appears to dry up the meat, and make 
it less palatable and Ie«» nutritious. 

Another method has been proposed by Messrs. Paiia and Sloper, 
who seek to preserve meat in air-tight cases, by filling the cases with 
a gas which retards decomposition, and which would appear to be 
hinoxido of nitrogen. A certain amount of EmcceRs has apparently 
attended thiH scheme ; but it has not been cnrried out on any largo 
scale, and the extreme nicety of the operation would render it difficult 
to practim> without occasional failure. 

A simpler, or at all eveuts a better understood, prot;odaro, and ono 
whieh has already found snuit! degree of fa\'our in thi? Kuglish market, 
is that of thu AuRfrUian y\va.% Company, whose London agent is Mr. 
M'Call, of Houndsditch. The process followed by this company does 
not ninterially differ frmn that which has been long in uso for making 
preserved meat^t. Tliu meut, which is free from bone, is placed In u tin, 
and the tin set in a bath of chloride of calcium, which boils at a very 
high temperature. The steam thus generated from ihe meat expels the 
air, and the tin being suddenly and homiotiriilly dosed, the meat is 
kept in n vacuum. The sign that tliis has been satisfactorily accom- 
plished usually is, that a Klight. depression is observahh^ in the ends of 
the tin, the effect nf the pressure of the external atmosphere. Tfpon 
bbing opened, the meat in found to be fresh and good, and none the 
wors<! for its voyage from ,\ustralia. The hwit which has been 
up])liitl to it has had the effect of cooking il, ami it marly resembles 
Ht«^-ed beef — unsalted of course. It may bo ntten, therefore, at 
onoe cold, or it may be made warm and sorved up with Tegetablee, 
&c. The defect h that it Kwiks and tastes as if Hoinewhat overdone. 
Professor Tavlor, in his evidence on the subject, when he favoured 

n3 




i8( 



"^he Contemporary Review. 



tho Commitfee of tho Society of Arta with }iis attcodance, suggested 
[that though a vory high d^ree of huot was necessary iu order 
.thoroughly iu expt'l the air, yet that it was uot ueodful to continue 
this high tempeniluro for any Iengthciu?d time. H« thought that 
by shortening the period of extreme heat, the meat would bo less 
overdone, more palatable, and more nutriiiouB. Tie also objected to 
,thc quantity of fat sent over in the tins, whiuh tended to make the 
^U8C of the meat less economical than it would otherwise bo.* These 
observations were communicated to Mr. M'Call, and a freah con- 
signment has recently urrived from Australia, in which Professor 
Ta)'lor's adWce appears to some extent 1o have been followed, to the 
iprovement of the meat. In their Report, the Committee spoak of 
^thia as " the only plan by which they have as yet found that un- 
f salted meat in a solid eatable condition has been largely imported." 
It must be observed, however, that even if larger experience should 
conclusively prove the method in question (o be practicable and 
, useful, there is another element of the subject which must not be 
I disrognrded. Good preserving will keep meat good, but it n-ill not 
lake it good. The animal when kiUod must be in good condition, or 
Ctlie flesh will not be eatable cither when put into the tin, or when 
tkm out of it. This is a mtitcrial consideration. On the shores of the 
river La Plata the vast herds roam at large over the prairica, and, 
^vhen the time for slauglitcring comes, are driven in by horsemen, 
■aiW an exciting chaae, many miles to th(* !4]>ot where they are to be 
cilled. The result is not only that the beast has never been fattened 
or in any way prepared fur being used as food, but that it is killed 
[in a fevered statt, which renders its flosli uuwholeaome. If there is 
to be any attempt to send meat from South America, both those 
evils will have to be corroctwd. Stock- farming must be taken up 
with zeal and diligence, and the animals so fed as to be fit for the 
"table; and when killed, it must be under proper circumstanoos, and 
lot in hot blood.f Iti Australia tht-y manage these matters some- 
^Tvhat better, but even there it is probuble that more attention -will 
lave to he paid to breeding and fattening cattle, if we are to have 
j9;wei-vc-d beef sent home in really prime condition. 

TVo have not yet eshaimtcd the liat of schemes proposed. Pro- 
fessor Gamgee has a method whieh is thus described : — Tho iinimals 
arc killed by inhaling carbonic o.'ude, bk-d as usual, and then placed 
in air-tight cases with charcoiJ charged with sulphurous acid. After 
a time the cases are exhausted, aud then fdled with carbonic oxide. 
■"inally, the carcasses ai-o removed and hung up lo drj', and will, it is 
lid, keep for many weeks. On this tho Committee declined to 

• It i« ofTnrod for mh in B-lb. tvn» at 7d. (jtr, !1>. u^-iUicnt any banc. 
+ So £n{;Uii}i butt liur vrouli! fv«r kill i-uUIu " pff the driA," aa it b tcnoed. 'Vhty 
tnutt n«t (or twcntj^-four lioura ot- to uflvr being driroii in bvforo thnj nni alau^titcnfl. 



■ 



The Toodofthe Peopie. i8i 

CKpresa a positive opinion, though they witnessed some experiments 
and went into the subject with care. They thought '• fhrthcr and 
more lengthened trials would bo deairublo.*' 

Since laat summer, when the Committee presented their report, 
BCTeral new schemca have been brought forward: of these, though 
no jndjfmont baa yet been passed upon them, it ia on many accounts 
desirable to say Bomethiiig. 

One of these is brought forward by Dr. Modlock, who treats the 
mciit to be preserved with bisulphite of lime. If a single joint is 
in question, it suffice* to steep :t in the solution ; if a whole earca-is 
is under treatment, it should be injected with the bisulphite in the 
some manner a* brino is injected in Morgan's process, described in 
the early part of this {)a]>er. The efficient agent iii sulphurous acid 
gan, and the htaulphito of lime in merely used as being a convenient 
way of applying it. It la jjoAitively stated that no unpleasant taste 
is perceptible in the food 90 treated, while the extent to which 
decomposition is arrested i.s verj- remarkable. Dr. Medlock told the 
Committee that some turkeys and joints of lamb prepared with this 
process were sent to him from Canada during very hot weather, 
and though they were six weeks in coming, they arrived sweet and 
good. And many cases are said to have occurred in which London 
butchers have been able to keep beef and mutton in aultr}' weather 
by means of the bisulphite, when it inuet othom'iso haro bocomo 
uneatable. ^Yhethcr this mc;tlio(l would efitJctuaUy preserve meat 
during its transit from South AmtTica or AutitraUa cannot, of com'se, 
he poeitivcly determined until the cxpci'imcnt has been actually 
made. But on the small Bc-ale in which it has been tried, the rcstilts 
have certainly been favouruhlc. 

The Society of Arts is at this moment conducting some vcrj' care- 
ful oxpcrimenLs in order to te£L the value of Dr. Medlock's plan, 
but eulBcicnt time has not yet elapsed tu justify their pronouncing 
any definite opinion.* 

Another scheme, which, though the latest In the field, demands^ 
and will assuredly receive, careful investigation, is that of " the 
Now South Wales Ice Company." It consists in the application of 

* In cue our readen like to mako a tr!&l for themselvtai, vn nitijoin Dv. Uadlock's 
■•ripe: — 

"T^ke & tfia-cupfiU of ' Uodlock and BaU«y'* IVtent Uisutpluto of Lima Solution,' 
• de«Mt>B|)ooiiftil of common uii, und about t. qnATt of cold vfhifit, railing thn tamo 
in « bwda. Dip tiia moat in thii mlxtiirc for % few minutoa, taking '•;iu>; with the vaA 
of n cloth to w«t it all orcr ; ihuo hang tho joint np u tumal. A dip niitlit uid mora- 
isg will eosorv ite kocpiii^ tvttii for any lijtbiftli of tiiue. If tho a-ntb<T is unusually 
hot, n cli>th Notkkod in the Ediuo tolution may Im wmp|>i«l loimd it with luiraiitagv. 
Wlkcn ie[tmrt>d for cooking, lay it la told waU^r foi n ftw mioutca, auil then drj it 
Ikoroughly with a doth." 



1 82 I'ke Contemporary Review. 

intense cold, so that the meat is precerved by being frozen. Tho 
principle on which this scheme relie.t is, that vhen certain gases have 
been furced to pns-H into a liquid state by the application of great 
pratwure, and arc then allowed to reossume their gaseous form, they 
abfierb in so doing a vast amount of l^ejit. A cylindrical tcsscI con- 
taiuing the meat is placed ivitlifn another larger cylinder, so that 
there is a space between them. Into this space the liquefied ga« 
(which, in this case, is ammonia) is introduced, and is then permitted 
Biiddmily to return to the gaseous conditiDO, thus carr}-ing off th« 
heat, uud producing intense cold arouod and iu the vessel in which 
the meat lies. The machinery used is not very complicated, and it ta 
intended that the ships which bring us the Australian meat tihall be 
supplied with it. By this means the meat will be continually kept as 
cold ua may be desirable, even in passing through the tivpics. So 
fur as ejLpeiimeuts have been already made iu Australia, success ta 
reported to have attended them. The Sytltu'tf Mtrakt of September 
last says tliut — 

** Meal presf^rved iu a perfectly fresh and uncooked state for months has 
b*ien ^lartakeu of at tlie litble of the Governor, at the tilubs, aud in many 
private hoasMi, and in all instances thus preserved has met with unqnalifieil 
approval. It ia, moreover, a remarkable fact that meat thun kept (tozeu 
neither Iomr flavour nor becomes patreiicfint immediately upon its thawing, 
as doM meat preserved in ico, or frozen in the open air. Oii the contrary, 
it hw bfuu foaud that meat thus prufiurved, whuu eudduuly ruteasud fiuui 
the rufriguratiiig iiitluciieu to which it has beeu subjtjctud, will kui-p as iuug 
us when obtaiuud Ii'utgh Irom the butcher." 

Our readers now know most of what has been doing with a view 
to render it fcuaihlo to supply our own dearth of animal food by 
importation ft-om distant countries. That something m/w/ he done, 
if pos-tible, is clear, if wo are to maintain our national health and 
strength at a high pitch : that sometliing mil be done is highly pro- 
bable, when wo consider the talent which is devoted to the subject 
both here and abroad, and the direct pecuniary advantage which 
will wait upon sucecaa. Wo may be allowed to add the hope that 
the blessing of Pro^-idcncc will crown attempts which will haro for 
their TCflult the benefit of so large a number of our power country- 
mon. 

"Wo might now go a step further, and give some account of the 
inquiries made by the Committw, into the subject offish as a partial 
anbatituto for meat. This, however, would deserve a paper to itaelf. 
It would embryeo tho singular undertaking which is going forward 
in the mud of Hnyling Island for breeding aud multiplying oysters, 
in order to replenish our ancient oyster-beds, which have become 
impoverished. It would enter also into the question of employing 
improved means of deep-sea fishing — such aa atiottger gear and 



I'he Food of the People. 



H 



larger tcsscIb, pro))olled porbupe by steam, ond able to keep the 8ca 
in all veutbers, and thus to render Iho tukc of fiith less irregular than 
at prcftt-nt, and the price crmsequontly cheaper and more nnifoi-m. 
And in connoctioa herewith we ^boiild Lave to say aoraething of a 
BUggostiou made by the Royal Fltlicry Commissioners, and warmly 
oidorsed by the Society of Arte, in fiivour of a Piahfrtf ExhibHion, 
mch as haa taken place at the Hague, at Vienna, at Artochou, and 
BouLogne^ and elsewhere abroad. iSucb an exhibition would com* 
priiB more than one aquarium for sea und rivor fiah, models of boats, 
nets, linca, and all applianoea for fiohing, together with some rcprc- 
wntationa of the drcssea, habit^ £c>, of fishermen in different 
countries. It might probably be mitde very attractivo to tlic public 
at large, and would have the effect of dirc^ttng attention to the sub- 
ject, and increasing the inclination of capitulista to tnTcat their 
fundij in fishinjt entt^rpri^eH. It i» [X]>s.sib1(-- that it might do some- 
thing towards reutoviiig the mia{ of uncertainty and perplexity 
vhicb aecnia m prorokingly tu hang orer a tempting field — the 
restucitatjon and improvement of the Irinh lishcrieH. Into all this, 
hcnreTcr, wo have no space now h-ft to enter. We must turn to one 
more point, which is of general interest, and then conclude. 

Bread is the »taff of life. Can we increa.se tbift ull-imjMrtant 
«ipp(«t of mankind ? 

It in said that there is room to do bo, and that, too, without the 
addition of a siuglo grain of wheat (o our prencnt supply. Tho 
answer to this apparent riddle i&, that we may get more bread out of 
our wheat than we have hitherto done. M. Meige Slouri^, oi Paris, 
ha* discovered a plan whit'li is actually in work at the Boulangerio 
Scipioa in that city, whereby a part of tho grain usually employed 
as food lor oniiTialH seems convertible to the use of mankind. Ad- 
hering to the principle on which wo tuTC proceeded throughout in this 
paper, of giving u simple and |K>pulur view of the subject, and not 
entering into technical or »ciuutitie details, we shall shortly state 
that u gi-utn of wheat, when opened and examined by tho micixiijcope, 
ooneists of an internal white mass, which is surrounded Urst by two 
layer!<, one outaidc of the other, and then by the three external 
skins which together constitute the huek. Tlufsc thret' outermost skins 
are of the 8ame character as the straw, and have no nulritioua value. 
Hitherto white bread seeiiui to have boon made from tho central 
granules alone, or mixeiL with the material of the layer immediately 
surroundiug them. Tbe HiHHiud layer has always gone with tho 
three outer skin^, under tlie name of bran, and has either been givcD 
to animalii, or used for making bromi hrrad, for uhieh latter pur- 
pose the whole grain, including the huak, i» employed. It was 
always known tlial the layer so put aside with the husk contained a 



i 



184 



'\ 



"The Contemporary Review, 



large portion of nitrogenous Rubsfniice, and therefore of the elcmcnta 
■ of nutrition ; in this rospoct, indeed, it decideidly excels the central 
I part of the grain. But it was not found possible to use it without 
' the result being to produce what in colour, taste, and proiR'rtica 
ilPM essentially brown bread. It is now stated that this wait 
chiefly owing to the fact that the layer In question is in contact 
with a membrane containing a substance called " cerealinc," which 
gires rise to a special fermentation during the process of baking, 
and produces the characteristics of brown bread. By an ingenious 
mode of sifting, combined with ventilation, the particles of thix 
membrano in the ground, com are winnowed out, and, the whole of 
^■hal we have called the second or outer of the two internal layers 
becomcB available for the bread. The loaves into which it enters 
have, it is adniittixl, a slightly yellowish tingo as compared with 
the best whiti.' ilour, but for all e«isoQtiaI purposes they are white, 
not brown bread. The layer in question is estimated by M. Meige 
Mourles as 22 per cent, of the whole, tho inner portion of the grain 
bmig called 70 per cent., and tho useless husk 8 per cent,. So large 
a saving, therefore, as 22 per cent, in the grain is surely well worth 
looking after ; and when we remcmbiT that the layer in question is 
singuliirly rich in nitrogen, we ought perhaps to cslimale the result 
for the purpose of nulrilton somewhat more highly slill. What is 
now required is that this process should be niiule generally known 
in HiiH country, and that if i>ossiblti our own millera should be 
induced to give it a practical trial.* 

Our object in tho foregoing pages has been to make known tO' 
general renders the broad outlines of u topic in winch all right- 
minded niun must feel some interest. To do sDmetljing towanta 
enabling public opinion to take up the question is of itself to make 
a stop towards its happy solution. "\Ve have studiously avoided 
details; those who desire them can readily consult the Journal 0/ 
lAe Swietff of Ari^, where they stand recorded at length. They 
would only have deterred thtiao readers whose attention we have 
boen seeking to obtain. The matter in hand, indeed^ has no direct 
political or theological interest. It cannot yield on election cry, 
nor turn into a party watchword, Kcnianism, trades' iinioDS, 
Al^rssiaia, the Irish Church, rifWism, the results of the Refonn 
£ill, these may in turn elbow from men's minds so tame a snbjeot 
as tho food of the people. But wo would respectfully suggest, even 
to the most ardent of poHticinna, that men must live before they can 
debate ; that to be able to argue, they must eat. 

Benjamin Shaw. 

■ For ft more exnct account of it, leo Jmtrnai e/ tht Socitfjf 0/ ^i$, Juiafuy Srd, 1868, 
p. lUI. 




I? OR the last two hundred years the name of Thomas nobbes has 
been a name of lerj-or to the religious world. Sceptic, deist, 
atheist, infidel, monster, are tho cpithct«t that hare been gouorally 
bestowed ujwn him. When a man familiar with liobbes' evil 
reputation comes for the iirst time to his works, there is a feeling 
of perplexity and wonder how one who has so clearly and ftUly 
enunciated bis faith iu God and tho Christian revelation should 
ever have been accused of unbelief in any form. Not only is Tlobbes 
a professed believer in Chi'ielianity, but in the most orihudux foiiu 
of it, — an upholder of the rojal supremaey, an Episeojniliun of the 
most unblemished type, a Christian who received tlie mtf/tta-u-s ofiha 
fnith as matters of fuith, iu no way within the provineo cf itsason ; 
one who, if in auy sen^c he eon he called a rationalist or a free- 
thinker, certainly arrived at conclusions entirely opposed both to 
rationalism and free* thinking. 

Tho tlrst solution which offers itself is tho sup|>oaition that Hohbcs 
did not ^Tito sincerely — that under pretence of dofcndinj^ nsvolutlon 
he look every opportunity of raising doubts coiicoming it. Tliis 
mppcMition is untenable. Wo do not know what any man believed 
if wo do not know what Tliamas Hobbea lw;lieve(L If wt» doubt Im 
dnocrity, we may as well doubt fhe sincerity of any man who ever 
professed to he a Chrisfian. Hobbea may be extravagant or 





i86 



Ihe Contemporary Review. 



eccentric ; lie inay even be iiret^^iiici table with hiiriHolf, or wliai is 
more probiible, not always understood ; but there is no r(>asf>ii for 
Buppoaing hiui inKiiicere. It is strange, Indeed, that Hobbce should 
over have been nuisunderstood. No writer in bo careful uf definition, 
and no author of that centur}' ba^ been so much praised for the 
olcganec, vigour, and clearness uf his language. There i^, besides^ 
in Uobbcs a completeness of system. All bis ideas depend on each 
other. Uis mathematics fit into his physics, his physics into his 
politics, his politics into his religion. Isolated, bin sentence are 
Btartling, and sometimes contradictory, but taken in their proper 
relations they can all gent-rully be redoced to one connected whole. 

^Vcrc we to begin ut the beginning, wc should start with an, 
account of Hobbes' doctrine of motion, to which he traced tho 
origin of all liie and esiatcncc. It will, however, suit our pnrpoao 
better to go ut once to his politics, for his religious doctrines are 
inseparably connected irith his theory of civil govcmniont. Though 
ho starts as a physical inquirer, and ends as an expounder of 
Christianity, his political creed is tho centre aroimd which all 
gathem — the pillar on which all rests. Ilobbe-s lived in the age of 
experimentalists. He was contemporory with Bacon. Galileo had 
just discovered that the earth moves; Harvey that the blood circu- 
lates. The attention of all philosophers was turned to the external 
world. HobbeK uldo lived in an age of strifes. The people bud 
executed the sovei-eign. A great part of these atriies were about 
religion. The btvbops were driven from their see^, the clergy from 
their pariohes. Those io power were divided into a multitude of 
scots — tiome of them wild and fanatical. To llobbes, ever^ihing in 
Cburch and State wa» in coiifueion. He woidd teach a doctrine 
that was to cure all thette evils, to restore order to the kingdom, aud 
bring all sects to uniformity of religion. Among the new sciences, 
be claimed to bo the founder of Civil I'liilosopby. He first embodied 
bis doctrines in " Do Give ; or, The Philoisophicid Elements of a 
True Citizen ;" afterwards iuamore matured form in the groat work 
with wbich bis name is always associated, " Leviathan, or the Kattcr, 
Fonn, and Power of a Commonwealth, £cclc8iusticul and Civil." 

The *' Leviathan " was published in 16ul. It consisted of four 
parts: — 0/ Mtm, O/a Comnwnteraft/i, Of a Chrisiian CmnmontceaUh, 
Of the Kiit'jdom of Darkttens. Man by nature is regarded as a gavage. 
His desires are to preserve himself and injui-e his neighbour. Uo 
Ktsb in a state of war. Every man being equal to every other man, 
and ail having an equal right to ovorytbing, the possession depends 
on the power of getting it. This view of human nature was very 
dark. In its relations and consequences it shocked even the most 
determined believers in the Mai dep}-ai'iiy of the human race. But 



Thomas Hobbes of Mafmesbury, 



'87 



Hobtws derired Iub doctrine from actual observation. The mea by 
^wfaom he was surrounded were dislrtigtful of each utUor. Anaruhy, 
as he judged, had guined the asueudeucy. In the civil want men. 
had njtnnied to the stato of tiature. Hubheet (taw them as chiidnn 
of icntth, hateful aud hating each other. There was wanted a power 
to hinder them from izijuring each other ; a power both to leach. 
what ia right, and to compel the performance of it. Thia powu* ta 
the Comm'jiiwvalth, represented by the '* Luviathan," to which no 
power on earth can be comptircd. It re&trains the uuturaL paafiioos 
of men, and of warlike eava^s it mokes peaceable and bencTuleui 
citizens. It is "the moriai t/od to whom, under the immorlai Qod^ 
we owe our protootion aud safely." 

Thin description already anticipates the rcvorcnce and anbrnisaion 

^that are duo to the C'omm on wealth. The soverci^ has absolute 

sathority. Ho is God's vicar on earth. The doctrino of the Divine 

right of kings was in high farour with the followers of the Stuarta. 

I Hobbes was sincerely attached to the royal cause. The Puritaus, who 

expelled the reigning fnniily, may have been lovers of order and 

government as well as the Koyoliata ; and perhaps, with their apparent 

anarchy, better friends to a genuine commouwealth ; but they had 

to tight for justice with bold words and sharp swords. JXobhes, who 

was by nature a coward, would have had them yield implicit obedience 

to the lawtul sovereign, the roprcKcntativo of order, and, lu he said, 

the divinely-appointt-d ruler. The sovereign being to the people in 

the place of God, muitt bo ab&oluto. He cannot injure his subjects, 

for hiH oetii arc their acts. Ue cannot act unjuHlJy towards them, 

,fbr they hold their propcrtt* conjointly with him. It belongs to the 

dng oa well as to them. His laws oonatituto just and unjust. The 

)ple cannot change the form of government. As the sovarctgn 

^eattuot break faith with them, his royal power cannot be forfeited ; 

nor can ho be punished by his suhjects. Ho is to make peace and 

■war, to chfwse his own councillors, to decree what opinions and doo- 

■trin«s ore to be taught, and to be thejudge of all controversies. From 

the hist^jricfil fact that Ilohbea took the side of the Royalists, it has 

bbeen generally concluded that hn said nil these thingn about the 

'lOTereign power to show the enormities of those who had executed 

tb« king and usurped the government. This ia more than probably 

true; yet Hobbeji' earliest ailTer6a.rie!i vrere the Royaliiits, and his but 

aitd best iViends are the liberal politicians of the present day.* In 

extravagant ezprewion of ht» political creed be outdid the first, and 

yet they instinctively hated him. So far as words go, he has con- 

" The oocaplete worka of Hobb«i were rvpnatod by Sir William Molcswortll (tt the 
ang^ticao'' ^r. (Irote. Tb«ro fa n VL-iyitblQ aitide an Uobbcs InOia WfttwiauW 
I for A|iril, IM?. 



The Cmtemporary RevteWm 



derailed withatit un ntom of rcecrvation all that is dear to tbe last; 
and yet they revere hi» memory as that of one who helped forward 
the cuuBG of human progrejis, and did something for the science of 
right govemmrait. Xo one has yet tried to explain this Bingular faet. 
But do we not find the explanation in what has heen already siuii, 
that Hobhes, t;iken in i^oluted ports or pa^<8age6, is not the same as 
Hohbes in his entire system ? Uis Commonwealth wua the assertion 
of principles wider and deeper than the vindication of the Stunrts. 
It was the assertion of the divinity of order, of the majeely of law, 
of the necessity that tdngs should mie in eqnity, and that subjects 
should obey righteous governors. It would be casj* to quote many 
passages from the "Lc%-iatban" which seem to oppose this interpreta- 
tion, but there are many things that confirm it. The Commonwealth 
of whioh Ilobbes diacueaed was avowedly uhai. It had nowhere been 
realized. The perfection was to be reached after many efforts and 
failures. To use his own iUustration, it was not at once that men 
learned to build houses that would last as long as the materials; but 
after long experience tht-y did succeed, and so would it be with the 
perfuut Commonwealth. That Hohbes is not a mere Royalist^ but a 
teatiber of onler, seems to be clear from what he says of the gene- 
ration oF the " Leviathan." The sovereign power may como by 
aegmsiiion, but it may also come by institution ; indeed, this is ita 
more legithnate form. Men couatituto themselves into a common- 
wealth for their mutual benefit ; no that those who before were wolves 
to each other become yodt to each other. They unito for protection 
and defence. For tlie suke of this common goml they surrender their 
individual wills, and deny themselves liberties which they had in the 
state of nature. They commit tho govornmeut of themselves to the 
Commonwealth, and in virtue of the united strength given up by 
individuals, the " Leviathan " becomes the terror of their adversaries. 
This power is personated, but not necessarily, by a monarch either 
hereditary or chosen. There aro several kinds of commonweal ths. 
The sovereign power may be lodged in one person, iu which ca-se 
we have a monarchy. It may be committed to some chosen leaders, 
then WG have an aristocracy ; or it may be retained by a popular 
aeacrably, and this is called goverumeut by democracy. 

But tho sovereign ruler is not only absolute in things temporal ; 
the samo jurisdiction extends lu things spiritual. It is his duty to 
prescribe the religion of his subject*, to dftermLue what books t>f 
Scripture aro to bo held cauouicul, and what is the meaning of the^ 
book:*. The Commonwealth and (ho Chuich of the nation are co- 
extensive. They art- bo cunnected as souictimes to seem identical. The 
authority of the Church is derived from the State. The bishops indeed 
say, in the beginning of their muudatee, by " Divine Providence," 



« 



Thomas Hobbes of Maimeshury. 

which is the same as by " the grace of Ckxl ;" and " thus deny to 
havo received their authority from tlie civil State, and slily slip off 
the collar of tbeir civil Bubjection, cunLrary to the unity and dofeaco 
of the common WL'ulth." IIobbpR, however, finds it difficult to adjust 
between the aiitbority of the civil ndf^r and that of the Church, and 
especially aa ho traces the origin of ecclcsiastiud power to the Apostles. 
It had descended from them by imposition of hands to all who had 
been properly ordained. He says, iu one place, that the prince must 
leave the mysteries of the faith to be interpreted by the clergy ; and 
he admits that in the primitive Church the people had Libert}* to 
interpret the Scriptures for themselves. There were pastors from 
the beginning, hut their interpretations had no anthoiity till either 
"Icings were pastors, or pastors Icings." In another place he puts 
the civil ruler midway between the clergy and the laity : "without 
the ministerial priesthood, and yet not so merely laio as not to have 
sacerdotal jurisdiction." But Hobben is most consistent with his 
own doctrine, though not with himself, when he leaches that " the 
king may baptize, preach, and consecrate, and do uLI other offices 
without the laying on of hands." The king, he says, is king by the 
gracf of God; but the bishop is bishop only by the graccof the king. 

For the Presbyterian?, Quakers, and other sectaries of the seven- 
teenth century, who spoke about worshipping God according to their 
conscience, and not according to the forms of the State religion, 
Hobbes had ready the never-failing case of Koruh, Batban, and 
Abirain. Thej- rebelled against Moses, thylr civil ruler, and if the 
oeclaries followed their example, what could they expect but to 
" periah in the gainsaying of Core ? " Unfort unately, St. Peter hod 
«aid something about ol>e»jing Owl rather than ntatt. Tins, for Hobbe«, 
wu an awkward passage. He had no great reverence for martyrs, 
and was not likely to have become one himself for anything that he 
believed. He thinks that no one iu this country would condenm 
Slahomctans compelled to deny Jklahomet and worihip in a Christian 
charoh. A denial of Christ might he prejudicial to the Church. 
Tet a man may hold the faith of Christ in his heart, though he does 
not profees it before men whom he knows will put him to death for 
the profession. If wo are compelled to worship God by an image, 
though we may reckon imugo worship dishonourable to the Divine 
Being, yet we are to obey. An image, indeed, limits the lu/iiiiie, 
but the responsibility rests with the ruler, and not with ua. This 
doctrine, however, has another side. It is possible that the sovereign 
may command his subjects to blaspheme God, or to abstain from 
Divine worship. In either case Hubbes declares at onco that it is 
itoi their duty to obey. And e\'en as to idol-worship obedience is 
unly due to the sovereign so long as wo have no other authority than 



IQO 



The Contemporary Review. 



the diotatea of reason, for (ho will of tho eoTeroigu power stands tol 
TLB for roBson. Bot sinco, both in the old and new covonanta, wot-j 
ship by images ia cxprwsly forbidden, wo ore froo to disobey thoi 
Commonwealth when it commands what is contrary to the cxprGsaodj 
Wonl of God. An unlearned man lu tho power of an idoUtrot 
king may woraliip an idol, and " he dooth well, though iu bis hearth 
he detesta the idol ; yet, if ho has tho fortitudo to suffer dcatli rather 
than worship it, he dootU bettor." Yet Kobbcs adds, " If he bo a 
pastor, who, lui Christ's mesBengcr, )m& undertaken to teach Christ's 
doctrine to all natioiia, should lie do tho aome, it were not only a 
sinfiil scandal in rtwpi>ct of other men's consciencea, but a perSdtoua 
forsaking of hie charge." In another place he nmkoB it part of our 
civil duty to know what are the laws and commandmenta of God, 
that we may know when to give obedience to thp civil enthnrity, and 
when to the Divine Majesty. It was a vice in Hobbcs' theory not to 
have made the aorcretgn infallible. It is admitted that tliniigh he 
cannot sin ngtiinBt his subjects, yt^t he ran sin against Qod. He may 
ordain what is contrary to eternal «iuity, or to the revealed will of 
God. We mnst, however, obey tlie sorereign so long as it is possible. 
Wo must sacrifice many things for the sake of national uniformity* 
The Catholic, the Lutheran, the Calvinist, in fact all parties, Khouldi 
merge their pecnliarities for the sake of order ; yet there are limits. 
We are not to give up the great essentials necesaary to salvation. 
These, however, are reduced (o the inimmnm; in fact, to this single 
article — the belief that Jeaun is the Cftritt. 

The fourth part of " Levl»than" ooucerns the Kingdom of DnrkneM. 
This is the kingdom of Salan, from which the Church in not yet 
entirely free. The enemy still sows tare*. Wo err by not under- 
standing the Scriptures, and by following the heathen doctnne« con- 
cerning demoHB, which are only idols or phanlusies of the brain. But 
tho greatest perversion of Scripture is that which makes the kingtlom 
of God to be the Christian Church M'hich now i». And con!<«iuent 
on this is ihe claim of the Pope, or some ecclesiastical assemtliett, to 
be God's representatiTes in this kingdom — an office which is given 
only to civil sovereigns. And f^o the Pope claims that Christian 
kings must receive their crowns from him, and that if they do not 
purge tho kingdom of heresy they may be deprii'ed at his pleasure. 
From this, too, arises the error of supposing that the pastors 
ciergij, maintained, like the tribe of Levi, out of the revenues 
Divine appointment ; and thia error of supposing that they have 
supernatural office makes them confound con«ecrationviiihconjttratwnt' 
ao that they pretend to convert bn>ad and wine into tho body und 
Uood of a man — ^yea, of a God ; while by charms and incantations 
over childrm tfacy profess to exorcise evil spirits, as if infants wora^ 



Thamas Hobbes of Mahnesbury. 



191 



denwaiace. Of the ceremonies ond dogmas of the Church of Kcmo 
ITobljcs findB the original ond counteqiart in the demonology and 
Tain philosophy of the Pagon world. But the fonndnrion of nil U 
the confiiimding of the viaiblo Chureh ■wi'tli the kingdom of God. 
Here tho Hiahop of Home, under pretence of succesflor to St. Peter, 
rules OTer his kingdom of darkness, wlnoh Hobbos rompares to the 
kingdom of the faines — that is, the old wivea' /tiltltv in England 
ooneeming ghosts and spirits, and the feats they perform in the 
night. The Papaoy in the ghost of the decoMed Roman empire 
•itting eroA-ned upon its grave. Ita l&nguage is the yhosf of the old 
Boman language. The ffhonffy fathers vraXk like the fairin in 
obscurity of di>ctrin©, in moiiflnleriea, clmrcheti, and churchyard*. 
They have cathedmU, where they practise their Rpells and exorcisma 
like tho fairies in their enchunted castle*. They tnke from young 
men th^ u» of roa*on by certain chanii.i, compownded of metaphy- 
sics, and miraeleq, and traditions, and abused Scripture, just as the 
fnirie* take young children out of their cradles and change them into 
natural fools or rhf», fit only for miachief. IVhen the fairie« are 
dt«plea«ed with anybody they send the elvet to pinch them ; so do the 
ecclewastirs piuch princes by preaching sedition. Several parallels of 
this kind Hobbes draws between the Papacy and the kingdom of the 
/airif*. The last is that, like the kingdom of the fairies, the spiritual 
power of the Pope has no existence but in the fancies of ignorant people. 

'• It was not therefore," ho says, " a very difficult matter for Henry Vm. 
by hift exorcisms, nor for Qucon Elizabeth by hers, to cast them out. But 
who knows that thj? spuit of Eomo — now ^fli<a.<:^ out, anJ walking by mis- 
sions throngh Ihi! drj' places of China, Japiui, and the Indies, that yield him 
little fmit — may not rotnm. or mther an u^scmlily of spirits worse than he, 
t/n\at and iulinbit tlua clean-swept house, and make the end thereof worse 
tbati the beginning? Fur it u uol lAc fiomatt eUrgy ojiii/ ihfti pmtend tht 
kinyJmu 0/ God ta be 0/ thu mtrld, mui thertbif to hart a paatr therein, dis- 
tinrl/rtiM thui of the cinl State." 

Wc have already alluded to TTobbes' general ngreranont with what 
is considered orthodox theology. In stating the grounds of the Ohria* 
tian faith he gives full validity to the evidence from miracles and 
prophecy. He maintains tho neecsfiity of snpernatural oWdcnce for 
smne things which he says are beyond the reach of reason ; as, that 
Je«us is the Chriat, that the soul is immortal, that there arc rewards 
and ponL^hmenta after this life. Not content with this, he declares 
the incapacity of reason to judge ooneeming the attributes of God. 
He believed, with the strictest of tho Puritans, that God had only 
elected to eternal life a small number of the buAan race, and that 
the rent were reprobate. To an objector he answered that it was 
rash to epeak of what coasiated or did not consist n-ith the Divine 



192 



"The Contemporary Review. 



jiwticc. God's right to rciga over men 13 not derived from Hia bii vinyl 
created thcin, but from Hia omnipotcat power. Hu afflicts men, not j 
merely "bocnuBO they Bin, but because He wills to do it. Job's friendBj 
connected his BufJorings with hia secret sins, but God refiitcs them byl 
showing tUut He is the Almighty Iluler of the universe, askings] 
" "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth P " He] 
made sometimes a sharp distinction between reason and faith, entireJy"] 
excluding the first. The mysteries of religion were to bo received with, 
a blind faith. To use his own too expressive illuatralion, they shoiild ' 
be taken without examination, as a mnii fokes hitter hut tchoksome pil/s. 
This passage is certainly the most offonsive of all that Uobbcs haa 
written. Professor Maurioc says there is no doubt "latent irony" in, 
it. If there is, it must be very laft^nf. There is nothing in the con-, 
nection to lead to tJic supposition that Uobbes did not moan what hoJ 
said. Mr. Maurice also objects to Hobbes' orthodox doctrine con- 
cerning faith, which is, that we believe a prophet speaks in the name 
of God simply because he says bo, and thus our faith is roally faith in 
men. " If," snys Mr. Maurice, " our readers dissent from these last \ 
conclusions as much as we do, we arc bound to say that they are not 
more the condusions of Hobbcs than those of his contemporary, 
fiishop Pearson, whom English divines are taught not only to rovcrC' 
for his piety and learning, but to accept as their tjieological guide." 

Notwlthetauding Hubbies' dununciatiou of philoEtophy, and the 
sharp distinction which he mado between reason and faith, he pro- 
nounces rea^on to he lh« undoubted word of God — a talent which tho 
Master has put into our hands till his coming again, and which wg 
are not to fold up in the napkin of implicit faith. That our reason 14 < 
to be exercised in miitt«rs belonging to religion he thinks evident 
from the command of Jesus to search the Scriptures. The appeal is 
made to our reason, which in itself ir''plie8 that we have the capacity 
to understand and interpret the wicred books. There are, indeed, 
many things in the Scriptures above our reason, but none contrary to 
it. Li one place, Hobbes excludes the worship of God from those 
things which arc to be known by reason ; but in another place he 
aays (hat God declares his laws three ways ; by the dictates of tmtural 
rtason, by receMion, by the voice of some man to whom He has yicra the 
power io work miracles. Hence, a threefold word of God, raiionat, 
sensible, antl propheiiv^ corresponding to right rmson, sttperHatKml 
KUK, and J'aith. Itevclation, he evidently takes iu Lord Herbert's 
sense — what ts revealed immediately to oncseli". But as this super- 
natm^ revelation is exceptional, the kingdom of God thorofore con- 
sists mainly of tRc natural and the j}roj?helic — what wo know by 
reason and what we know from the Scriptures. The llible is the 
word of God OS well as right reason, for God speaks to us in the 8301%! 



Thomas Hobbes of Malmeshury. 



193 



book?. We do not kmic that the}- arc the word, bat all true Chris- 
tians believe tbejr arc, and tho ground of this belief is the imthority 
of the CummOHir^iltfi or Church. The sovereign power \xaa determined 
which are the canonical books. Uubbcs devotes a chapter of the 
" Leviathan " to the Holy Scriptures, which is interesting as on p of 
the Brst English essays un the criticism of the Bible. Uc brings 
forward the usual arguments from " the five books of Moses " to show 
that they were not trn'ffen by Mosre. He reckons that the Book of 
Joshua was not writton till long after the Kme of Joshua ; the Books 
of Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, not till long after 
the Captivity. Tho writers of the New Testament lived all in le.^s 
than an age after Christ's ascension, and hod all seen Clii-iat, and 
been His disciples, excepting onl)' St. Paul and St. Luko. Somo 
time had piLswed before the books were collected into one volume, and 
recommended to us by the governors of the Church as the writinga of 
the peraona whose names they boar. The great doctors of the Church 
did not scruple at such frauds as tended to make the people more 
pious, yet there is great reason to believe that they did ncit 
corrupt the Bible. Uobbes' view of inspiration might pass for 
orthodox, if it implied infallibility, which, however, it does not. 
" All Scripture is given by inspiration of Crod," he calls an evident 
metaphor to signiiy that " God inclined the spirit or mind of the 
writers to write that which should be useful in toftching, reproving, 
correcting, and instructing men in tho way of righteou'* living.'* 
Tho holy men of uld who wore moved by the Holy Spirit had super- 
natural revelations. A prophet was a prolocntor — one who spcnka 
fr^m God to man. Prophecy was a teniporarj' emploj-ment from 
God, most frequently of good men, but sometimes also of the wicked. 
It was neceasarj- to use natuml reason to discern the true from the 
false prophet*. In the Old Testament hi.s doctrine was required 
to be conformable to what was taught by Moses, the sovereign 
prophet ; in the New, it was to be accompanied with tho conJessiom 
that Jef»« M i/ir Chritt. The truth of any prophet's utterance was 
always to be determined by the nJcr of the people ; that is, God's 
Ticcgerent on earth. Corresponding to these views of inspiration 
and prophecy, Hobbes said that when a man has wisdom and under- 
standing or affwilions for what is gtxKl, he has God's Spirit within 
him. If the aflectioui! uru i-vil, there is the presence of a bad spirit ; 
those who are thus possessed are called ilanoHtacs. 

The doctrine of mirucU'* taught in the *" Ireviathan," without 
being unorthodox, in Bomu rei^pvcls anticipates modem criticism. 
A miracle is u ^yn, a irond^r, u Kfrauffe uvrli. ^Vheu we know the 
cause, or when a wonderful work becomea familiar to us, it ceases to 
be a miracle. The ignorant take many things for supernatural, 

vol- VU. 



194 



he Contemp^ary Revifw. 



such as eclipscfl of the sun and moon. Yet tliorc are gcnulua 
Mtroeift, iaimediate works of God, bwidc-* or beyond the ordinary 
operations in the world oi nature a-* known to us. These miraclca 
Grod works for an end ; that in, for the " benefit of His eieti," They 
arc not intended to convince the unbelieving, such as Pharaoh, or the 
men of Galileo, in whoso presence Jesiia iroiiid not work niiraelos. 
Their object wnA to add to f he Church such as shoold be saved — such 
as God had elected to eternal life. Miracles made manifest to them. 
the mercy of an extraordinary ministry /or fheir micafion. Ilobbos' 
doctrine of the Trinity is the moat startling ot his theological 
heresies. Person he explains by its original meaning as one who 
act« a part. God, who is always one and the same, was 6rst repre- 
seuted by Hoses, then by His incarnate Son, and last of :ill by the 
AposlioB. As represented by the Apostles, (he Holy Spu-it by which 
they t<poke Is God ; ha represented by His Son, who is God and 
man, the Son is that God ; as refH^sentetl by Mo»e« and the High 
Prieets, the Father — that is to say, the Father of our Lord Jesua 
Chrt>ft — is that God. Hobbew afterwards recalled this illustratioa 
of the Trinity, explaining that he only meant (o show to such sco&era 
as Lucian how God, who was one, could also be three persons, The 
explanation of the Atonement i» more than usually ratiouaL Man 
had sinned, and was liable to a penalty. God was pleased to accept a 
ransom, not however as a satisfaction fur^in i<()tiivaIpnttothu offence. 
In the Old TeKtoDient He gave pardon ou tlie coudiliuu oS offering 
sacrificeti of bulls imd goats. Under I lie new dispensationr the sacri- 
fice of CItrittt has nMl<H?med ub; "nulthal the death of one man, 
though without sin, could satisfy for thu uifeuct; of all men in tho 
nutter of juntice, but in the mercy of God, who has ordained such 
sftorifioi'fl for sin an He is pleased to aooept." 

But in Hohbce' rationalism Uie must «trange of all is his dis- 
belief of an cndleeii pmiislimeut of the wicked. After he has denied 
that we aro judg<'S of what is just with God, nfter he has maintained 
that God's right over us is His omni]KiLence alone, and that He has 
detormincd, irrespective of our wilk and charaoters, who are to be 
sared and M-ho arc not to Ire Kivod, yet on the ground of its incon- 
wtency with the morcy of God, ho denies that the sufferiugs of tlie 
wicked ran be never-ending. Ktemal they may be in the nense of 
sufforings in the elerna) world ; but (hough the tire be nnqurnrliithle 
and the lonneiits everlasting, yet it cannot be inferred from Stiripluro 
that the porsunacast into the torments shaU sutler cternnlly. On the 
contrary, death and the grave shall be cast into the lake of fire, 
which is tho second death. There will be a final restitution, and no 
nore going to bwlea or the grave. 

He had explained angrli as imuges in the imagination, which sig- 



I'homas tlohhes of Malmesbury. 

nificd the presence of God in the execution of a siipernatuml work. 
On llie Bano principle he explains that Satan, thr Devil, and Abad- 
dm do not w^t forth aiiv individuiil person. They iiro not proper 
nameH, bat apprllations, and ought not to have been lefV untranslatedi 
as t)ioy ore in the Latin and modeni Bibles, ^^'^lat ia said in the 
Scripture's concerning IIcU is metaphor. It is ctdled Hades, or the 
pturt! whore mm cannot see — iitferMUt. or m\der ifroitml. The simple 
idea of the dark grave became, indefinitely, a bottomless pit. As 
the giants of the old world were destroyed by the deluge, hell is 
called the congreyuiion of Ihc giim/it. Job eays, " The giants groan 
under water;" and Isaiah, concerning the Kiug of Babylon, "Hell 
is troubled to meet thoe, and will displace t^c giants for the*' In 
allusion to the destruvlion of tbi< cities of the phua, It is called the 
lake of fire. The Egyptians were in darkness when the children of 
Iwraol h)«l light In their dwellings : hence the oufer dnrhifss without 
the Iwbitntion of God's elect. Near Jerusalem was the valley of the 
children of Ifinnosu, a part of which was called Tophct, where tlie 
old Pagains Kicrlficed their children to Moloch, and where the Jews 
curi'ie*! the " filth and gjirbnge " of JermsaU-ui to be burnt with fire. 
From thence Ihey called the place of the damned QfAenna, or the 
Valley of niuuym, the word now UHually IranaUtt'd hcU, Ilohbes 
thinks that iifter liio Hesurri'dioti, the riii/ plaee for the puni--ihmont 
of God's enemies will he on this earth. 

Sulvution Ih delivenuice from Min, which in all one witll deliverance 
irom misery. Il is lo be s<H;urod uheulutdy againbt jUl evils, in- 
eluding want, sicknesK, and death. The kingdom of Qod doos not 
exist now, Thiw ih hul tlie rtyfrncrrttion, or prepiiratJon fortho eoming 
of Uie S>n of Man. Wliai He comes He shall bo King over all the 
earthy tUu true lawgiver, the eternal Sovereign who shall give light 
and |ieacB and joy to Ilia peuplo fur over and ever. We need no 
aweiit tt) luiothei* region of the imivcrsu (o roidi;io the felicity of tlio 
redeemed. Tho labemucle oi' Ood shall bo with men. The X(4w 
JitriiMilem, witit itH glorious temple, Hhull come down from Gud out 
of heaven. Christ t^liall reign with his snints. There shall bo a new 
heaven and u new earth, wherein dwcUeth righteousncas. Tho dreams, 
as we fiflen say, of the millcnorion were sound reasoning to tbo 
sober intellect of Thomas Kobbes. 

Ilohbes hung dead weights to tho wings of reason, but he hud no 
restraint on liis own. lie was willing to snbmit lo the State, or to 
retract what he had written, but not till ho had completed the cycle 
of human thought. Had he kept within the limits ho prescrib^^l 
for others, he would ntver have been chissrd with deists and un- 
believers. After admitting that in many things Hoblna ia 
undoubtedly orthodox, the "Leviathan" is still a great world of 

o2 



ig6 



T^he Contemporary Review. 



rational tlieology, by which we mean theology fountled on reason. 
It is aaid at one time ITobbcs lived in close relations with Ijord 
Herbert. The men were certainly Tcry different. There could 
have hven but little in common between them. Ilerbert was a 
PaiKameut man ; Hobbes a Royalist. Ilerbert was an tl priori 
philoeopher ; Hobbes was essentially (i posteriori. lie hated meta- 
physics as he hated ghosts, derils, and darkness." Bnt in some 
thing* ho agrocd with Herbert. He repeats that the main differ- 
eucc bt'tweeu muu and the beasts is the capacity of the former for 
rvligiou. Like Hvrboi-t, ho draws up articles of natural theologj', 
and like him he gives a secondary place to that knowledge of 
n-ligiou which vrc have on the authority of another person. That 
there is u Qud hti holds to be an inevitable rtMult of the exercise 
of rvotfon. 

" Curiogity," he says, " or love of the knowledge of cnoses, draws ou 
man ttam the consideration of the effect to seek the cnnso, and Again the 
eaasc of tlint eftuse, till of necessity be mast come to this thought at last, 
that there is some cause whereof there is no fonner cause, bnt is eternal ; 
wbiflh is it men eall God. So that it is impossible to make any profound 
inquiry into DUiturnl eauses without being lueQccd thereby to believe there 
is one God eternal, though they cannot have any idea of Him in thoir mind 
answernblf to liis nutnrc. For as a man that is bom blind, hearing men 
talk ot' wirming themselves by the firo, and being brought to warm himself 
by the same, may easily conceive and asBurchimi«olf that there is somewhat 
whtoh men call fire, and is the cause of the heat he feels, bnt cnnnot imagine 
what it is like, nor have an idea of it in his miud, such as they have that 
>ee it ; so also by tho visible things in the world, and their admirable order, 
ft man may eoucuivu there is u cause of them, which niuu call Uod, yet not 
bavo auy idea or iwagu of Uiui in his miud." 

One of the chapters in the " Leviathan " is on the Kingdom of the 
God of Nature. In this Hobbes describes the wor.diip of God taught 
us by the light uf natwe. Wc must attribute to God crish-nce. "Wo 
must s[K^k iii' Him a& the cause of tho world, not as identical with 
it. The world being caused, cannot bo eternal. Wo must rcgai"d 
Biro as earing for us and loving us. Wo must not say that Ho is 
'finite ; that He has form ; or that wc have an iuuKje of Him in our 
minds. Wo must not ascribe parts to Him, nor limit Him by place. 
We must not say He movcj;, or that He reslii, nor asmbe to Him 
pasmoDH — QH repeulunce, anger, mercy. Wc should spook of Him oa 
the Infinite, the Eternal, tho Inconiprchonsiblo. There is but one 



• Iloblw* liad a great twror of being in Uic dark. He ascribe* hi» nntnnU Ihnidity 
I to Use circumaUncie of liu mothcv being frighlcnM tiy thu rnmour of the Spanub 
I ARDadL " She gav« birtfa," lie hbj-o, " to twins, mjaolf and ttas." Biihop Att«rbuiy, 
tinnpuMg«JnbiEBcrmonon"'ni{'TeTTon of C^nscisDeD," a puMgt by no means credit- 
able to the bishop, ropRttnta Hubbcti' natural timidity u his coosolenoe trouhliDg hun 
for his religious principle*. 



Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury. 197 

name to signify our couception of his nature, and that ia, I Xi\.. We 
ahould pray to Ilira, and offer tUanksjfiving. "We should alwayii 
speak worthily of Him, and above all things keep Sin lam, /or ihin U 
the greatfM trorgfu'p of afi. 

In denying Qod potions and affcctionii, JTobbos annihilate that 
personality which, from the liwutations of our minds, we are necewi- 
tatcd, in a greater or less degree, to ascribe to the Divine Bong. 
He maintained that we could have no idan of God. By this he 
meant image. All om- meutui imaguJi are uf thiugs fiuit«. God is 
being infinite, which is the contmry, or the negative, of the finite. 
God, ae wo conceive Him, docK not exist. It is bettt-r to acknowledge 
Him to be iucampreheuaible than to uttumpL ti> dt^^lino Uis nature. 
Following this priuciplc, HohbeK obj'ected to all the terms by which 
we try to express our thoughts conceniing God, and the world 
which lies beyond the eiuisuous ur fmile. " Imorporml spirit," 
*.* immateritil substance," "eUnuil tiow," and all sueh phrases, he 
pronounced meaningless. For the some rvoMin he ought to have 
rejected iitfintif, immortal, fleriml, and many other terms with which 
he could not so easily dispense. HoM'ever, he was entitled to use 
wortU according to his on-n dufiuitloiis so long as he made him- 
self intelligible. But if God is not spirit incorporm/, nor substance 
immaterial, He is the upput>ite of these, which is corporeal body 
OP material Hubstiiuce. In other words, God is bmly, or mutter, or 
substance, taking th(.«e three teiTos aa Bynon}*mou3 ; ]ior docs JIobbeK 
shrink from thit^ concluinon. He reasons that God must bo corporeal, 
for " wbataoever is not body is nothing. The universe consists 
of body mid uccideuts, but in occidenta there is no reality." The 
corporeal is the only real existence. Spirit is body under another 
form — "Uiin, fliuM, traiispurent, invisible." God ih a most pui-o, 
most nimplf, " ciirporciil spirit." It was objected that in this Hobbes 
identified Gud and the universe. The inference was denied, on the 
ground tlial God Wiia the anise of the universe. 

Hobbes only inlendixl to be a physical investigator, but he could 
not uso his reason in the material world ^rithout danger of its 
troBpaaaing on tlie domain of the spiriliud. Fvcry eflbrt to confine 
the fauraaa mind to the phenomenal has been a fiiilure, and every 
such effort must be a failure to the end of time, Hobbes set aside 
the Greek ])hilosophor8 with a anecr. For the Schoolmen ho had 
not even that. Their phraseology ho pronounce*! aw unintelligible 
as the subjccta of which they discoiirsed were inccimprehensiblo ; and 
yet ho is compelled to treat of tho same' subjects, and fioraetimea 
to adopt tho terms which he pronounces meaninglesa. Honestly, 
if uuconsciously, he followed where reason led him. He was con- 
fessedly a man of Limited reading. He Hung it in tho face of one of 



pS 'The Contemporary Review. 

his opponents, tliat if he had read a» many books as aomv people, he 
ironld hare btfen as stupid ba they were. lie fell Imck on the 
resources of his own mind, nnd reached couclusionK which seemed 
ongpiuat. It doetf not appear to have occurred to him, nor to any 
of those who replied to him, that in teaching this doctrine of the 
consubntaDtiality of mind and matter, body and F^pirit, he was simply 
reviving the theology of the ancient Stoics. The identity of body 
and spirit, the division of the all of being into God and the univerw, 
vrae but an enuncidtiou of the one substance of 8pinoza, the vattire 
f}rO(iucing and nature prtxfaceef. Hobbes reached his conclusion by 
the aiime vigorous and independent reasoning as Spinoza did. 
Indeed, it is the only conclusion to which reason can legitimately 
come-^the only conclusion to vhich any philosophy worthy of the 
name ban come. Wo may distinguish between the Stoics, the 
I'latonists, the KIcatics. the Ionics, and tlio Italics; but on tho^ 
great question of beiitff, which was primarily the subject of all their 
speculations, the difference is one of words — a question of the mean- 
ing of matter, sufjstaiKv, idea, e^senre, eorport'fi! fjnnt, and xpiritunl hot/y. 
It is scarcely surprising that the " Ijeviathan " should have crraitwl 
a Bensation on its first appearnnoo. Among the wonderful books 
written in the seventeenth ccnturj" it was certainly one of thedecpest 
and oddest. Ilobbes may not have had many followers — that is, not 
many who ngreod with nil he said — but he had many read^^rf, and 
many who admired even yr\um they did not follow. Among these 
was Cowley, the poet, who wrot* : — 

*' Tut boiUc* vf ifhilcwophy 
I oft have Been and «ttd, 
Itiil all nri^ lioiliii* drviil. 
Or kodiM by art loaltitinML 
I nsvor 7«t the living son] conU eoc 
But in thy liooks and Xhti\. 
"lis viily God CU lalo^^ 
Wh«thei' tlie bir Idml tbou do«t ihoir 
Agree onthvly wiUi Us own or no. 

Tliia I daiL- boldly LiUl, 
'Tin M> tiko trutli 'twSl ftorrc our torn u waD; 
Jnst at in nature thy pro|>c>rtions be 
Aa full of concord their varictjr. 
An firm thoir parts upott thdc «tatn roit. 
And aU bo eolitl as that thi^ at Isasli 
Aa much u luluro, omptinovit doUot." ,' . 

But Hobbes hud opponents an well as admirers. The " Leviathan," 
Bay* Bishop WMiburtoii, made the pliilosophcr of Malmoahury " the 
terror of that age." It would require !i long list to mention even 
the names of thouo who undertook to destroy the moueter. Among 
ihem wo find ouo uai-1. two archbishops, live bishop!!, several masters 



^homai tJobhes of Malmeshury. 



199 



and fcUowB of coUcf^s, o Boylc lecturer, many doctors of dirinity, 
and conntry parsons without numlier. " I wiU put a hook into his 
nose, and cost on angle into his jaws," cried one of the lu5t> with the 
bravery dioracteriatic of bia class when about to slay a monstor of 
heresy. The carl was l-'dward Hyde, the lo_val and faithful, but 
unfortunate Clarendon, He wrote from his exilo " A Kurvcy of the 
' Leviathan, '" whit'h he dedicated to the worthlcaa Charles. In his 
dedication ho assures tho kinp of his unshaken fidelity, and his 
"obborrcnce of the false and eril doctrine of Mr. Hobbes, that a banuhed 
auhjtct (iurinff hin hanuhnu^it m not a aubffet." The '• Survey " had for 
a frontispTecc Andromeda chained to the rock, with the M-a roonstcT 
about to devour her. PerBeus, appearing on his winged Pogaaua^ 
with a Gorf^on's hood in one hand and a Javelin in the other, do5tr<^s 
the monster, and liberates the virgin. So Olorendon, the destroyer 
■ of monsters, harpoonn tho " Leviathan," that religion, like a stately 
goddess, might walk in beauty freed from fetters and from fears. 
Clarendon was ready to admit that there were many good things well 
said in Hobbes' book. Hfi recommended disregarding the definitions, 
which are really csxential to understanding what the author means; 
hut ho said trul)' that Hobbes " did not so much consider the nature 
of a definition, as that he may insert somewhat into it, to which he 
may resort to prove somewhat, which men do not think of when they 

read the delinitiotis." Ho protested against Hobbes' dark Tiew of 
human nature, and the more rationalistic of his religious doctrines. 
He maintained his own orthodoxy by approving the mode of receiving 
the mysteries of faith illustrated by the piifs. He charges Hobbes 
with ignorance of the EngLiah monarchy and its history ; with a 
misapprehetisioii of the nature of laws, as well as of the actual laws 
of this realm, it is only on this subject that Clarendon's opinion is 
worth knowing, for law wa.^ his profession. The chief interest 
attaching to the "Purvey " is the repeated charge that Hobbes was 
iurthering the interests of Cromwell.* The passages which Clarendon 



* Claroniloa aeenis to have bcca the iavtmtor of thia. Bishop Buravt cnlla the 
" Leviathan "" a very wickc4 book with a iitmiKC Utlv," ntuL nya that Uobbwi 
"wrote it »t &rA in ftvpur of abflalut« monaivh}-, bat tumrd it nfUmranLi bi (tt&tir;^ 
the npaUioui imrty. "nirve wcir> hia tmepnnoipleN, thongh he had disp^iwil thmnfor 
itijeoiring Tinwary rtadmn." Or. Whewell myt that tha faco of th« Sgnre in thn frontis- 
pificaof thfi" [toviathan" hasamaaifett nferaiMtoC'roniwall, but In a copy beloDfioc 
to Trinit}- College library th« litoo appean t« be tat«nded fin- C^iarlcs I. A gcndanan 
umneGted with Trinity OiUcgv 'wroto lart month aa follows:— ** I bare beAnvm^ the two 
cditiaoa of lhi3 ' Lerlsthan,' with date HiSl. Hie bQiitisp]«0B of tho one is sunaoosted 
bjr a haiubomo faoo iMenibUng, though not atrikiogly, the portnits of Cbailm I. The 
oihsr laoo baa Ihe aime CTown, lint ia broader uid coaiaer featured, liiw Cromwc'U, hnt 
not itrikingly lo— about aa llku lu« portiait by Ooopcr, as the formi^r in tilic ChurlGB bf 
Tandyke^. But tho £ac«ii are in diffcrGnt types, tha fonntir high featnri.'d and what may 
be oiiiled NorinsD, the latter Sattoncd, wiUi hnnd coBtnla, and mon vf the boutgeoU 



200 



'The Contemporary Review. 



quotefl in proof of this ore ven* obaciire, if this was their object. 
Cromwell must Ka\*e had keen eyes to ace, in what Hohln-s siiid of tho 
right of thn so\Trcign to name his succesaor, an intimation that he 
Khotild arrange for the succession of his son Kichard. lie might 
have found himself dospribcd in o Inter work " as the single tjTimt 
who occupied Ivngltind, Scothmd, and Ireland, and tumtxL to mockery 
the democratic wisdom as well of their lujTncn oa of their eeoleaiaatics." 
He might have i-ead that in the civil war, " not biahops only, but 
king, Iflw, religion, honeslj-, having been cast down, — -perfidy, 
murder, iJl the foulestwic'kctlnes3(covcred, however, with hj^wcrisy), 
held sway in tho land." Indeed, Ilobhcs never misaea an o]iportiinity 
of denouncing all that was done in England in the days of Cromwell. 
In the " l^hemoth " the Parliament men arc pictured as traitors, 
rebels, fanaticn, and h^qiocritr^ ; and yet Clarendon could seo in 
Hohbes a concealed enemy of the Church and the king. 

One of the earliest works of Thomos Toni«on, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Cutiterhury, was called "ITie Creed of Mr. Hobbes 
osaminwl in a feigned Conference between him and a Student in 
Divinity." Tenison hod just been prc-icntcd by the Duke of Man- 
cheater to the rectory of Holywell, St. Ives, Hunts. This little book, 
dedicated to his patron, was the first-fruits of his leisure. It \a 
perhaps the most sensible reply thot was made to Hobbes. It gave 
ample eridenee that Tenison was worthy of (he duke's patronage, 
and fair promise that one day ht* might he a bishop. Teniiioa hud 
the same advantage over Hobbes in philosophy that Clarendon had 
over him in law. He was well read in Plato and the Greek philo- 
oophers. ^\Tiether or not Ihey meant by " ineorporeal spirit " what 
Hobbes meant by " corporeal spirit " may be an open questioo, but that 
they did speak of /jitwyjofrv/ejustences, and uttuch a definite meaning 
to the term, is uot to he disputed. Tenison showed that if Hobbea 
had been at all acquainted with the FLatonic use of the won) idm, he 
would uever have couiounded it with imarje. It is " au ai'gimifut of 
a thickness of mind " to say that we have no fonteptiou without an 
image. " V\aAn has contended for a knowledge soaring above the ken 
of fancy, and liaa taught us that the greiitest and most gloriotis 
objects have no image attending on their conception. And Clemens 
Alexandrinus told the Gentiles that the Christians had not any sensible 
image of spnsihle matter in their Divine worship, hut that they had 
au intelligent Ulca of the only Mjvereign God." Teuisou, not seeiug 
that the doctrine of the Stoics concerning substance could be reconciled 
vitli tlmt of the Platoni^t;*, urged against Hobbes that if Qod was 

or Saxon tjrpo- The CronmcII pinta la much brJgbler abcI mora distinct Mxa tho 
•Uppooed Chnrlci plat« ; it hu miinjr moro ItnuB in the ])ianci[Ki] aud in thu ocecMory 
figures, and might, I think, be a re-touch of the fucmer." 




Thomas Hobbes of Malms shury, 

corporeal, tben He would be identical trith the world, and ao the 
TForld might be worshipped us God. And be repeated the worn-out 
jeats from St. AugUGtine and Peter iJayle, that such men u^Cain and 
Pharaoh, ITerodaud Judas, "not to say Mr. Ilobhcs himself," might 
be parts of God. Hobbes quoted Terlidlian iiad the Ortjck fatlicD* 
to show that by body they meant cs-srinr ; and aa neither Mr. Hobbos 
nor Mr. Tenison could explain it further, Mr. Hobbes said he knew 
(hrtt Qp>l if, but he did not know trhnt He is. To this Mr. Teiitnon 
aagely replied, " Ye worship ye know not what." Ilobbes, not content 
with saying we uould not know the essence of Deity, leaving spirit 
and body as names for quantity or quantities unknown, curried 
this doctrine of human incapacity into the domain of the mural 
attributes, den}Hng that human reason can judge of God's doings, 
and maintaiuing thai that miiy be just in God which h uot just iu 
ua, for fi thiiuj m made jumI btf (roi/'n thimj it. To which Tenisou 
triumphantly replied that the reason of mankind must be the eternal 
sad universal standard, pince Gmi Him«eH' had uppciilcd to it as the 
judge of His justice and righteous dealing. " Are not ray ways equal, 
and yours unequal ? " "Judge between me and my vineyard, 
house of Israel." Tenison also combated Ilobbes' fiivourite doclriuo 
of the absolute aupremacy of the sovereign in religion. The doc- 
trine was purely Tagan. The laws of their country determined what 
gods should bo worshipped. In the "twelve tables" it was forbidden 
that any man should have u personal religion. The Gospel, on the 
other hand, required men no longer to worship the national gods, 
but only the true God as i-evcale<l by Jesus Christ. Tenison said 
that Ilobbes got the doctrine of Ike "Leviathan " from the oration 
of Euphemus in ThucydideB, where the orator says, " Now, to a 
tyrant or city that roigneth, nolhing can be thought absiinl if pn»- 
fitable." It is pohnible Hobbos may have found it hero, but this is 
going a long way for it. 

John Bramhall, Bishop of Derry, and aftcrwnrds Archbishop of 
Armagh, was one of Kobhes' most determined adversaries, lie was 
on able man, though somewhat rude and vehement, a fer^'ont 
advocute of Episcopacy and the .Stuarts, especially King (.'harles II. 
of blessed memorv- IJramhail was tho very incanmtion of that 
Tiolent spirit which, bv the revengeful Act of Uniformitj', ejected 
the Puritans from tho Church of Knglnnd, He had long dis- 
cusaiona with Ilobbes on necessity, which need not trouble any one. 
Neither of them on cither side said anything which had not been 
said before, and which has not otHcn been said since. IlobbeK 
repeated the usual follacy about the will being always necessitate*! by 
the molire, and tho bishop answered that every man feels and knows 
that he bos power to will. "When the "Lcviathau" appeared, tho 



5 



202 



7he Contemporary Rrjsew. 



Bishop of Dwry could not renitit the t'Oniptutioa to tbro\\' hu line 
iiiUi the eeA tiiat lie iniglit eutangle t}io great BnIi. He wrote u 
treatise called "The Cateliing of the Lcviatliun," uud ivilli a great 
deal of pl^^autry wliich it) very amiutiiig in u mail of episcopal lUg- 
iut}-» be threatened to put an end to it« <-xistcnce by three Larpuig- 
iroDA : one for its heurl', u wcond ior ito chlu, and a third for it< head, 
— the religious, thi> political, and the rational parts. Yet the 
bishop coafevsed that he was ooly IjghtiJig with a. shadovt'. " The 
' Leviatiiau ' was a mere phautasiu of Mr. Hohbes' crrn derifliug. 
It was neither desh nor tiidi, hut a coiifni>ioii of a. man and a whale 
engendered in his own brains, not unlike Dagon, the idol of the 
Philitjtiueo, a mixture of a god, and a man, and u tish/' In i'wU the 
great marine brute, " the mortal god," wab Thomus llobbes himself. 

The theology of the "Leviuthuti," according to the bishop, waa 
** uthetstieal." hy making God corporeal, it denied Ilia existence. 
JJy ra.ytng that He in not wholly in every place, it deprived Ilim of 
nbiquity ; and by making eternity equivalent to cudleKa duration, it 
reduced Him to the eonditicn of a tiuitc esietcucc, "older to-day 
than He was yesterday." Uobbefl' answer? were not much wiser 
than Bramhall's objectiona. He said that if Uod was alt in one place, 
that would imply that lie was e2:eluded from other places; and he 
railed against the Schoolmen, who made eternity on eterlaMivg notr, 
and who, iiutcad of saying God was just, true, and eternal, called 
Him Justice, truth, and eternity. Tho use of thtmo torma is not 
athtintiml, OS Hobbcfi said, neither in there any necessary heresy in 
tho rejection of them. Bramhall, who had considerable k-oming, 
and wsA a tolcmblc theologian, protested manfully against tho 
depraved view of hiunan nature sot forth in the. " licvialbon."' Ho 
ended his trcatifu^ with a recommendation that Mr. Hobbes should 
try his form of government in America, and if it succeeded among 
the savnge», ho might tran^phint it to England. In America Mr. 
Hobbcs might have a chance of being chosen the sovereign, but 
Bramhall czproAsed feara that if his " ruling was nn magititorial as 
his imting, his subjects might tear their mortal god in pieces with 
their teeth, and entomb his sovereignty in their bowelfl." Hobbes, 
who coidd be cool as well na se^'crc, wrote an answer to the " Catch- 
ing " ten yeiirs after it was published, saying that he had only heard 
of it about three months since, »<> lUik taik «•«« theit of hi4 hrd- 
ahip't tcrifiagt. 

The Boyle lecturer was Samuel Clarke, rector of St, James', 

Westminster. Ho classed Hobbeswith Spinoza. For this classiBca- 

tion there were some grounds. Hobbes agreed with Spinoza as to the 

I consubstantiality of body aud spirit. Spinoza, indeed, denied that 

God was a body, but then he explained that by body ho meant that 



■ 



Thomas Hohhes of Maimesbury. 

wbich bos figure and dimousioiis, m leii^Ui utid brcadlli — that is, 
be denied, tbat God woa auytbing finite. Hubbes agi-L-cd, too, vvitb 
Spinoza on noccsBih', and that tlio rij^ht of every man by uaturc! 
depends on bis uii^bt. On such questiitUH as llie nature of otemity 
Spinoza a^^rred rather with the Sdioalmen, or we may say the old 
plitlow^pbers. Clarke chiefly <K)mbatod the doctrine of neoesnity. 
One lecture, however, in idmost oiitiruly devoted to the cunaidoration 
of law, in which Clarko shows ihat Hobbes frequently contradicts 
hiniHelf ; aometimcN maintaining that there is right and wrong in 
the natuni of thinfyM, and ni other times declnriug right and wrong 
to depend on the wUl of the soTereign. 

To the question iif law, Richanl Cumberland, oftorwards Biahop 
of Peterborough, dedicated a long Latin dissertation called ''Do 
IjegibuK Natunu." It was itTitten professedly to rcfiit* HobbcH' 
doctrine Imth of mnnd and ciril lav. This book in remarlcablo as 
one of the earlie-sl; etforts in England to establish moniltly on a 
basis independent of authority. Cninberland's basis ia^ that wo 
ought to promote the common gr>od of all rational beings. Ood has 
shown t« our reason that in the very nature of things well-doing is 
rewarded, and vice is punished. The law of nature is right reusou, 
or, as the ancients called it, eternal reason. About this time many 
writers came ibrward eager to establish the principloa of natural reli- 
gion, and the iiiofiac«able distitictioua between virtue and vice. Chief 
among the«e were the Cambridge Platonists. as they were ciiUod — 
Gudworth, More, Whichoote, Workington, Harriugtoii, and Wilkins, 
afterwards Bishop of Cheuter. Most of them make sume referoncc 
to Hobbes, especially Cudworth, who indeed wi-ote lus great work 
on the " Intellectual SyHtem of the Universe ** as an antidote to tho 
suppu«ed atheism of the " Leviathan ;" and a treatise published 
after his death by Bishop Chandler, " Concerning Eternal and Im- 
mutable Morality," in which Cudworth maintained that the luiud 
has an innate knowledge of right and wrung. This doctrine was as 
old as Plato, and the doctrine uf Hobbes as old lis Pluto's opponents. 
In the " Minos " Plato refezs to those who identified a late (i'6/«»c) 
with a decree of the city [Ivyfo, ?roXiwc]. 

"We need not do more titan brieflynotJce some of the others who wrote 
against the " Jjeviulban." Mr. Tyrell, a friend of iJishop Cumber- 
laod's, truuslated and abridged th(> disquisition " De Logibus Natura;}," 
adding "A New ^letUod of dealing with Mr. Hobbes." Samuel Parker, 
£ishup of Oxford, wrote, as a sequel to a Latin work, an English one, 
called "A Demonstration of tho Divine Authority of the Law of 
Nature, and of the Christian Ueli^ion." llic bishop gives a woeful 
picture of tho viciousness and proianity, infidelity and atheism, of 
lus age. Even the common people set up for sceptics, ami defended 



204 



'The Contemporary Review. 



(licir (tins as harmless nctions. The bishop said that he was in piir- 
siiil of truth, and would not be jostled out of the way "not by 
Thomoii Hobbes nor an angel fiftm hcnpfn." The demonstration of the 
laws of Tintnrc was mostly tAken from Bishop Cumhcrlnnd. The 
second part, on the authority of the Christian i-eligion, wa*» original. 
By carpfiil study, says the bishop, we may find out that there is a 
fiifurc life, and rewards and punishments. But revelation has now 
mode these things evident. The grounds of the Christian faith ho 
reckoned to be ao convincing that they mnst enforce belief. He' 
called the " Leviathan " "a fooli-^h book, by the reading of which 
those who were by nature sufficient dunces, fancy theinselvcs 
philosopher*." The " poor village curate is sure to be a trophy to 
the arguments of the forward youth who has read the * Leviathan.' " 
The bishop threatens " to load their iu6delitT,' with such a heap of 
absurdities as shall for ever dash their confidence and disarm their 
impiety." The Apostles, he goes on to say, laid down their lives in 
attestation of what they had seen. It was impossible that they 
should agiee to deceive the world. The books of the New Testa- 
ment were written by the persons whose names they hear. Tlie 
WTiters were sincere and impartial. Profane history, too, agrees with 
sftored. Josephus has given, an account of Jesus. Phlegon speaks of 
an ech'p«»e about the time of the crucifixion. Tiberius, according to 
Teriullian, believed in Iho divimty of Jesus Christ, and wished the 
Senate of Homo publicly to acknowledge it. Pontius Pilate wrote 
" The Acta of Pilate " for Tiberius. Justin Martyr appeals to them, 
and surely ho know better about their uuthcntieity than Casaubon, 
uud some other modem i^cholarfi, who have had the bolducsa to doubt 
that thc-y wero writtnri by pLJalB. Agharua, tho King of Edessa, 
wrote a letter to Josm;, inviting Uiiu to come and cure hiui of some 
disease. To this letter Jesus wrote n hrir/ and piOiy lUisKer. The 
Therajmdiv mentioned by Philo wuro ChrJaliaus, whatever Sculigcr 
may say to the contrary. Justin Martyr tcstifit's that in the city of 
Rome de^Tls wcro cast out daily by the name of Jesus, when the 
liomon exorcists could not cost tlicm out. trcnxus proves against 
the heretics that tho Catholic Church had the true apostolical suc- 
cession, for the clergj' could work tho same miracles as the Ajiostlcs. 
They could cast out devils, foret<'Il things to come, cure tho sick by 
imposition of hands, and even raisi- the dead. The Roman Emperors 
confessed the supernatural jwwer of the Cliri«tians. Marcus Aurelius 
was witness to the rain, atid thunder and lightning that came down 
on their cncmioH in answer to tlie prayera of tho "thundering 
legion;" and this is saying nuthiiig of tlio multitude of miracles 
mentioned by Origcn, St. CypriaJi, St. Ignatius, aiid St. Augustine. 
Ji' tho "poor village curate" fell a victim to those who read the 



'Thomas Hohbes of Matmesbury. 

" LoTiQthan " it wha hia own blame. He ought to h&vo known the 
valuable evidence from Christian anUquity provided for him by 
Samuel, Iiord Bishop of Oxford." 

Sonut of the small writers who made sport with tio " Leriatlion " 
have not even left their names to posterity, and of what they wrote 
the Briti.sh Museum L(w only been able to treosun.' up a few frag- 
ments. " The True Effigies of the Konstor of Malmusbury in hia 
Proper Colour*," has only the six pages " to tJie reader." Cowley's 
verws to ITohbe-s were vilely parodied after his death. "TliuLost Say- 
ings of TTiomas llobbes," consisting of startling passages from the 
" Tjoviathan," were cried through the streets after the fashion of the 
dying worda of Baiter and Biinyan, WiU wrote elegiee and 
epitaphsit while religious visionaries saw llobbes writhing in hell Uko 
Daiit«'3 monster*, half suffocated in eulphur.J " Tho ' Leviathan * 

* BUbop Burnet ipoaka of Parker as " ■ man of little rirtuo, and as to ridi^^on, rathra 
)mi>ioDf. IIo WIU oripnnlly ivn Indn[tend^t, but altrr hit <r<onTi.i«i>i>n to EpLsoopocy 
h« for aoma jana catenamc-i tho nation with sdvoiuI virulent lioolu, till ha vu attftcked 
by iba lirclioat droli of the »ga (Andrew Murvull), yrhij wrolu in a turliwitin atrain, 
but irilb io peculiar and so entertiuiunf; a coELdutt, that from Uic king down to tko 
tndeaman hia book* wero rond with grwt plnu>art>. Thia not only humUod l*Rrkcr. 
Imt hia whoI(! party-" He wa« at one Unm ao taiwi Ilubtkca' ejdu that lio wiid lliu kin;; 
WM not under God and Chnat, but aodcr God and above Cfarint. Ao^nlinK to Burnet 
tlut Mcond Jamf* madn him a binliop tf hMp on tbo rdn of Uia Chunh. Mocaulay u}*b 
** Um Uahiopno of ftzford wan giTnii to Sumuul Parker, whoM roli|;ii)a, if ho had any, 
was that of Bona, Eind who called Unui^ir a ]'rot<«l«jit only bccnuso ho wu oscumbeted 
vHhawiie." 

t '>nc olegy pTW what we may auppo«o to haro boon tbo gODorol «etunatfl of 

*■ Ra wtih •ucli ut daMlml, ihM nono «ui tKj, 
tl lit* tw vmin, frhfTW hin nrron Uy ; 
U b* laWtakt*, lia aiUI *itli •» much wil, 
t£t im moK |Jt««iai^j tluiti otlun ItiL' 

To this olrgy >• appended an epitaph which la loo coarae to be quoted .here, ^niia U 

lilt laA T«rse : — 

■■ la toe. atur a UuMMUrf ibami and tabta. 
Klaet7 fcara eailng and bnincinal JobU. 
Sara matUr Ilea, and tbttt I* an tai at IIobbM.' 

- Htra Lit! Tern RobbM, Uw MiBbcat eS Uie aiUon, 
Vim* OmUi ba* ftistiWtA attabai out of tatUon.* 

J Hw fonowiiig ij fnm "Viiions of HiJl," ascribed to Jolm Bunyan -. — 

" Mj^emltu. — I bad no looner apoke, but one of the bormentod wrotchu cri«a out, with 
a Bad, mourning accent, — 

" Sure I abould know that roioo. It muat be Epenetiu. 

"I waaamuxnd to buar my camo mcnttouod by one of tho inffmal crrw ; and thflw- 
foie, being doaiTona to know who it waa, I answered: Yea, I am Epoaetiu; but who 
arc yiu, in Uiat and, tnat condition, that knows mc ? 

"Lam. £()W.— To IhJa tho lost unknown rcpiiixl: I wa« onco woU Mquaiul«d with 
you upon earth, and had alniovt persuaded you to bo of my opinion. I dm the nnthor 
of that celebrated book, ao well known by the titlu of ' Ijcriatbau f ' 

" fy»K*Uit. — What, the great Hobboa 1 aaid I. Are you come hither F Yoiir Toica ia 
■0 mnch ohanged, I did not know it. 

" Ii«iUt. — Alaj ! replied he, I am that unhappy man indeed. Bat am to fiir from 



zo6 



^he Contemporary Review. 



found out ; or, Au Answer to Mr. Hobbee' * XiCTiathon,' fa that which 
my Lord Ckrfndon bath passed otbt," wua written hy Johii White* 
haul, of tho luiier T«iiiple, barrister-at-law. Itut the barrister had 
nothing to say vliich liad not beon better said bv others. One of 
the best pieocH against liobbes is a little tract wanting the titlo-po^. 
The writer undercook to show from " Mr. JMhrx' otrn prtnfiplrn, that 
the notions of laws of right and wrong, just und unjust, goi>d and 
evil, are independent npon, and naturally and rationally antecedent 
to, the constitution of any (wmrnonwealth." 

William i'ike, a tdergvnian, wrote, " ExaminatioDfl, Censuren, and 
ConfuUtiona" of "the Strange Man" and "his Strange Book." 
Alexander Tlrws* wrot** " leviathan drawn out wi(h a Hook." IIo 
likened hiniM-lf to young David encountoxing Gulialh when the armies 
of Ismcl had been frightened hy the vast bulk of bis body, and the 
dimensions of his spear and aiiuour, and his bragging imd defying 
wortls. "The learned had been afraid to bridle lAx. TIobbe« his 
* Leviathan;* l>ut the spiritual shepherd, the least of the ti-ibe of 
Levi, litUf. In his own eyes," would show that the bndi^ was not so 
terrible that peo|>le should be cast down even ut the sight of him. 
John Kachard, D.D., wrote " Dialogues between Philautus and 
Timolliyi" that is, hiioself and Mr. liobbes. Tbey were dedicated 
to Gilbert, Archbishop of Cantcrbui-}- (Sheldon), and were intended. 
to bo clever. Ono of them bogiiit; by Pbilautus a&kiug Timothy if 
he had not hanged liIiuKclf yul. Tlic arehbishop and the doctor of 
iliviitity »aw only food f<«r pa»ti)nc in the great " Leviathan;" but 
they cuuld nut play with him as vtth a bird, nor, oa companions, 
make a banquet of hira.t 



btine gTC«t, tluiL I AID nna of tho mo4l vretchod pcnonf in aII thue Hotr terrHorloi. 
Ki>r U it 11117 i*^i><Ior that my voice ia (4inng»d, ite 1 an tutv duuged in my ptindplw, 
tliaiixt> vliuigwi too lata U> do cio aiiy good. For now I know ihvn: U 11 God ; but O ! 
I wiiU Ihet* were not ! — for I atii buiii Up will liAvc iiu incrf y on rii«, nor i» Uiwe .iiiy 
twwon Ltibt Hu aliould. I do coofesa tliut I wu lib foo oa eaitb, nnd noir He ia mina 
in bell 

" IToMm. — O that I oould but mj, I fool no iSie! Horn eiuy would mjr toniumta ba 
to UiiLt wt)ioh I DOW find thom I But oh, alas! tho fin that w« ondnre ten Ihonaand 
tlmcA oscc«ds ilII culinary- fire in fi«rcotica>." 

* Immortalixnl in " Iludibtsa : " — 

■' TUtn oat an aanicni 1^^ ]ihtlaio|ihcT 

TtuU ^ad rraJ Altiamlrr lltiit iirrr. 
And iwtn Ibv wntlil. u lio Rinilil jimi*. 
Wuniailiabg«]iBfAU'>B •»<)'"''» >«**- 

■And ht who raade tl hwl rcail C^oilmiai, 
thSof, or Crhvt Rai^nt." 



£1 aooBMr plM* — 



t Bcnjairan Loncy, Buhoii of Ely, nl»o wrote agaiiut Hibhes e.n l>i* unwrtion of 
noovMrdly, and @oth Ward, fjuvilian i'rorcs»«r of Geometry nt •I'xfonI, afterwards Biahop 
of Exeter, wroto— "In Thumin Qobbei riiilofophicaia Kxercltallo Eplatolies," in 



"fhmuis Hobbes of Malmesbury. 



207 



Did Uobbcs really mcoa that the distinctions of right and wrong, 

truth and falsehood, hnd their origm from tho civil ralor? Did ho 

mean — 

** Ul turpi1«r fttnun. 
X>e«it»t In pUcfita arnlicr fonnoBU mpenui ?" 

or did he only wish to mako tho Pisoa laugh f Ho knew that thoro 
were natural laws, unchangeable and eternal. He said expressly that 
what th'tf forbid can tier^r be /aic/til, nor what ifiey command be unlawful. 
Before the establishment of the Commonwealth fhei-e existed no law, 
according to his definition of law ; but he admits that what wo gene- 
rally understand by the laws of right and wrong existed before all, 
and inde[)endcnt of all, civil society. Most of those who ^Tote against 
HobboM have noticed that on this subject it is difficult to reconcilo 
Iiini with himself. "Whatever he may have meant by ascribing 
unlinutcd power to his grotesque monster, we may, after all. fairly 
chiim nobbcs as n teacher of immutable morality — im nssortor of 
eternal law. 

John Hust. 



whicb bo oontriTertM <ill tb« doctrhiM of Iha " Iil^TilU]Mtn," mftUpkyiirsliuid phjrsii^, 
political and thaolagical. But tlu gnat contnwisy of Ilolihm' liib wna wtth Br. John 
WkJIw, ■aoLher profuMor of ^oometiy. Thii mia ni<iru]y ou quwtiont of gminetry, 
iind n«cd not (IttAi'n ta. Dr. Wliewrll uyv of Uobboa' writiiigH on Uiiit tnbjrct, tliaC 
tbn;- vera ftiU of Ihi^ "roost czti«T«guit amguioA, ipisamiat, and dogvatiBn which 
caa bo uoagiiiod." To iho liit of Hobbvi* ndvwiMriw wc may iMld Sir Itobart 
Fihiwr, Daoiol Scargil, Dr. Bharrook, Dc. John Tom]iUr, 3Ir. tjbafto, ood KobiMi 



T-r^S^77J-'^rFi-S^SJ!SiS}iffiSiSiJi^^rJ^4 



"■JfiyrB 



G$: 



tzryHi:*r»yaU 



THE ILVRRIAGE LAWS OF ENGLAND AND 
SCOTLAND. 



A ROYAL Commission to consider the laws of marriage in tho 
United Kingdom has been fitting for upwards of two years. It 
}iafl closed its evidence, and may be espeeted roou to make its n'port. 
TThat the character of that rc])ort may be, is still of course unkiiown; 
l)ut the composition of the Commiseioii affords a clue to at lfa.st the 
prepoBsesaiona with which the majority would approaeh the subject. 
The members compri^o eight Kngtishmen to threo Scotcliincii, uiid 
three Irishmen. As the eoundncss of a system of law is not ei^ta- 
bliahed by the number of iadiWduala who arc subjected to it, there la 
no very evident reason for this disparity in the projwrtion of the 
persons whose natural prejudices may be assumed, to bo in favour of 
that law to which they have been habituated. But even if the national 
rcin-cscntation had been more equal, the faet that cloven out of the 
whole fourteen are lawyers must have bid us pause bcforo acccj)tirg 
the concluftiona of such a body as decisive of the quetition Bubmitu-d 
to thcra. liuwyers, as such, have no peculiar right, and no special 
competence, to prcscribo the marriage law for the community. It 
would be as reasonable to make thc-m the sole arbiters of what ought 
to bo the system of our poor-laws, of our emigration laws, of our laws 
about schools or churches, or uuist<Ts and servanlH, us to subiuit to 
tlieir csclusivB direction the principlea of our marriage laws. Mor- 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. Z09 

riage is a social, not a legal question ; and in social queMioDB Inwyera 
have uo further function than to tell as how to carry into effect the 
principles which the nation determines. Nay, their very training 
acts as a certain disqualiticatioii of them in any further capacit}'. It 
gives them the habit of considering the machinery more than the 
result. They think more of what people should be nrnde to do, for 
the sake of legal convenience, Ihon of what people ore likely to do 
fbr the sake of their own conronionce. Their desire is to make law 
Bystomatic, precise, absolute, applying one rule to every contingency, 
overriding with one positive command every complication growing 
out of the infinite variety of human nature and circumstances. This 
method appears very ])hile«ophical, and in dealing with ineri^ly com- 
mercial or conventional nrrangenients, in which it is nil easy to conform 
to one set of regulations as to another, it is often admirable aud 
beneficial. But we must be cautious how we applv it in cmes where 
a higher law, base<l on the principles of our nature, demands a more 
liberal recognition of the diversity of human needs. Ko legal enact- 
ment can make mankind of one pattern. Nor can any rule keep men 
from breaking through its fetters when strong temptation assails. 
The resource of lawyers in such caftos is to etrragthea their rule by 
nicreosing the weight of the penalties on disobedience. But here the 
public must step in to decide whether^ after all, the inlliclinn of the 
pcnallios does not create anoraaliesf abuses, immoralities, greater than 
would exist under a law less theoretically elegant, but more consonant 
to the actual requirements of humanity. Aud if by reviewing the 
results of the expei-ience wo Have already bad, the public can draw 
its own conclusions nn this matter, the better courac will be that it 
should decide and declare for tteelf (he principles which should form 
the basis of its marriage code, rather than leave to lawyers to fashion 
fbr us a system of perfect legal cumpleteuese, which we shall find in 
practiee works Icidly, or works mischief. 

It must bo remembered also that marriage is a contract of a cha- 
racter entirely peculiar in many respects. It affects every class of 
the community; it is entered into by the humblest, the most illiterate, 
the most foolish, as well as by the wealthy, the educated, and the 
pnident ; it is influenced by the eagerest passions, and often con- 
cluded in eircumstanecs when even the steadiest heads lose their 
judgment, and the affections overpower the restrainta of reason, and 
of all customary motives of action ; and at the same time it is to all 
of an importance exceeding that of any other transaction in their lives, 
conoeming not merely property, stAtion, and honour, but morality, 
religion, and the eternity of eouls. This universality and immensity 
of interest concur in requiring that all our regulations on the subject 
■honld be of the utmost simplicity, so that the most uninstntcted may 

TOL. VII. » 



undorstand them, and of the ntmost preciflion, so that the most carfr- 
Xean may oL«en'e thorn. But it is at the same time erident that there 
ure two di«tinet elements iDToIved in this contmct. There ia tliut of 
Lutuun biw, a£Eectiiig more civil rights. But there la alao that of 
diWue Uw> briugiug in coasideratiotu of a far lugher rauge. Now 
Liw^'ent are apt to look exclusively to the former element. They 
argue thut iu a traiituictiou of nuch great worldly impui'taDce, the 
rules which guide otlier civil arraiigemeuta ought to be dtill more 
rigidly enforced ; and they oTtvu ask if it ia not monstrous that 
mmriuge tihould be allowed to be Bolemtiized with lesis formality than 
attends the transfer of a piece of land, or the sale of goods. Bat 
when we regard the consequences of the application of these doctrines 
in the two classes of cases wo sec how the peculiuritioB of the contract 
of marriage must aSbct our conclusions. It is a snmll matter to uuike 
a commercial arrangement eubjoct to fixed regulatioUB, and void if 
they arc neglected. A moderate delay doow no harm, a lowyor can 
bo consulted if there is diihculty iu understanding the law, aud nullity 
is iu some cases only an inconvcnicnRC, and at the very worst it is 
only a temporal loss. Hut with marriage all is diffurcnt. There luc 
times when impatieucit or opportunity admite of ao delay, there are 
oocasiouB in which no advice can be reaortoil to, and nullity involves 
consequeDce^ that are always trenieuduus, and sometimes may even 
reach beyond the grave. Here then it is possible that in the effort 
to make a solemn and formal legal ceremony indi»penaable, and to 
establiah fixed and unalterable technical rules for its vaKdity, the 
robolt may bo to set np a human law which shall be at variance with 
the Divine, which imiy dciKinite those whom God has joined, may 
forbid to man-y where religion commauda to morry, or may place 
some other t^arthly stumbling-block in the way of weak conitcieuces, 
or vehement yet not unholy desire*. 

In eonaidcring a question so wide and complex, the beet way of 
simplifying it is to inquire Jlrst what are the exi^tiug laws, and what 
is the effect of their oi>enition. And bure we may b«giu with those 
of Scotland, as sUll maintaining rules which originally were the 
^h foundation of the marriage code of all Christendom. After con- 

V sideriug the nature and ojKtrutiou of thi«e, we may proceed to review 

^^^ the working of the changes wUich l!)nglijsh lawyura have in their 
^^H oountty engrafted upon that primary syat«m. The lawa of Iidji&d 
^^^ nci'd not detain us ; for their stole peculiarity is the preservation 

^^^ of fiotae relics of intolcranco in the case of mixed marriages between 
^^H Homan Catholics and I'rotcstonts. 

^^^ la Scotland, toUowing the example of Scripture (whicb nowhere 

^^^ enacts, or even suggustrf, any marriage coremuaijil) and of the Canon 
^^fe or oocieut Church Law, tho consent of tho {lartiea ia tho solo cesen- 



Marriage Laws ofEngUnd and Scotland. 



211 



tial to a marriage. This consont mny bo proTcd by any aufficitmt 
eridonoe. In far tlic grciitcr number of instance* it is proved by a 
religious coromony, in which a minister of rclij*iou officiates, after 
due pnbliciition rif hann-<i, and the marriage ia then called by lawyers 
" regular." But this religioua ceremony ia not snbjcot to any 
reOTrirtion.-i either of timo or place, nnd, in point of fact, it ia 
gcnemlly performed in a private house. If proclamation of banns 
ia neglected, the clergyman and the parties ore liable to penalties, 
thongh ihe marriage Atondit good. Such a marriage is, however, 
styled "clandestine." In caae« where no religious ceremony inter- 
venes, there is no occasion for any public notice ; and nothing is 
eaeential except that In nome way — by writing or by witneitsas — the 
iitct of deliberate purpoMt and concw-nt nhotild be proved. In this 
case the marriage is called " irregular," and if the consent was 
exprt'SB it is called "consent dt prestnti." When it is proved nolely 
by witnewefl, two are neceesaiy, in conformity with the general law 
of evidence in Scotland. Sometimes, by way of securing a more 
solemn record, the parties go before a magistrate, and confess that 
they were married clandestinely, undergoing some email fine as the 
consequent penalty. But in some special cases the law declares that 
certain acts shall be hold conclusivo evidence of consent. When, 
under promioe of marriage — proved either by writing or confessed 
on oath — a man seduces a woman, the seduction itself is held as 
evidence that the promise has been converted into actual consent, 
and the marriage dsU')^ from the period of that conversion. This 
is technically distinguished as marriage " by promise, sitbsequenie 
eopulti." When, again, a man and womon give themselves oat as 
married, so that they are generally nndemtood to be snch in the 
neighbourhood, in which they reside, the law holds Uiat permitted 
repatation to be evidence that consent has at Bome timo been given, 
without demanding proof of more formal and preciw contract. In 
this oaso the marriage is said to be cstabli^cd by " habit and 
repnte." 

Any inconvenience which might follow from the diiEoulty of fixing 
the exact date in these two lost casoeof irregular marriage is obviated 
by the oncient role, derived aUo from the Cbinon Law, that marriage 
legitimatizes the previooB offspring. ^Ind it may bo observed, 
in passing, that this rale leads indirectly to some injustice being 
dona to tho character of Scotland in point of morality, &n tested by 
statistics. Many children bom out of wedlock arc legitimatized by 
the subtiequent marriage of their parents, which has always been 
intended, but which there i« in Scotland no legal rea.son for eelo- 
brating before the birth. But in England, as such subsequent legiti- 
mation has no place, to evade bastardy the father and mother must 



212 



T^f Contemporary Review. 



marry boforo tho birth. Hence, as the registrars iu both oountriefl 
only note the position of the parents at the date of birth, it happens 
that many more illegitimato tirtM are regiBtcrcd in Scotland than 
in England; but it does not follow cither that there has been more 
immorality before marriage, or that there are moro bastards oiiating 
at IV later age. Ail that ia shown by the registers is, only that more 
pareuta, who have been guilty of immorality, mnrry before a child is 
born in England than in Scotland. 

But another, and more important, misnpprf:hension, not founded 
on statistics, prevails in England, even among many well-educated 
persons, respecting the marriage customs of Scotland. They have 
an idea that the exceptional forma of irregular marriage arc really 
those in ordinary use. Grave judges have oven stated in evidence 
before select committees of Parliament, that they suppose it ia 
seldom that a marriage in Scotland is solemnized by a clergyman! 
For the information, then, of aouthern readers of this Review, it 
may be right to repeat that the overwhelming majority of marriages 
in Scotland, probably at leaat 999 in 1,000, are regular, entered into 
after due proclamation of banns, and solemnized with the rites of 
the Church, diflbring oiily from the like ceremonial in England in 
that they arc celebrated in a private house, instead of an ecclesias- 
tical building. So distinctly la this the fact, that if each ScoUtman 
and ijcotdwoman will consult their own rocoUocttouB, thoy will find 
that scarcely any among them can recall an Inatauce in which indi- 
viduals j)crsona/ly known lo thcin have been married irregularly. 
Tho cases of irregular marriage are always tJiose in which secrecy, 
or some Iosh reputable purpose, has been the motive ; and this is of 
at least aa rare occurrence under the marriage law of Scotland as of 
England. 

It is, indeed, true that on this fact two opposing arguments have 
been founded : tirst, that if tho irregular marriages are so rare, it is 
needless to contiuue tho law which sanctions them ; and next, that 
there may really be more than we know of. because there may be 
many who are iu doubt whether thoy are married or not. The first 
question turns on the point whether secrecy con be, or ought to be, 
in%-ariably forbidden, and it may be left tilt wo see what the English 
law has boon obliged to concede in this respect. Tho second requires 
us to distinguish the class of persons among whom sneh doubtful 
unions oin possibly be found. Now, in the firat place, let us obaerre 
that it is, in fiict, one of the leading advantages of Uie law of Scot- 
land that there can be no uncertainty when tho parties wish to avoid 
it. In all regular marriages, for instance (having the advantage, it 
will be seen, over the like claas of EitgUsh mamages), there can be 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. 213 

no doubt of the fact of le^nl marriage, for ae thore la nothing 
eeaential but consent, and consent has been placed beyond doubt, 
thoro is no room for error in form. As little douht can there be 
where the consent has been eipre-ssed by parties who really moon it, 
although not in prewnce of a priest, nor even publicly, but privately, 
before witnesses, or in WTiting. A declaration, oral or written, that 
is meant to bo plnin and honest, ia subject to no doubt. The sole 
cases, then, in which there is room for doubt are those in which 
marriage is cstabUshod by dubious luiiguugu of consent; or by a 
dubious promise preceding seduction; or hy a dubious reputation in 
tlio ueigLboiu-houd. It may bo reasouably quuetioued if tUaso 
instances are numerous ; nay, li" they ctjuld be numerous iu any 
decently moral atato of society ; for they are all cases in which the 
partius have not only refused the jiublic meuus of marriage (for 
which they may have hud very good and proper rtasons}, but in 
which they have pur|)oseIy resorted to equivocal means even in 
private, to excuse or cover an illicit connection. They have been 
Ir^'ing either to deceive one another, or to deceive the public ; and 
not the marriage law, but their own designs, have led*to the existence 
of doubt us to their po!^ition. 

But whether rare or common, let ua conaidcr more closely the real 
nature of the difficulty thus raised. It applies, as we have seen, solely 
to those who have been designedly ambiguouR. But ran it bo con- 
ceived that any number of these would have been driven into real 
marriage by the certainty that their private arrangements would not 
bo marriage P Let us take first the cone of the marriage by " habit 
and repute." A man and a woman live together, and for their con- 
venience give out that thoy are married, oil the while knowing they 
not, nnd meaning not to be married. Is it reasonable to suppooe 

It they would not have lived together at all if there had been no 
chance of the connection being ultimately declur»l to be marriage P 
Is it not evident that, since they do not want to bo married, the 
mere possibility of such a result must rather deter than encourage a 
connection under such a name? Is it not also plain that in any 
caae the sinful connection would have bfien carried on just the same 
had there not been the cloak of reputed marriage, only it might have 
been private instead of open? Ail that is effected by the difference 
in the laws of the two countries is, in fact, only this — that in England 
there are a great many more illicit connections whi'.h are temporarily 
concealed uudet- the prclouce of marriage than Uiere are in Scotland. 
And the whole lugal eiluct of the law of Scotland on the subject is, 
that it actually duvs convert, in occasional cases, that pretended 
marriage into a real one; a result which may be ^'cry inconvenient 




The Contemporary Review, 

to rc«pe<ctable libertines, but sareW ta not adt'erse to morality, nor 
injorioua to public decency.* 

Any one who known t^e social babito of the two coontries can be 
at no loM to recall exsmpleo of the truth of these doctrinee. It ia 
onfortunately, bat conapicuously, true that a looser state of principle 
exists among the upper ranka in England than is to be openly found 
in Bcotland. I use sd^'isedly the word " openly," for no one can 
pre«umo to trace private oonduct. But of the shamelesa women who, 
in public places in London, vie in display with matrons and nuiidens 
of rank, a very conaidcFahle proportion arc kept under the temporary 
name of wives of tboir "protectors." In lower ranks also it is 
common for a mistreaa to receive the appellation of wife until conve> 
nlence no lon^r calls for maintenance of the deception. There arc 
aloriea current at the Bar of eminent members of the profession who 
OTory year carry a different " wife " with them on circuit, or on their 
Yacatioii tour. It is obTiou<t that the law of Scotland makes sooh 
arrangements far too dangerous to lie indul<*ed in in that country. 
And it is [HUfflhlo to imagine that this un:^ccommodating sc^'crity is 
the real cause which leads to so much of the declamation in Kngtish 
nowspapertt abour, the burlmrous xLatc of 1ho law, nnder which "people 
find themselves married withnut ever having meant it !" Dut it doc» 
not follow that the law of Scotland Hlinidd \w nlterod in order to give 
lacilitiM to English joumalfnt* to import a succession of "wives" 
into Scotland during their holidays. 

Take, again, the only other case in which uncertainty con exist- 
that in which a woman chooses to be satisfied with an ambignons 
declaration or pronu«e. It is no less cortaiu thst iu such cusea as 
these the absolute impossibility of constituting marriage in that way 
vcnild not prevent yielding to sin. These are oocaoioms in which 
privacy is observed from dome necessity of circimistances, but in which 
the passions are veheineni , and the rostrainta of reason and conscience 
are weak. In such circumstances it ic seen by the innumerable 
actions in England for damages for breach of promise of marriage 
Or for seduction, in which such a promise has been the principal 
inducement, that n mere promise of that naturo is often sufhcient to 
lead to a woman's fall. But in Scotland, actions in which a promise 
of marriage is proved are csooedingly rare, although iu that country 
the woman hocself may always sac for domagoe for seduction, while 

* I hfcTO OB fonasr occ&nona oxpTMMit lui opinion tluit, for tlio sake of ntt«inui£ «n 
ummilAticn of tbolsw, the ScflttJAhnnetliod nf proving ntnrrio^ bf " habit and repute" 
might b« raairanccd. Futlin' obicivrntion on the nci&L eonseqnencai that ^A whan 
thii rule ii not in fon:«, faavo luJ ma kgwevt^ to doubt tha ^risdom of "■nH'^g sneh a 
sacriiic*. Al tlw Mono time it may be also olwcn'^ that mcro " reputation " is coiutlUiUy 
admlUMl M svRicient uviilnnco of marrio^ srcn in Engliih Law Cotula, unJoa* Ui« dot 
in formally diapuUd, anil of tecvnt dalo.* 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. 2 1 j 

in England action is only allowed whore lier seduction has led to loss 
of Lur Mrrices to a pairut or master. To wlijit are we to altributo 
the comparative infntquency of lue of this means of seduction in 
Scotland ? It aeeiiis plainly due to the fact that the law raake« its 
use an evidence of marriage, and that men fear to resort to it. This 
is a clear gain to morality. And how is that law to be blamed of 
which the efiect is only to diminiKh the temptations to seduction, and 
sometimes to convert into marriage a connection which a harsher 
letter would dfmounce as invariably concubinage P 

It acoms clear, then, that tho known operation of the law itaclf 
tonds (0 check tho exiBtcnou of occasions in which it can como into 
practical operation, and that tho idea, of thuro being many cases in 
which any uncertainty abont tho fact of marriage exists is wholly 
baaolees and incrc^blc, as well as contrary to general belief. I}ut u 
dlArent objection is sometimea iirged against such an operation of 
the law, which needs only to be plainly stated to be reprobated. It 
ia said that it favours tho attempts of designing women to inveigle 
young men of rank into a marriago, that it allows of marnagea with- 
out dun notice to parents, and that it favours secret marriages, to the 
hurt of innno(>nt poninns afterwartls. How does it do any of these f 
I^y simply decluring that, withoni any reference to rank or age, it is 
better to recognise marriage than to rocmgnise fornication. We havo 
but the choice between the two. No law can prevent both. No law 
can creato prudence, honesty, openness, honour, chastity. It must 
take men and women as i( finds them, and learo each to hear the 
penalty of their own misdeeds, or incaution, or of the misdeeds of 
cithers. But are wo to attempt to set up a protection for high rank, 
or for parental authority, or for future dupes, by declaring that yoimg 
men may commit any sin but imitrimony ? Is it too much for the 
morals of civili/atiou to insist that marriage is in nearly all these 
cases by far the least of the evils into which hot young blood can 
fall? At least, here we have experience on the side of Scotland. It 
is the fact that there are not more misalliances, nor more contracts 
entered into secretly, nor more cases of bigamy through the first 
marriage being concealed, in Scotland than in England — the suffi- 
cient reason for which will be seen when wo come to consider what 
tho marnago law of that country is. 

When, then, we take a broad view of tho operation of the marriage 
law in Scotland, we see that it is in its essonco tho moet simple I bat 
can bo conceived ; devoid of any entangling legal ibrme, though 
lending itscli' readily to the combination of such rebgioos rite as the 
parlies desire to add to make it nuin; solemn. Wc see that it is so 
clear that honest people cannot make a blunder about it. Wc see that 
it inttffpases the most powerful reetraints on the eomraisaion of sin. 



2i6 The Contemporary Review. 

whether openly or surreptilioualy. TVo see that where doubt exisU 
at all, it exists only in the case of the intentionally imuiural. and 
that the practical consequence of the doubt in only to coavert iato 
marriage in some few case* a cocnection which the law of Englaiul 
■woald always miike concubinage. We may, therefore, safely draw 
(he inference that the objections to it come only from three classca : 
the Brut being lai\-yers, who like to have alrict law at all costs; the 
second being libertines, who like no diSculties interposed in thovra}' 
of indulgence in their shameful puriioses, and who especially hat« to 
be caught in the snares they set for others; the third being the 
guardians of ari-stocmtic privilege, who would rather see a peer seduce 
than marry a girl of hiunbb birth. 

It is less easy to stale the requircmcnta of a Tolid marriage in 
England than in Scotland. The old law of England was very eimiLir 
to that of IScolland. Many great lawyers laid down that consent 
alone, without any intervention of religious rite, was enough lo cod- 
fititute a valid inarriago. A great many years indeed after this system 
had hoon aboliwhcd, the Houmo of Lords had occasion to consider the 
point on an appeal ; and their opinion was so equally divided, that it 
waa only tho IbrnL in which the appeal nomo boibre them that led to 
a deeiwon lh:it the iiituriiOHltion of it clergyman had always been 
noce»8aiy. Itut this question is of less con-sequence, because it was 
at least admicti^d on all sides thai consent to marriage, or living 
together under the name of mamnge, ci-eatod a bond so strong that 
eilhcr (if the parties might at any time, even if another marriage hod 
mc;iufiiiic Biqwrveued, compel the other to go through the complete 
ceremony. But the law of England was not equally scrupulous with 
that oi Scotluud in regard to the character oud position of those who 
might, in the name of religion, perform the full rite. By on old 
statute in Scotland, any clergyman celebrating mariiage without due 
obsfrvaiico of the preliminaries of banns was liable to punishment. 
The C'hurch, also, would undoubtedly have deposed from his clerical 
fimctioii any minister who degradt^ it by irreverence or fraud. But 
neither tLo civil nor the ecclesiastical law iu England madt- any such 
provision tor deceucy and order. The consequence was that disgraced 
but not disrobed clergymen (" Fleet parbous," as they wore colled, 
because cither in coiiliuement iji the Fleet prison for debt, or haunting 
its purlieu.*') were found in abundance, who at any hour of day fir 
iLtght, with no notice, and witli no queations o^ked, were ready, for 
whatever fees in coin or liquor they could extort, to perform the 
marriage cercmouy according lo tho fonna of the Church. A writer 
in the Corn/ii/l Mngnzine has recently giveu some extracts from tho 
registers kept by those infamous clerical brokers, from which their 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. 2 1 7 

degradation, and the inexpressible imniornlity of th6 proceedings to 
whirh thev lent the cover of their prieatly functions, are only too 
loothjwjmcly apparent. A remerly, it iras clear, waft needed. Bnt 
instead of seeking that n-hieh hiid been found effectual in Scotl.ind to 
pwrent the profanation, tho English lawyers took a wholly different 
line. The Marriage Act (:26 Geo. II. c. 3;i) enncted that publication 
of banai should be an essential ; that the publication fihould be upon 
throe siiccessive Sundays ; thut it should take place in the churche* 
of the pari><lies to which both parties belonged ; and that the marriage 
should be celebrated in a church in which banns were published. An 
error or defect in any ot" these requirements not merely, as in Scot- 
laud, involved the parties iu penalties, but was declared t<) amiiil tho 
maiTiage. Dut curiously enough, the important matter of publicatioa 
of banns was sttll ulluwod to be evaded by procuring a license Lu dia- 
ponse vt'itli them from one of the surrogulcs of the bishop, of uhuta 
there are many in. each djoceso. This iiceu»e la avtiilublu only for 
marriage in the church it specifies, and one of the porlius was required 
to reside for four (uow two_) weeks wilhiu the pariah. But »ucU 
licenses am grunted ou upplicutiuii, and on puymuut uf the fees (about 
£.'i), tho only prelimiuary being thut the party ajjplying should swear 
that both are of age, or, if not, thut they have the cousent of paruuta 
or guardians. The Act declared thut want of such consent should, 
in the case of license, annul the man'iagc. When banna were used, 
consent of jiarenta was not made necessary, but express dissent would 
■uinnl the marriage of a minor. 

This Act continued in ojjcration for the best part of a century, but 
at last public opinion could no longer bear its harshness. It was 
found that an error might very cosily and very innocently bo made 
in publishing the names of the parties, and that the peimlty of 
annulling the raarnugc was an invitation to the frauduleut to 
moke such an ori'or. It was also found that tho like penalty in 
case of a marriago had by license, when one of the {lartics falsely 
nrore that consent of parents had been obtained, oficred most con- 
Tcniont facilities for satisfying tho scruples of a young woman by 
a strictly regular marriage, which could adtorwards bo rcimdiatcd 
in consequence of a perjury of which she ha<I not Iwcn cognizant. 
In a new Act, the 4 Geo. tV. c- 76, which forms the basis of the 
present code, thesv defects were renicdit"d by the enactment that 
error* in the ceremony, or in the banns, ur falsehood in the oath 
on which a license i« obtained, should not annul the marriage unless 
the error had been committed wilfully and in the knowledge of both 
parties. But even this was found not sufRcient relaxation, DI.s- 
senters objected to be 0)an*ie<l by the Church of England, and somo 
persons objected, to any religious ceremony at all. Permission has, 



2l8 



Tht Contemporary Review, 



therefore, been given timt the marriage may be celebrated in any 
chapel dalf registered fur the puqKisa, or even in the office of the 
fi^gitntniT of Births, Deathd, and Marriages of the district. In thO' 
Utter case, instead of banns, the notice of marriage nniKl be read at 
throo woekU* meetings of the guardians of the poor. These are the 
loading provisions of the present lav, but they are contained in a 
Tost number of enacting, declaring, amending, and repealing aote, 
and it would be wholly impoasible in reasonable bounds, and with 
regard to elpamcaa for popular comprehension, to set forth all the 
statutory provfaions by which marriage in England is affected. 

But out of the history itself of those changes wo may draw some 
▼My positive conclusions. England has tried the experiment of 
making th« validity of marriages dc]>cnd on clerical cclcbrationa, 
on publicity, and on consent of parents. In every one of iIigso 
points she has been compelled to alter her law. The eonsequenco 
was found to be too terrible, and the amount of sin to which enforce- 
ment of the legal rule led was too serious to allow the sj'st«ni to 
stand. We must therefore take it an established by experieni-c that 
none of these elements can henceforth bo enforced by the penalty o£j 
nullity of the marriage. 

But when this penalty has been relaxed we really arrive at a 
liberty of marriage not verj- different in substance from that of 
Scotland. It is quite putisible, fur iiiHtaucn, in Kngland that a valid 
marriage should be coiiirtituted by u hhain religious ceremony, per- 
formed in a hum, by a sham clergyman, under false names, between 
a boy of fourteen and a girl of twelve, witliout a word of notice 
to aiiyliiKly ; for if only one of the parties is in the belief that the^ 
plaoe is u churuh or chapel, the minister a clergyman, and the names 
eoiToiTt, the marriage elands good, despite the fraud of the others 
jiurty in any of theee respects. Furthermore, under any circum-l 
atancGs, a inarriiigc will be good, however young the parties, however 
unknown the fad tii their parents or others, nnd if by license, however. 
inaccurate the uiuucs, the only cousequence of false names in the case i 
of a license being loss of pecuniary advantage from the marriage. 
Lastly, it may be obBer\'ed that cvcrv one of theiio provisions as to J 
time, place, or notice may be dispensed with by a special licenas^, 
granted by the Archbishop of Canterbury only to peers or pcntona of 
high influence. 

The consequence, practically, is that tbere is no further difficidty 
in contracting a accret marriage in England than in Scotland, when- 
e\-cr the parties seriously wish it to he kept secret. It is but a 
matter of £3 to get a license, which, though false in names and in 
overy other particular, warrants a marriage that cannot be over- 
tnnied. If -diat expense or risk be too rnacb, it is easy for thai 



Marriage Laws of Englanti and Scotland. 219 

partios so to arrnnge their rcsidcnoc aa to havo the banns duly 
published in their proper namee, hut in jmrishes whero no one is 
the wiser for the announcement. Ho clearly h this tact now recog- 
nised, that Lord Chelmsford, who is a groat opponent of the Scottish 
sjratem, declared in the House of Lords, during the Inst session, that he 
uru oonvinccd the Kngliuh s}'s(cm of banns was of no use as a means 
of publicity. Consequently, there in quite an muoh risk in England 
as in Scotland of a aubtwquent marriage being defeated by the dis- 
cover}' of a prior one that had been kept concealed. Bigamy ap- 
pears, by the criminal stati«tic«, to be fully as common in the South 
as in the North. Ami the reconis of the Divorce and other law 
courts, as veil as tJie facts that nre every day coming to light in 
society, prove that there ore as many marriages contiact^d by young 
meu and women without the knowledge of their friends, as many 
in which the alliance is on one side or other dii<reputable, and as 
many in which the ejustenco of a prior secret marriage proves the 
ruin and roiaery of others, under the legislation of JSugland as 
under the so-called louse rules of Scotland. 

Such then being the facilities which the English law, under the 
teaching of experience, has been driven to accord to clandestine 
marriage, let us nuw ejtamine the practical operution of the restric- 
tioQS which remain. A marriage is noU if the parties "knowingly 
and wilfully intermarry in any other plsee than a church or chapel 
in which banns may lawfully be published ;" or if they marry 
without duo publication of bauns or license ; or if the ceremony is 
celebrated by any person not " in holy orders ;" unless the marriage 
is in a Dissenter's chapel or in the registrar's o&tx. 

As to the flrst of tfiese requhiites, we have to ask, What is a 
church P Most people may think that an caBily-answcred question ; 
but cases in the Knglinh ]aw-book.<i show it to be often a difficult 
one. Tho rains of a church have been held, in virtue of an adher- 
ing odour of connecration, to be a snitabln place for celebrating 
marriages in." Tlie verfry adjoining a church has been held to bo 
the church for the same piirpoi«e ; bat the chapel of an embassy has 
been hold not to be. Again, if a ohturh is not left in ruins, but is 
rebuilt, it needs a frc^h consecration and a fresh authority as a 
place for publishing bauns and celebrating marriages ; and omission 
of some of these ceremonies throws grai^e doubt on the validity of 
all the marriages sulemuized w'ithiii the walls. Every session Acts 
of Parhamcut ore passed to remedy some of tbeao unfortunate lapses. 
Tho preambles of two of these Actti pa.^sed within the last couple of 

" In a pQ^ulnr publi<»tiQa it would T^o uMlora to cite tha roporta m wliieli tho eaew I 
nhr to Kt*t to b<; found. I (into Kinm Uio ualboiiUea for mGh etstWMot nuMk ham, in 
-u pap«r KiibHUtted, at their nquoai, to th« Koyal CJoouiuanaa on tho UuriasQ Iawi. 



azo 



Ihe Contemporary Review. 



years, will sufficiontly show tboir character. The firet declarea that 
"the church of Sydmoaton, in the county of SoutbamptoD. was 
ta^cu down for the purpose of being' rebuilt, and a new church was 
thereupon erected upon the old foundations, and opened for divine 
Mirice on 28th May, lUoS, and divers marriages bad been »inco 
aolemnizcd therein under the impression that as the said church van 
built on ground heretofore duly consecrated, othor consecration was 
unnecesttar}', and no conRocration tuok place until 17tb Aii^u5;t, 
1865." In the caso of tbo ttecoml, the prcauiblo bears tbuT. tbn 
chapel-of-eoAc, called St. James the Grrafer, in the parish of Luni- 
boame and county of Berks, « wo^ on 12th April, 1H53, duly cnii- 
aecratc^, but no nutboriiy )md ever been given by the bishop for the 
piiblicution of the biinns anil eolRmiii^ution of marriages therein, 
and divern marringes have nevertheless been RolemntKed in the Kuid 
chapel under an erroneous impression, on the part of the ininiHter 
thereof, that by virtue of the said consecration or otherwise, mar- 
riages might be lawfully solemnized therein." Consequently, till 
the fut^t is luckily discovered, there has been an indefinite number 
of marriages celebrated for a do^n years together, which all the 
while «iT U'gnlly worthless, and which only by Act of Parliament 
can be converted subsequentlv into legal unions ! It is thus plain 
that not only bride and hridegroom, hut the clergyman himself, 
may often have eitreme difficulty, aud fall into fat^l error*, in try- 
ing to fulfil what seems the veiy simple injunction that the cerernouy 
must be performed in a regular church. 

^ow let us look ut the matter of proclamation of banns. Although 
it is now confessed even by Kngliuh laivi,'ers that this ceremony is 
useless, and probably it may therefore bo abrogated, the questions 
that have arisen upon it mil still be important, becauAC they will 
apply to any enactment which requires the parties to give their real 
names for registration. IJut what is to ho considered the real name 
is often a very difficult question. It has been held ia one case that 
when the Christian name of the husband woe given as John only, 
there being really two Christian names. Honry John, the marriage 
was void. In that and some Hinn'hir oanoa the ground of the decision 
was, not that the one [larty bad in any way deceived the other, but 
that thero was u di&parity of ago and station, and an intention to 
oecapo publicity ! Within the- hist twi> yearn there was a ease in which 
a man gave liia name as Henry Wells, instead of George Henrj' 
Wells, lo which omission, at his earnest solicitation, the woman 
assented ; and on this ground the marriage was snlwrquently set 
aside in a suit at the instance of the husband's father, against tbo 
wish of both parties! But not merely the omission, but the uddi- 
tioD of a Christian name will sometimes annul the marriage. There 



I 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. 22 1 

18, however, no certain rule on tlie subject : the jutl|?C8 have declared 
that ihe result will depend on fho circumstances of cacb case. 
Aiauretily a doctrine leading to far greater uncertainty than any 
that can be discovered in the practice of the law of Scotland. 

Xheso were indeed cases in which there had been an attempt to 
evade the law. But there is another class in which thoro has been 
no Huch dosiro, yet in which error in form has proved no \<?m fEital. 
In one much-conaidcred caec, the vonutn's name had been crruiieoi»Iy 
entcreil in Iho register of baptism?, and on the occasion of her mar- 
riage it waa thought that the safe course was to ubo the name so 
rc^stpred ; but it waa aftorwurde held that this was wrongs, and that 
consequently hor marriage waa null. In another case Ihe woman 
ufted a wrong name " in a mere idle froHc," and this was also held 
fatal. But what to do in cases in which there has been a change of 
name, or in which a name i>f reputation has bei'n used by which the 
parly ia better known than by his or her real name, is an extremely 
difficult question, which the Engli«h judgos have often adverted to, 
but on which they have laid down no clear rule for the guidance of 
parties so 8ttunt«d. A cruel situfition enough \ 

But though the law is thus hard on people who are either cnroless 
or have the misfortune to stand in any situation in the least degree 
out of the common, It can be hue enough at times when even gross 
fraud La<t been practised. For example, a woman whose husband 
was still ulive, gave her name for the banns, with a view to marriage 
to another man, as Kmma Klwoud, her real iiiuno being Amelia, and 
described herself as a spinster. Her i.'xi»ting husband chanced to die 
before the celebration of the ceremony following on theite banriM, and 
tho marriage with the new husband wa« held irrevocable, because the 
fact of her being actiuilly a man-Jed woman when the batms were 
published waa only a malttir of status, and the deceived bridegroom 
had not been cognizant of the error in the name ! For it will be 
remembered that it is only when both parties are cognizant of the 
misdescription in names that the English law annuls the marriage. 

Tho rules to be deduced from all the cases are thus slated by Lord 
Tentcrden : Ist. If there has been a total variation in a immo or 
names, Ihc marriage is void, whether the variation boa been from 
accident or design; 2nd. If there has been a partial variation only, 
aa the alteration of a letter or letters, or the addition or suppression 
of a Christian name, or if the name used has been in use at one lime 
and not at another, it is necessary to inquire into the uiotiveH of the 
parties ; for if their purpose has been honest tho marriage may be 
good, if their object bos been secrecy it will bo bad. In these cases, 
then (quite via frequent iu occurrence as any cases of doubt in Scot- 
land), the estahliahmont of poaifivo rules does not lead to absolute 



22ft 



^ The Contemporary Revirw. 



oortainty ; ii ohIt leads to the iiiqiurT' being made into tlie motires 
of tlie pnrtiett ; uid that, not as rc^furdv tbeir rcttl purpose uf marriage, 
u in Scotland, but as regards their purpose of concesluwnt or Dot \ 
A question at least as difficult of detcnuinatioD, but far less maten'al 
to be asoartajjwd. 

A ouriout question has b«ea raised \ij some of the bishops within 
tho last fear which affects the ralidi^ of half tho marriages in 
Knglaad, and itiustrates the unoertaintj introduced by enactments of 
fanaalitics. The statute declares that mnrriages ahuU be invalid 
if the bonns (if that method is adopt43d) have not been duly published, 
and it directs thom to^be published "during the time of morning 
aerrice or of oroning service (if thoro shall be no morning scrrice) 
tmitiodiately after tha seoond lesson." Now statutes are not 
poncluatod ; and it is obvious that this senttmiMt may, by an ultom- 
tion in the pOHiUon of tho points, be made to road either as signifying 
that the time for due publication is aiUr the second leaaon in the 
foieaoon ; or, that it is at any lime in tlie forenooD, but if in the 
aftamooOt th^o t^^^ ^^o second lesaon in tliut serrioe. Most clergy- 
men have read the stiLtuta in the former sense; but the Bishop of 
Oxford and others have recently declared that it ought to bo reftd in 
tho luLtor, and that clergymen must, under peril of contumacy, 
publish banns, nut after the second lesson in the forenoon, but after 
tho Niceiie Creed. Wliichovcr porly is right, all whose banns have 
been published in the other way are in danger of being pronounced 
not legally married I jlccordingly, a remedy was sought in the 
umal KngU>ih fashion, by a Bill, brought into Parliament last session, 
whiuh declared tbat marriages should be good at whatever period in 
the service the banns had been published. But after sharp debate 
between the partisans of rival readings, tho Bill was withdmn-n, and 
tho point remains* undecided F Tet what would be said of Scotland 
if its law of marriage admitted of such wholesale doubts, and needed 
such sweeping legioliitive remedies? 

On the whole, then, it appears thut Knglifih lawyers, aiming aboTO 
all things at certainty of rule, have given tisc to a far greater di^rcc 
of uncertainty than the Scottish law admits of. After being driven 
by force of esjierience to abandon tho attempt to mako anything 
imperative except eolebration in a public place and the use of the 
true names, Ihoy have only suceeedcd in importing fresh sources of 
doubt into tho correctness of the proceedings. And unhappily these 
doubts apjily quite as much in cases where there ia a desire to do 
ovorything regularly as whoro there ta irregularity. In Scotland, 
persons who really intend to marry cannot mako a blunder, for they 
have only to any so in any place, in any form, and before any witnossea. 
But in £uglaud no couple con be s\ire of having been legally murned 



Marriage Laws of England and Scotland. 223 



onlees they have isqaired whether the church in which the rito viu 
porformcd hiul been duly consccratttd after ita erection, and had bcoo 
duly lieenaod for marriaget*, and is a place where bonna are usually 
published. Then they miut have no doubt of the clorjr>'niQU having' 
bwn duly ordained; and they must bo confident that thoro has been 
no error in omitting or adding a Christian name, or in spelling any 
name, or in leaving out or employing any name of reputation, or in 
the period of publishing the banns. And yet all this intolerable 
strictness of form, oppressing the honest, is found not at all a 
hindrance to the diiihuncftt, nor the leaat iiecurity against secret or 
ill-assorted marriages. 

Besides thcAe cardinal points, in regard to which any blunder 
annuls an Knglii^h marriage, there are a number of other injunctions, 
u^lect of which ia visited with minor penalties, but which may raise 
questions of equal difficulty. It is, for example, directed that marriages 
must be celebrated between the houi-s of eight and twelve noon, and 
in presence of two wiinessee. It is not at present worth any one's 
pains to iuqxiire critically into the hour, t>iuco inaccuracy dues not 
affect the ralidity of the curemony ; but if ic diJ, it ifi plain that an 
infinity of difficulties might bo occasioned by dispurlly of watches, 
and that the question what is tho crucial moment of thu ceremony 
would huvo to be settled in ciwe it was comniunccd before but con- 
cluded aA«r the hour. This last point has in fact arisen wht^n an 
intc-rruption was made on tbu part of an objector prior to the ring 
being placed on the bride's hnger. As to witnesses, it baa been Litely 
settled that one is enough ; and a doubt has been espres<^e<l whether 
even one is needful. In Ireland, where the old law re<iuired witnesses, 
but did not direct the ceremony to be in u church, u strange question 
came i-eeently before the courta. A couple had boen married in a 
room in a house, no witness being present in the room, but it was 
insiate<l that a maid saw what was going on from the stable-yard, 
and, therd'orc, the requisite witnesses were ]>rescnt. In the same 
case them arose the point whether a clcrgj-man could perform the 
ceremony for himself, and this was, oiler much disputti on the bench, 
decided in the nogativo. 

It is tolerably clear from these instances that whaterer matter 
might be selected as essential to a morriagw would be sure to give rise 
to an endless diversity of nice questions. There are persons who 
would, as they think, simplify the affitir by abandoning all legal 
neoessity for any ceremony, and limiting the requisites to that of 
registration. But it seems evident that so soon as registration is con- 
verted into the critical test there will arise the same difficulty in 
deciding what is registration. It is obvious, for example, that it 
must bo effected in tho registrar's oQIco, if sot in a church, for if the 



I 



224 



The Contemporary Review. 



place were not fixed, tlie regiotrar might go about with his book 
under Lis aim, and bccotuo a modem Fleet parson. But wliat shall 
bo held to be the office ^ Would it include a closet or passage if the 
office Tvere under repair ? Would it include im adjoining room iti 
the house if the rcgi-itrar were ill and uelcod the parties to walk into 
his diniug room? Who is to certify it as being an office, and what 
IB to happen if the ccrtiiicato ia not made, or is informal P Tlini ua 
to the names of the parties, all the difficulties we have seen illustmt^ i 
in the matter of banns would rc-appcor. Would the marriage bo 
bad if B Christian namn wcro omitted, or wrongly 8pi?lt, or wrongly 
contmctcd? Peter, for iiistanitc, is the same as Patriek in S<'i)lhind, 
but diffiircnt in England. Poll stands for Man,' in Kngland, though 
there ia not a letU'r aliko in iho two words. Would (ho consequenco 
bo that n Patrirk, cnnimonly known afi Pctflr, or a ^[a]^', iiniverRally 
called Poll, would by married or not if tlmy were iniir*'d under tithcr 
dofiignalion P or would they be married in ono countr)' but not in 
another P or would the only sufn way bo to marry with an alias P 
Smyth is maiTitaincd by its owners to bo a rundamentully distinct 
name from Smith ; would then an inacj^urate use of y for * maka 
future childn'u bas-tavdaP An endless controversy would grow out 
of the dots over tlio i's and the 9tmke« of the I'h, which might trans, 
tnogrify- names by the thousand into something quite different from 
what they looked at the first glance. Arc the parties to write their 
own names? and, if so, is their identification to depend on the per- 
fectly illegible scratches which some people delight to call their 
signature? Or is the registrar Xo write them ? and, if so, is the 
happiness of families, and the nectirit^f weddtd honour, to depend 
upon the core with which, in the flurry of incipient connubinlism, 
the parties, or their assistants, superintend the registrar's spelling? 
Then, again, if witnesses are required, there will be a reduplication 
of all tbei^e opportunities for unwitting error. Then as to the hour 
(for it cannot be suffered that the registrar should celebrate marriage 
at midnight) there will be the puzzle of docks and the questions 
if the clock strikes when the bride has half written her name, or 
the bridegroom or witnesses are completing their final flourishes. 
Let no one eay that all these ore theoretical and fanciful ditHculties. 
They are just mich as occur in every coso in which a legal formality 
is made essential. Many of those 1 have adverted to have in liict 
been suggested by actual cases which havo occurred in regard to tho 
signing of wilU, dcmls, or bills of esohange. But no one can foresee 
what curious variety of inaccuracies the human intellect can fall 
into in executing tho Kimjilcift fo^malitJ^ This is in other cases not 
always of vital iui|K)rtan<H', but Burely it is immeasDrubly serious 
when the questions at stnko ou such minutia? are those of matrimony 
and legitimacy. 



After all, what would he gninod ? "NVTicn a marriage wai di'spnted, 
it oouUl be proved, if even-thing had boen done rrgiilnrly. Rut in 
iiuch a case it can, at present, he proved nven in Scotland with as 
much ease. If anything, however, had been omitted or done 
irregnlnrly, there would bo the doubt wbotlier it: vrnn n fatal error, 
and the courts must, as now, solve the doubt. In doing this, how- 
eTCT, they would have to consider minute matters of form, instead of 
bread qnestiong of mihstanc. Sometimes they would still have to 
inquire into intention, but it would be the intention of correct 
formality, not of vital purpose. What is gained by the substitu- 
tion of such cunning puzzles in room of the question whether two 
pereons really meant to marry ? 

Let it also be kept in mind that the English ndes do not at all 
exclude questions of capacity to contract, Many of Ihu cases in 
which the Scottish L*w is accused of barbarism arose out of the duubt 
whether the contract had been entered into between persons capable 
of contracting, and it is assumed that to require a marriage to be 
oelebralod by a clergyman insures safety li-em such doubts. But it 
certainly does not. The instances in which a clergyman can safely 
refuse to perform the rite because one of the parties is inauifestly 
drunk or mad, can scarcely over occur, and in such cases there would 
bo no doubt in Scotland any mcro than in England. But the really 
diilicult cases of serai-stupefitctifjii, or of semi-ins^iuity, occur as much 
in the one country as in the other. For example, the second marriage 
of the i-'arlof Portamouth whs dissolved (within the last half century) 
on the ground that though ho might be sane cnmigh \o contract a 
good marringe in circumstances free from susjiicion^ — ;uid therefore 
no opinion was expressed whether his first marriage was good or not 
— he was of too weak mind to contract marriage with the daughter 
of his solicitor, who exercised an improper inflnenee over liim. A 
curiously vague ground of decision ! Again, last year a mar- 
riage was dissolved, nftcr severnl years' endurance, and nt the 
suit of the wife's relatives, though neither she nor the husband 
desired it, on the ground that at the date of the marriage she hod 
been subject to fits of mania — would dress her hair with straws and 
papers, nud ait naked in a bath, &.C., &c., indications of insanity 
which were known to all the parties, but unknown to the clergyman, 
OS she was subject to lucid intervals. In this case, after the jury 
had found inaanity at the date of the ceremony, Sir James Wilde 
deferred pronouncing dissolution of the marriage, in order to allow 
the husband, if ho conid, to adduce evidence to satisfy him that 
the wife had since become sane. This, again, is a very singular 
method of dealing with a contract supposed to bo completed and 
made indisputable by a legal and religious ceremony. But it shows 

Toju VII. a 



226 



The Contemporary Review. 



elcorly tliat do fommlitloa cod prcTcat tbo occurrence of sach diffi- 
oultics. 

Failing, then, to give certmnty, defence against fraud, or protoo- 
tiun to TcakncBs, wluit ia tliorc remaining that the English rules do 
cffc-ct ? Thero U only one thing which they succeed in — they prevent 
Tcr}' sudden marriages, and marriages celebrated in a private house. 
The method of banos, or of rogistration, requires a fortnight's 
notice. The method by lioonsc requires on hoar or two's notice. 
And in all caaea the partien most leave their opm houMs and resort 
to lome public pluc«. Is this, then, a valuable precaution, to be 
Kcnrod at m mtious a cost as that of ntaking many marriages invalid, 
and many doubtful ? Experience seem« to prove the contrary. I^et 
it be noted tliat no objection on the ecore of want of delibemtcness 
can lie against two of the forme of irregular marriage in Scotland, 
for " habit and repute" implies a lengthened a««ociation as married 
persons, and promise in writing, followed by cohabitation, is evidence 
of equal deliberation. There is, then, solely tho method by present 
consent, which can be adopted for sudden use. But the fact is, it it 
Dot. There is no greater number of ill-udvtw.'dmarriages in Scotland 
than in England. There is nu greater number uf case« in which mon 
of fortune have boeu duped into matrimony by femalo advenlarers. 
There are not more, but prububly iewer cuses, in which niok has been 
degraded by alliance w*ith infamy. It is invidJous, and useless, to 
oile names in this mutter, but the fact is that the only cased in which 
peers Imvu married prostitutes arc cnaea of Knglisli peers, married iu 
England by English clergjiucn. li" people would only recollect that 
consent in Scotland must be a real, dcliboraliC, and aaue consent, duly 
proved by witnesses or by wTiting, thoy would be ashamed to put 
forward tho silly assertion that men and women may be married in 
Scotland by a few hasty words uttered, or wTitton unthinkingly and 
unadvisedly. 

So long indeed na marriage by licicnse is suffered in England 
nothing can reasonobly bo urged by Engllali lawj-cra in favour of the 
superior ddiberatcnoas of their system. An oath, that may bo false, 
and a brief notice to a cicrgii'man to attend, arc poor aeooritics for 
careful reflection. But, on the other hand, it is worthy of oonsidera- 
tiou whether it in warrnntAble to 8ay that none fthall bo married who 
cannot attend in a public phtce-. Is it justifiable to lay down an un- 
bending nilo that sick or crippled persons shall never be allowed to 
perform what may be a just act of expiation of previous sin, or a 
necessary form to give legitimacy to unborn children? Is tho fancy 
[(erroneous as it is), that we thus prot«ct the dissoluto' from suffering 
[tiie coiuequences of their foUie«, enough to give us comfort in the re- 
raection that we impede repentance, forbid justice, compel men and 
Women sometimes to abide iu what thoy duom a &tate of sin, and visit 



I 



*fhe Marriage haws of England and Scotland, 

the oonaequoncea of their errors upon future jjoncrations ? Would it 
not ho wiser, as well na more Clirfation, to withdraw all artificial 
impodimcuts, and to allow thoao who dcairo to ho joined together to 
effect their purpose legally, without demanding attcndanoo either at 
church or office P 

If the Kngliah, or any concojvnblo araicm, had the result of mafcing 
secret marriages impoasible, an argument of religion would lio as 
atrongly against it. It is out of tho question that men and women 
oan be withheld from love by tho fact that they dnro uot pubHcIy 
morty, but it is not prohahle, till tho world rery much altera, that 
sinful love will not t-abo the plato of virtuous Ioto if secret marriage 
bo forbidden. But I lonvo this without argument : for tho fnct ia, 
as has been aeen, that secret marriagea are as easy and frequent in 
England as in Scotland, and that EnjjUgh legislators have been forced 
by the demands of morality to Bhdish such of their mlos as formed 
any impediment to sccrocy. 

8uch are the reasons which present themselves, on a review of the 
facts, against tho system of restricting, by human formalities, this 
contract of nature and religion- If the conclusions to which they 
lead are contrary to tho opiniona of most of my profession in England, 
and of many in Bootland, I oan only answer that they are also 
opposed to what were my own 6rst prepoflsessions, but have been 
forced upon me from a conaideration of the law, not mer(.>ly in theory 
but in practical operation. And I cannot but tbiolc that it is want 
of attention to practical facts that chiefly leads to the prevalent belief 
that marriage needs the enactment of formalities for its security. 
The idea is so plausible, that it commands assent without inquiry, 
and then prejudice comes in to make inquiry rejected as ttuporfluous. 
Nor, indeed, is it easy for either Englishmen or Scotsmen to enter into 
the inquiry. Tt needs a knowledge not only of EngliHh and Scottish 
law, but of English and Scottish cases, in which law books give little 
help ; and of the habits and practices of society, in all cUuees in tho 
two coimtriee, such as is not' to be found in bookt: at all. For myself, 
having laboured as earnestly as any to promote assimHaUon of law 
where it is possible, — on the one hand, by the adoption in Scotland 
of preferable English ruleH ; on the other, by tho ucceptancu iu 
England of principles which Scottish practice bos proved to be 
floonder, — 1 am yet obligwl to say that I would far rather see tho 
diTergence in the marriage law maintained, with all its concomitant 
evils, than removed by the substitution in BcoUaud of any euisnariug 
legal technicalities in room of the broad and simple doctrine that 
marriage shall be as free as God bus made it, and ishall be pixtved, 
wlien doubted, by any evidence which can show what the parties 
XGolly meant. John Boyd ICi>M£.vr. 

92 



,'\ 



V/v 



m>^ 



^:^ 



THE INFLUENCE OF PLATO'S SOCIAL THEOBIES 
IN MODEliN TIMES. 



rpllK knowlwlge of wTiat constitutes a man's ideal reveals to ua tlie 
■*■ heat part of his character. Tliis is equally tnio of epochs and 
of nations 03 of individuals; and herein consists the special interest 
of those works which clescribc imafj^ary constitutions — of that 
chiliastic literature which occupies so prominent and so important a 
place in the history of religion, of civilization, and of politics. Such 
writings commonly set forth plans and express hopes which go far 
beyond all that is posaible under given circumatftnces, often too, far 
beyond what is at all possible to humanity ; but if they truly express 

t thoughts of their time and of its leading njen, we may, nevorthc- 
, learn much from them. On one hand, they reveal to ua the 
objects which their authors regarded as the highest and most to be 
dcnired, and alao the iniimlses which actuated the society generally 
in the midst of which they originated. Again, they show us what, 
at a given period, were regarded as evils to be remedied in the exist- 
ing circumstances, and what means were adopted to bring about this 
improvement ; and thus they both throw light on the past by testing, 
and often inexorably condemning it by the standard of later times, 
and also give prophetic pictures of succeeding historical develop- 
meote. For every gcnuiuo and historically jusliiled ideal must 



Infiuence of P/ato's Socia! Theoms, 



229 



be (V prophecy, and the esaential difference bctwoen an Idealist and a 
Phantaut is, that the latter pursues object* arbitrarily choflcn n-ith 
impDuible means, while the first starts under the prc&Bure of existing 
evihf, and strivea after objects historically justified, which only 
become fanciful in their further development because the conditions 
do not yet exist for a clear understanding of them, and for tlieir 
realizatioa in a natural manner. 

Of all the productions to which the above remarks can apply, there 
ia none to bo compared with the Republic of Plato, cither for tho 
place it holds in history, or for ita intrinsic valuo. At first sight, 
indeed, this work cannot fail tn make a moat singular imprcasion on 
us. A state in which philoifinphers rule, and are meant to rule, with 
abaolute power, without any constitution or any other legal restric- 
tion ; whore the separation of claifwea is so atrictly carried out that 
aoldiers and officiahs arc forbidden to take any part in agriculture or 
mauufacturea, while agriculturiuta and manufacturers arc, without 
exoeption, excluded from all jwlitical action, and reduced to more 
tax-paying subjects ; whcru the citizcna are eonaiderod to belong 
raitirely to the Statu, never, even in tho meet private relations, to 
themaelvcs; where marriage and family relations and private property 
are practically douc away with for the higher clasaes ; whcru all 
marriages aro apecioUy arranged by the authorities; whoro children, 
without knowing their own parents, are brought up from their 
birth in public institutions; where all abU-bodiwl citizenii ore fed 
together at tho public expense, and girU, like boys, instructed in music, 
gymnastics, mathematie^, and philosophy, and women employod. like 
men a« soldiers and officials ; a State which profeaws to be founded on 
scientific principles, yet laya tho heaviest chains on the free move- 
ments of intellectual life ; n-hich sternly reprewea any deviation from 
received principle*, any moral, religious, or artistic innovation — such 
a one is in ide-a so oppKvacd to all our moral and political conceptions, 
it not only appears, but is so impossible to carr^- out, and was felt to 
be so even in it« own time, that it is not surprising that the Ilcpublic 
of Plato should have become proverbial as a fantastic ideal, and the 
invention of a dreamer. 

Such was the light in which it was univemally regarded until qnitQ 
recently. Now, however, people have gradually become convinced 
that there is far more reality in this imagiaalivo picture than a snper- 
fiuial view of it would lead us to believe. It ia not merely that Plato 
himsell' adopts his theories in all varuestuess, and believes there is no 
salvation for humanity but in tliem ; we also 8ec in them bo much 
that is adapted to their existing customs and institutions, and even 
their must siagular provisiona can e>o well bo accounted for by tho 



230 



The Contemporary Rfvifw. 



ciraunutemoes of tbo time and tlio spociality of Platonic philosophy, 
that wc cannot ro^rd them as arbitrary inventions, but as oonclusiona 
which tho philosopher oould not escape, being, as ho was, a (jrook 
of tho fourth contuiy before ChriHi, and a man of logical mind. 
The very first axiom in his State goverumont by philoBophere fmds 
its oxplanatiou in the combination of the actual ciiTumstances and 
tho principlos of the Platonic sytittiui. For tho existing Greek eon- 
stitutions had clearly outlived theinsolveii, and in tho confuatun of 
tho Peloponnosiiin war had vie<l with each other in bringing- about 
tho downfall of the States, and in Plato's oytm the restonxl dprnocra^j 
in Athens also had irrovocobly cond«aned itself by the txwutinn of 
Socrates. And a syatom which profesfic*! t^o found all monility upon 
knowledge could not logically follow aiiy other rule than govern- 
ment by philosnphtTs, MDce II State nan only be transformed into the 
image of au idea, as actwrding to Plato it Hliould Iw, by th(we who' 
have elerat«d themiwlTes to the contemplation of ideas. In the seme 
way wo trace both a practicftl and a theori'tical reason for Plato's 
separation of claMHCTi : the first, in the contfiupi. l«!t by the Ore^e' 
for inimual hibour, which cauned miist of them to look on industry aa 
degrading to a free ctti/en, a fw^ling which among the Spartans even 
extended to agriculture; iind tho second, in the fear felt by the 
philosopher of involving his citizonn in tho occapatioss of the oat- 
ward world, and the conviction that n thorough cultivation of the 
mind and charactor is the only fit preparation for the higher dutiee' 
of the warrior and the stateunan, while such cultivation is inccon- 
patible with tho pursuit of worldly gain, or any active life which hae. 
for its object, the satisfaction of (tensual want* nnd desii-wt. And if "^ 
we are naturally repeUed by the complete subordination of individual 
right** io those of the State, nnd the disregard o( personal intvrests, 
which comes cut most strongly in the abolition of marriage and of 
private property, we must remember that this is but the extieme 
exftfession of » manner of thought, which was as natural to th*. 
Greeks se it is foreign te us. That the citizens existed for the States ' 
and not the State for the citizens ; that no individual hod any claim 
upon the State, was generally admitted in Greece, and in Sparta 
especially the existing custom was in many respects similar to tho 
institutions of Plato. It wsa lawful, for instance, in ease of need, to 
make use of other persons' tools, utonailfl, beasts of harden, and 
slave5, as of one's own ; the citizens were forbidden the use of silver 
and gold, and insteail of the precious metals iron was cmplc^ed na 
onrrentcoin; tho male population wns even in time of peace almost 
oonatantly absent from home, on account of the community whiob 
was enjoined in menle, in gymnastics, in amusements, even in their 
sleeping places; they lived like Phto's warriors, as in a fortress; 



Influence of Plato* s Social Theories. 231 

their education from ctiildliood was public ; even giria bad to take 
pnrt ill ph}'sical training ; marriage wua under the control of the 
Htatc ; the strictest measures were enforced against all innovations ; 
foreign journeys were forbidden ; poets and teachers, whose influence 
they regarded as dangerous, were banished from the country ; a 
musioian who ventured to incronsc the received number of strings on 
his lyre had the additional ones cut off. Wo aee clearly that the 
institutions and principles which oppoar to ua so astonishing in Plato 
were not then first hoard of in Greece ; they have a connection with 
what already existed, and grew out of the recdved idea of the Greek 
State. 

To doubt Plato goM fbrthw in this direction than any of his prc- 
cceaorB, For instanw, ho seriously propoBcd. arrnngements for the 
community of property and of wives, which, hitherto, had never been 
beard of, except as a joke produced on the stage by Aristophanes, to 
exemplify the extreme of political folly ; yet even this may, in som« 
degree, be explained by the circumstances of the time luid the spirit 
of Plato's philoftophy. For one thing, long and bitter experience 
had Ahown the Greeks, sine© the beginning of the Peloponnetian war, 
what dang^fK threatened the welfare of the State from the wlfishneiw 
of indi^H duals. Plato hoped to avert these dangers by striking at the 
root of all selfishness. lie denircd, by the entire abolition of private 
property, to remove the opposition between public and private 
interests. Uiuoii, ho gays, is the finit necessity of the State, but com' 
plcte union can only exist when no one possesses anythingof hisown. 
He thus committed the f<aine political error into which Uobbes fell 
lalor, when ho sti-ove to resist the evils of revolution by unlimited 
deepotism — one into which reactionary [KiHUciaiis continuall}' do fall, 
by endeavouring to meet the struggle fur liberty, not by satisfying 
all well-foundod demaoda and rejecting the others, but by the sup- 
pression of all froodom ; with the important difTfrcnce, certainly, 
that in Plato'fl State unlimited power was only to be Iw^towed on 
oompleto virtue and insight, and that the sociali^tiu arrangtsaents 
were corobiiiod with an education which was calculated to prevent 
any iniKUse of them, and to bring the most entire subjectioo of p«^ 
Minnl freedom into harmony with free-will. Here Plato's speciality 
worked with his political principles, and this decided the form of his 
idonl State. The aovcTo character of his arrangements arises 
originally from the idealistic dualism of bis whole conception of the 
world. One who regards nothing as higher than general ideas, 
nothing as tmly real except the species existing in itselt", independent 
of individuals ; who looks on the world of the scnsos as only a corrupt 
form of the spiritual world ; who sees in individual character only 
limitation and disturbance, not the inevitable condition for the 



232 



l^h Coniemporary Review. 



realization of the univcrjutl ; cannot logicallr allow, in practical anj 
more than in other questions, any freo doTcIopment to individuals; 
but must, instead, requira oi the individual to ri-nouncc uU personal 
wiithes, iind, with unselfisli devotion, to purify himself that he may- 
become the simple inBtruraent of universal laws — the meant) of 
cxprc^ing a general idea. A thinker of thin kind will not utti;nipt, 
in his ideal aiate, to reconcile the rights of individuals with those of 
the community, for in his eyes they pnssesa no rights &s such, and 
can only be allowed the choice between renouncing all penonal 
int«reAis and devoting tbemselve* to the aervice of the commiuxity, 
or, if they do not desire this, of renouncing political rights nnd 
political action. Thu^, the politicul and social arrangementJi follow 
nutaually from the 6r8t prinupleg of the system. To have foiled t« 
appreciate the importance of indii-idual character — the endless varie^ 
and movement of real life — is the great error in both the metiiphy- 
•ical and the social theunc» of Plato, which bos been sharply cdiii> 
menled on by Aristotle. 

But this part oi the question Las been discussed oUewhere and bj 
Tarious periKintt, and on this point those who have examined Plato's 
flocial theories appeal- to have arrived at a general agrecmeut. But le«a 
attention has s-i yet been piild to the iuilueuce which it has had on 
the theories and the cii-cumstances of later times. My object now is 
ti> develop, in greater detail, the short notices of this subject which I 
have given elsewhere. 

The jioiiit which chieily det^crvca attention in this relation is the 
remarkable similarity ttctwcen the Platonic ideal State and the con* 
ceptions of Church and State which graduully took poesession of the 
early Christiun world. The essential vocation of the State, according 
to Plato, LB to bo an imogo of virtue and a support to it ; it*; higheei 
ubjeut is to educate its citizeus to virtue, and tbii» to happiiietis; to 
direct their minds and their eyes towartis a higher spiritual world; 
toas6Ui*e to them, al^cr death, that hajiptncss which, in the coucIiLsion 
[|f the Republic, is reprf-henlcd in a grand general view iis the object 
of all human endeavour. There is an obvious likeness between this 
and the "kingdom of God," of which tho Christian Church is (o he 
tho earthly cxpretision. Tho theoretical principles and the form of 
the two diflbr from c-uch other, but their original idea is the aamo; 
in Iwth the one aim is to form a moral community, a st-heme of 
■education tho object of which is only completely realized, in a iuture 
I *orId. Plato even uses the expression that there can be no salvation 
any Stote in which God docs not direct the government. And aa 

.Plato's State the government is to be vested in the philosophers, 
kusc they alone posses-s the highest truth, so, in the middle agct^ 
the priests assume the same position ; and just o-t the soldiers an 



Influence of Platt^s Social theories. 



233 



asaodnted with the pliiloso])lior« M the inslrumenta of their power, so, 
ftocording to the ideas of the middle agon, it becomes the highest 
duty of the Christian warrior claas, the knight* and princes, to extend 
and to protetrt the Church, and to carry out the precepbi which she 
delivers to them through the mouth of the prie«ts- The three estates 
of the middle ages — the teacher*, fightere, and workers — arc pre- 
figured In Pluto's State; and the predominance of tho first, which 
could indeed be only jKirtially realized in fact, is equally decidedly 
cloimod, by ititelf at It^aHl. uud on the very same grouud» as thcMO 
which Plato udduueij for thu nilit of tho philosopheni, namely, because 
they oloue know the etvrual laws by which States, like individuals, 
muxt be guided in order to curr^' out their highest vocation. Tho 
couditiona, also, with which this high posiiiou of the teaching clues is 
combined, are, in the Church of the middle ages, moetly the mune as' 
in our philosopher's State, ouly translated from the Greek int« the 
Christian, for the very principle of vommumty of property which 
Plato aims at, as the highest good for the Slate, is likewise tho Chris- 
tian ideal ; uiid though it may be said truly that the chief idea in tho 
Chi-istiau Church was that of renunciation and voluntary poverty, 
and in Plato't- State that of the community of goods, yet tho two 
theories very nearly approach each other, for Plato requires of his 
philosophers and warriors to confine themeeWes to the simplest manner 
of life, while the Christian Church could only enforce the poverty of 
the ecclesiastical claae, as in tho begging orders, by means of com* 
roonity of goods. £von tho Platonic community of wivee is really 
in its spirit much nearer tf) celibacy than one would at first believe. 
For, firatj the political objects of both are the same; as Plato forbids 
his " watchmen " to found a family, in order that they may belong 
altogether and cxclusivclj* to the State, so did Gregory impose celibacy 
on his recalcitrant clergy, in order that for the future they might 
belong wholly to the Church ; and so also in Plato's community of 
women there nriiws no questioTi of giving freer play to personal inch* 
nation, nor of breaking the chains of marriage ; on tho contrary, 
personal wishes are to be laid aside, and tho citizens are to act as 
instrumonta of the State in thetr marriage relations, as well as in all 
others. Marriage is not to be an affair of inclination or of interest, 
bnt only of duty ; children are the property of the ^tate^ and it is 
well that they should he the offspring of thoao from whom tho State 
may expect powerful descendants. Thus Plato requires from his 
futizens a self-denial and subordination of themselves to the common 
interest, which is but a step removed from entire abstinence from 
marriage; nor would he have hesitated to require this also if his 
State could have existed without marriage, and if the asceticism of 
later times had entered into his system. 



234 



The Contemporary Review. 



These are not mere empty rescmUances, such ut ma.y easily occur 
between phenomena really eniirely distinct, in consequence of clionce 
coincidences, but there does oxjst a real connection, an action of tho 
esxHcr philosophy upon the later. For, untrue a^ it would be to 
attribute to the Platonic theories a direct prescriptiTe influence on 
the forma of tho Christian Church and State, it ia yet impossible not 
to perceive a relation between the two, and wc con to a great 
degree trace out the connecting links which have produced it. The 
doctrino of Plato was one of the most impoi'tant elements of civiliza- 
ium. in classical times ; it was a spiritual power whose effect extended 
for beyond tho limits of the Platonic school. Among- later systems, 
not ouly the Aristot«liau, but tho Stoic, imbibed its spirit, imd the 
latter espccifliUy owes much of its morality to the ethics of Plato. 
In tho oonturies immediately before Christ, wherever the Greek 
litaguage and literature extuuded both iu the £ast and the West, philo- 
sophy had taken the place of roUgiou among all cultivated persons, 
or cJae luid sg penetrated their conception of religiou, that there 
remained hardly a. shadow of the aneieuL mjHhs : its essential con- 
clusiuus, and, above ull, its moral principles, hiul been twluptcd into 
the goueral civilizatiou uud the religion of the world. It needed uut 
to bu u philosopher by prufeosiou to sharu iu this movement. All 
who wished for higher education visited the schools of the philo- 
.sophurs and read their writings, tiranunarions also, rhctoriciims, 
historians, even lawyers nnd physicians, wore accnatomed to adopt 
tho doctrines of the philosophers, and to assume in their hearers a 
general acquaintance with them. Thus these idcaa wore difiuacd in 
a hundred diltorent ways, and thoujjh they might lose in sciontitio 
accuraey and purit)*, their practical effect was immeasurably in" 
omaod. Christianity, then beginning to gain ground, could not 
osoape this inilucucc, which ruacliMl it not only through the 
Platomzing theology of tho Oriental Greeks or the Qnostio sects ;1 
fsirly Greek phiIo«ipliy also had long since contributed ita share oPij 
influenco ; and lor ccnturios continued to uftect tho new religioB'' 
in the most various ways, just as, indeed, did the Greek spirit 
generally, of which it was the noblcdt exponent. Jewish thoaght». 
even before Christ, was thoroughly coloured by Gi-eek cirilizatioa< 
and scienco. In all Orcck countries millions of Jew»— the greater 
port, indeed, of the Jewish nation — lived in countries which, as 
general rule, wore politically governed by Greeks or half Greeks ;■ 
and the intcrconree of daily life, and Uie use of the Greek lan- 
guage, adopted by most nations in place of that of their ance«toi 
which they continued to employ only lor their sacred writings, cot 
not but insensibly spread among them many Greek ideas, more' 
especially in the chief Greek cities inhabited by Jews, such sa 



Influence of Piato^s Social Theories^ 235 

Alexandriu or Tiiraus, the seat of a famoua school of philosophy and 
rhetoric, Buoh an iras Bomt^ in luter tinios, not tu mention others. 
Soon also the Jews began regularly to study the Grook philosophy ; 
and there aroso a Jewish-Ch^ek philosophy, the objc'Ot of which was 
to infuse the ideas of Greek philosophy into Jewiah theolo^, and 
bring the two into harmony. Uow far this movement hod advanced 
even iit the beginning of the Christian era ; hair many of the 
Platonic, Pythagorean, Stoic, and peripatetic doctrincH had been 
adopted by this neologizing Judaism, we con sec in the writings of 
Pliilo of Alexandria, who, in this respect, was only the moBt distill- 
gniahed exponent of a form of thought which waa very widely 
nweired. The centre of this school was Alexandria, the great 
mocting'place where Greek tbonght croHsod and melted into that of 
the East ; but it waa not confined to this town, or ercn to Kgj^rt, 
but had many followers among uU the Greek-speaking Jews, and its 
influence must have reached ercn to Palestine and the conntrica of 
tlie Eoit In close oonneotioa with this school of theology wc find 
tiie Jewish sect oi iho EsBenea, which arose in the second century 
before Christ, the product, aa it would aeem, origiDolly of the 
Pythagorean mysteries, and the asceticism connected with them, but 
which, tJirough the gradual rise of a Noo-Pytbagorean school of 
philosophy, bad imbibed a form of thought more Platonic than 
Pythagorean. This sect, much diifused in P.ik stino and the neigh- 
bouring countries, was in many ways one of the most important 
chnnnula by which Greek cultivation, and with it also the ethical 
and religious ricws of the Greek philosophers, passed into Judaism. 
We tind in this e>ect, among other thingv, the principle of the com- 
munity of goods derived &om Plato's ideal State, and under this 
role the Essonos, forerunners of the Christian monks, lived together 
in cloistral communities. Kssenism uppeaxK from its origin to have 
exercised great influenco on the direction of the growth of the 
Christian dtwtrino; Iho party of the Ebionitcs, which come£ out 
later as the only real advocate of the original Judaic Christianity, 
poaaoBSca all the characteriatics of Etuienifini, and only diifcrs from it 
in its acceptance of Jesus as the Uetssiali. Further, the man who 
first gained for Christianity its poeition tm a religion of the world, 
the Ai)0«tle P&ul, had dotibtlesft, even before liis own migrntian into 
tlie Greek world, Iieen at lea«t indirectly .iffceted by the influence of 
Greek thought, for it is hardly poesiblc to conceive Ihat ho omUd 
entirely eiscape this in Tarsus, bia birthpliK«, and, indeed, a keen 
eye will obser\'c the traces of it in his Epistles. And when, chiefly 
through his influence, the Christian community was opened tu the 
heathens, and more immediately to the Greeks, when they entered it 
tn masses, and soon outnumbered the Jews by birth whicb it con- 



236 



Hht Contemporary Review. 



tained, it became inevitable that Greek riews ehotild gain more and 
more acceptince. Tlie new converts, wlio had not bceu instructed 
BR children in Chrifetianity, but bad bc«n won over in riper ywire, 
oonld not fail to conceivo it from their ova\ point of view, and to 
connect it with the ideas which they had always held ; and though 
many of them probably pawed through the school of Jewish 
proselytisni, there woidd at £ret be found among them but few 
highly-cultivated perxons. Tlie influence of Greek knowledge might 
iadeed ho diminished, but was far from hetug deutroyed ; uay, tho 
more persons of scientific cultivatiou joined the uew faith, the more 
would the efiect of this cultivation be c^outinufd and extended. 
Thus we fiud, in fact, even iii the earliest Chriatian writingB, 
even among the Church speakers in the second century, not a few 
who are nearly coanectwl with the (jemi-Greek Alexandrian nchool ; 
and also among our own New Testament {Scriptures there are several 
which show traces of this influence, and indirectly of that of Greek 
philosophy. How strongly this affected the growth of Christian 
doctrine and moral toachiug is well known. The whole philosophy 
of the Fathers, and u great part of their theolog\' and the whole of 
suholaatic divinity, is but an attempt on a grand scale. caiTied on for 
centuries, to apply Greek philosophy to the develupment and the 
understanding of Christian doctrine. 

These facts must be clearly recognisod, if wo desire to ostimate 
traly the inBuenco of Platonism on Christianity, and also the con- 
nection of the Phitonic system with what wc iind analogous to it in 
Christianity. Platonism, partly directly, partly through its connec- 
tion with the philosophy of the Stoics and Neo- Pythagoreans, took a 
leading part in that great process of the world's education which cul- 
minated in the Christian Church, and for centuries it was followed 
by the greatest teachers of the (.'hristian Church, and by its natural 
ailiuity to Christianity was espociullv adapted to mediate between it 
and Helleni^mi. Plato was the first originator, or at least the most 
important representative, of the spiritualism which, though originally 
foreign not ouly to the Greeks, hut the Jews, during the centuries 
immediately before Christ, gradually took posacBsion of people's 
minds, and afterwards in Christianity itself became the leading iu- 
fluenco far and wide. Plato first declared that the visible world waa 
only the image, and truly the imperfect image, of an inviaiblc one; 
that mmi has to pass from ibis world to another ; and that he ought 
to employ his present life as a preparation for a future one. He ori- 
ginated the ethical dualism which was to serve later on as a scientific 
justification for the ascetic principle existing already in the Oriental 
religions, in the Orphic system of mysteries. It is in this ethical 
system that is contained the essential principle of the special points 



Influence of Plato* s Social Theories. 



'37 



in wliicb Platn'H political nystem rt^Hembles tho institutions of the 
Cburoh and the •State of the muldlti iigeo. In the one case it results 
in the government of the philusuphurs ; iu the other, of the priests ; 
since both individualB and States, when they look to a future world 
for the supreme l^w» of their actions, must follow the lead of those lo 
whom that liigher world is opened^ whether by iicience or hy revela- 
tion. HeQue arises iu the early Christian morality the requirement 
of a renunciation of the world, which iincis its highest expression in 
monkish virmc ; in the Platonic morality it becomes the principle 
that, man must renounce all perautial objects to live only for tho 
ganeral good, the ignoring of the rights of individuals, and the sup* 
pression of their freedom. These ethical principles cau.«>d Plato to 
propose the same objects for his State which afterwards the Chrinian 
Church proposed to itself — to educate men morally and roligioualy, 
and to form them still more for the next world than for this. There- 
fore it is most natural that the two should coincide in many iropor* 
tant characters. The moral view of tho world, the essential principle 
of the Platonic State, developed itself lat^?r in the Christian Church, 
mingled with other elements: what wonder, then, that the same soil 
ahoold produce similar fruits V In many other pointa, also, our philo- 
sopher appears as a forerunner of Christianity, who net only 
smoothod tho way for its reccptiou estemally among the Qrecke, but 
also partially exemplified the course it must follow in its internal 
development. For instance, the pure and (.'xnlted conception of God, 
which is the crowning point of his system, wa-* one of the most im- 
portant principles of tho early Christian doctrine, ws it bad been 
formerly of the Jowish-Aloxandrian ; the reform of the popular 
religion ou which Uu iosisti* in the BcpuhHc, the abandoning all un- 
worthy notions of the divinity which it require*, was realized by 
Chriiitiauity. Christianity adopted into itsell' the moral xpirit in 
which he desires that religion should bo conceived ; the law of love 
towards your enemies, the very pearl of evangelical morality, we 
find already, in the germ, in Plato, and for the first time a» a general 
principle, when he declares (in the Republic) that the just man will 
never do evil even to his enemy, for it does not become the good 
man to do aught but good. Any one who ustmlly regards the Greeks 
as only heathens ^<rill be puzzled by such tustunces, which may easily 
be oit«d in numbers ; but to any ono who takes a wide historical 
view, they do but give additional proof of the law of constant dc- 
velopuieut in the progress of history. 

The political system of Plato stands in a far more distant relation 
to thu present circuuistances of the State and of society. On this 
point we can hardly speak of Plato's induence, except in as far as 
it was caused by his efforts in earlier times. Tho inatitationa of 



238 



The Contemporary R^tevf, 



preeent sgtM hare for the must piirt tleveloped themselves indepen- 
dently out of tho middle ages, aa the resolt uf given and existing' 
necdfi, and political (speculation has had, on the whole, but 11 small 
share in producing them. Yet it is but tho more remarkable to 
find that Plato, in many of hia plans, aims eegentially at tho some 
roBulta which luter timce have called into existence in diflercnt wbvh, 
and mostly from difierent mottTe«. Thna, as Kocmtcs, in opposition 
to the Athcniau dcmocnieVf had insisted that none but competent 
poTMUls should be appointed to public officer, and poaaess a voice in 
public qucAtions ; and Plato, as a logical application of this principle, 
desired to confide the government of States only to men of know- 
ledge ; so among us, too, in most oountries, there is prescribed a 
scientific training for tho service of tho State, and tho direction of 
the State has passed out of the hands of the feudal nobility into those , 
of the new oristooracy of a scientifically -cultivated official claaa.. 
And just OS Plato desired to form a separate military order, so is 
it now deemed impossible to subsist without standing ormica, and 
especially without an officer class specially educated for tho pui-poso ; 
and tlie strongest reason for this is the one brought forward by- 
Plato, that the art of war is an art like another, which no on© 
thon>ughly understauds who has not Ic^mt it as a buadncso, and 
practised it as a profession. Further, when Plato, in connection 
with this, extends public education, in addition to music and 
gyumoBtice, the received subjoctfi of odufotion among the Crooks, 
to mathematics and philosophy, in a word, to all tho knowledge of 
his ago, BO likewise this necessity has long since been rect^iwd 
by modem States, by the fouudatioa of scientific institutions of all 
kinds. Onr philosopher, indeed, would scarcely bo satisfied with 
our realization of his ideals; he would find it difficult to rooogntse 
his philosophical rulers in the population of our Qovcmmont offioes, 
or to discover in our barracks the places where the warriors, ]»«- 
served, as he dcBtres, from cvczy breath of what is low and common, 
arc educated to moral beauty and harmony ; he woidd certainly 
inquire with astonishment, if he witnessed much that happens at 
our universities, if these are the fruits of philosophy ; and he would 
further have cause to wonder whore tho greater number, among the 
hundred special branches which occupy their time, find philosophy 
itself, the unity and combination of all scieneo; not to mention that' 
of our four Faculties he would certainly strike out the first 
three ; for o theology which attompta to bo anything more tlian 
philosophy he would call mythology; and as regardji juriKpnidmce 
and medicine, ho believer that in his State no contests of law would 
arise, and that for sicknossGs a few household drugs may suffice ; 
and if Uieee do not cure tlie patient, he most die quietly, satisfied 



Influence^ Piato's SiKtai l/teortes. 



239 



I 



ibat it 18 not worth while to drag on his life in the care of a aickljr 
body. But these difiWrences do not make it the less true that he 
had placed before himself muuy of the objects which modem timoa 
have aimed at, though certuinly in a quite different manner, and 
with otiier meanH. Tims, tor instance, Plato's arrangements for tho 
education and employment of the female sex are very much oppoaud to 
our ideas and customs. To us it appears singular to propose that 
women should till public office?, or go out to buttle with men, eren 
though only (as he once |)ru(lenUy adds) in the rosorvo ; and though 
gymnastics will eiways form a useful subject of instruction in female 
schools, yet we should justly object to tho proposal of Plato that 
it ahould be practised as in Greece, in tho same manner as umoug 
men. But in so for as he is one of the first to e□t4^^ into tho quefltion 
of a careful education of tho female sox, of ita ^piritnal and moral 
culture, and its essential equality with the maio ac^, Plato goes far 
beyond tho habits and views of his people, and ajipmachea our own. 
Tbero in a modern sound, too, in his suggestion of introducing a 
censorship of all poems, plays, pieces of music, and works of art, and 
of the propoaal in hiB"Ijaws" to form on behalf of the State a 
eoUectioa of good writings and ballads, along wiih aira and dancen, 
for the use of tlie &.\h.exiA, and esi>eciaUy for tlio use of achools. Many 
similar cases might be quoted — aa, for instance, his propoeal for tho 
introduction of a more humane military code — but this may suffice. 

Further, wc must not overlook tho connection between the Platooic 
conception and the political and social romances of which modem 
times have produced »o great a number. All the-se political romances, 
ftom Sir Thomas More's " Utopia " to Cabet's " Icaria," are in their 
essegice and form imitations of tho Platonic Republic, and of his work 
called " Critias," which was intended to dcMribo the state of the 
Bepublic in an historical form, but was never completed by Plato. In 
all these we fiud pu^Litical ideals described with greater or le«8 freedom, 
and recognise in all th** well-known features of the Platonic tj'pe 
in greater or less completeuess. Thus, in one wo find the government 
carried on by philosophers and learned men ; in another, tho abolititxi 
of family life and private property, the inslilutton of conmiunity of 
dwellings, meals, work, education, here and there also of wives. 

But there is one essential difference which dicitinguiahes them all 
in their innermost spirit from I'latu's State. Plato's leading idea 
is, as we have said above, the realization of morality by means of the 
State: tho State is to form its citizens to Wrtue. It is a grand 
oducational institutioD, including the whole life and existencu of iti4 
mombers. All elso is subordinated to this one object ; oil private 
interests arc recklosaly sacriticod to it; the happiness and perfection 
of the whole alono concern him, savs Plato ; and the individual 



240 



The Contemporary Review. 



imist not assert himself further than comports with the beauty of tho 
whole. Ho fecia, therefore, not the slightest hcaitation in malting 
a coste-Iikc inequality of closse.-t, and on unconditional sclf-drvotion 
of all its citizens tho foundation of his State. la modem social 
romances, on tho other hand, almost without exception, it ia precisely 
the dcriro for general and equal partaking in tho enjoyments of life 
vhich creates discontent with existing cireumstanccs, and eollfl forth 
these ideal creations. I'lato aim.t at euppresxtng all personal interests; 
his modem folIowcrH at sotisfying them ; the former seeks the pcrfeo- 
tion of the whole, the latter the happiness of indiridualH ; the former 
regardn the State oa the object, tho individual a& a means; ike latter 
looks on individuals a& (he objects, and the 8tate and society as 
means. Meet of our soeialislH and commuiuHts declare this openly 
enough ; the greut'CHt posfulile enjoyment for individuals, and there- 
fore equal enjoyment for all, is thWr motlo. But even if some differ 
in their phraseology, their practical suggestions clearly show what is 
their reol object ; as thus, if we npeuk of brotherhood (and this is to 
be fiupplied by communism), it is evident that the question is not so 
much the fulfilment of a duty as the satisfaction of a wish ; or even 
when they contend against the individualism of the time, as does 
St. Simon, the way to stem it is not to W found in the rehabilitation of 
the flesh. BTer^iliing is considered with a view to tho happiness of 
individuals Even Sir Thomas More, the father of all tbia species of 
literature in modern times, already held this diKtrine, for he distinctly 
slates pleasure to bo tho highest end of our actions ; aud however 
much lu! may follow Plato as to the rest, hi» ethical principle is rather 
Epicurean thuii Platonic. Even a stem moral philosoplier UkeFichte 
lays down as the principle of his " gesohlosiienGS ITandelfistoat " 
(which i», with all ilH impracticability, {H>rhapH the best, and certaiuly 
one of tho must tliouglitfitlly-considered of tho socialist Utopias), that 
every one wishes to live as pleasantly as he can. I am wry far from 
making this in itself a complaint against modem ihcorics; the point 
of viow from which they btart is in principle true and just, even if 
it does not contain the wholo truth, and though by exaggeration it 
has oiten led to much that is wrong. However that may bo, wo do 
not attempt here lo estimate the value of ihesi? theories, but to indi- 
cate their general tendency in order Xa throw light on their relation 
to the Re])ublic of Phito. This in, in fine, the same which exiatM id 
general between our whole views of life ad connected with the State 
and that of the Greeks. For the most essential difTereooo lies far 
less in any varieties in the constitution than in the position which is 
attributed in the State to individuals to their rights and power of 
actaOD. From our point of view we look on the State as built up 
from below ; the individuals come first, and the State arises from 



Influence of Piato*s Social Theories. 24I 

Ihcir com'bininK for the protection of their rights and the couudoq 
adrancoffiont of ihoir welfare. Thus individuals romatu ultinmtcly 
the objects of the life of tho State; wc retiuirc of the State that it 
should give to the oommunity of its individual subjects us much as 
possiblo of fteedoni, welfare, and education, and we never can be con- 
Tinced that it can conduce to tho perfection of the State as a whole, 
or that it is well in itself to sacrifice the real rights and interests of 
indiWduala to its own objects. To the Greek, on the contrary, tho 
State is the first and most important thing, and the individual only a 
part of the community ; the sentiment of political life is so strong in 
him, and the idea of personality is thrown so much into the back- 
ground, that he can conceive of no existence worthy of a man except 
in the State; he knows no higher employment than politics, nor any 
more nbaolutc right than that of the whole over its parts. As Aris- 
totle says, the State in the nature of things existed before individuals. 
Tho individual, therefore, is only allowed the rights which belong to 
liis position in the State ; there are, strictly speaking, no universal 
human rights, but only the righte of citizens, and however much tho 
interests of individuals are interfered witb by the State, as long as 
the interests of the Stoto require it, they have no right to com- 
plain ; the State is the Bole original possessor of rights, nor is the 
State bound to give its subjects a larger ^harc than is required for 
the fulfilment of its own objects. Plato likewise adopts this posi- 
tion, and indeed pushes it to the farthest in his Republic. Still, 
on the other hand, he acknowledges that true virtue is only made 
ponible by a real cou^-iction, by the personal knowledge of iudi- 
ridualfl ; that political excellence can only be achieved by a thorough 
iutellectual comprehenpLon ; that the ordinary and conventional virtue 
muat be purified and confinned by philosophy ; and therefore the 
comer-stone of his State is tho philosophical traiuiug of the rulers, 
and all others are entirely excluded from any share of tho govern- 
ment of the State. In this Plato evidently forsakes tho ancient 
Greek point of view, which in other relations he upholds, and trans- 
fers tho centre of gravity of political life to individuals, to their 
education, and their intellectual conviction. But it ia impossible to 
him to adopt this course entirely ; the Greek spirit is yet too strong 
in himself and in his sj'stem. Thus he stands on the boundary-line 
of two ages, and while he himself labours with all his strength to 
bring forth a new form of civiiiration, ho yet at tho same timo freely 
sacrifices to tho spirit of hia peojilo all the jMtrsona! intercflts which 
modem times insist upon. Thus we can but half understand him, 
if we only inquire into hia cflect on tho age in which he lived ; the 
essence of his being, as it must ho with all tniuda that strike into 
untrodden wa}'8, belongs to the future. £. Zeller. 



ON THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN. 



SII7QE, by Uio kitidiiess of tko oditor of tlii» journal, space vas 
given in it for an uccount of the general rcindta of the Local 
f^XAuiinatianB for girls held in J)ec«mbi-'r, IH&j, the moveiDent baa 
gone on and prospered. In December, lH(>(i, 197 girls preeen ted 
thcmsclvr-s, of whom IS obtained honours, and 108 urdinun' cerlifiuatea. 
If the number of those who gun honours seem small, it must be 
remembered that girls seldom iittcmpt eithor the classiciiL or mathe- 
mutieul papers, without which it is not oasy to reach the honour lists. 
That llicy did well in such subjects ii^ fell within their compasK may 
be judgcH from the fact that -1'^ girU obtiiinod marks of distinction. 
Many of the strongest adversfiriea to the selieme have csome round. 
and now give it effective support. At Oxford, iilthough the expected 
renewal of the proposal to admit girls to their cTaminations ap|>eam 
to have fallen through, wo believe that it is looked upon with a nioru 
fovourabtc eye, and will eventually be carried. At all cventu wo do 
not believe that the rejection is due to fear of ridicule* For in the 

• We thiiik thft irritfT of the iwriov of Tilia* T>nvw>3a " HiBfeer Edtic*tioa otVfomtn," 
vfaich nppoftird in VdI. ir. |>. 2&6 of lh» journ*], wu miiUlitm in utyiog Utnt Uie 
dKitd of bauti;!' neailj led Ui ttiu rejecUoo of the lidiGinc at Oambriilge. TIm prMwnt 
writer wm oti tho spot, and took a good 3ciJ of puiui to luK^ivtnin Ibe i^rouiida on which 
tho o^ijuiitJRD rcatrd. A* fnr u he could flnd out, it vitM in ohcost oil ctUOS diiA U> 
dDul>ls whothar the admianon of ^li to public «ixBmin>tiAnii vonld prOTti for their 
■tdnntago. ^Vb«^l ho Ku Imd tha op)tortiinity of inquiring tho ntum nf riaagi of 
opinion, the reply has inraria'bly been that tbMe doubts havo boen rtnwrcd by the 
ctQcirary of the chixilfa and ufc^ardi proridcd tgoiosl posiiblo ovfli. 




On the Education of Women. 

course of tlie last two or three years public opinion has so far gone 
in the right direction that the claims of iroraon fo conndcratioa are 
eTCTjnrhcre listened to with respect. Even newspaper wrlt^frs, aluioet 
olwaja the la.st to use a manly tone towanU woraeo, bare begun to 
M« that men like the polished and genilenumlike essayist who talks 
(rf " fillica entered for the matriiiionial ctakeei of the season " had 
better hold their tongues. Wc apptvhoiid, (liereforo, that there must 
be weightier rcaaons than this to hold Oxford back — reaaons such as, 
while we may think them uiistuken, command our reo|K.-ct. 

Yet uotwithstiuidiug eomu favourable eigne in the horizon, no man 
who htu any regard for' the welfare of his kind can look on the con- 
dition of women in general without tsome verj- «ad forebodinp*. To 
carry our eyes no further than our own sfaorve, there is much in the 
condition of Engliskwomeu which ought to be distressing and 
hnmilialiug to men. If grout efibrts hare been made of lute years 
to lessen come of the cruelleitt of their wrongs, others oven more 
formidable seem to spring up in their place. Among these wo can- 
not help classing the growing carelcsenetws with which women appear 
to treat uuubastity iu men. If it he true, for we certutnly did 
not see it with our own eyes, that a few mCtuthe ago u peer of exalted 
rank brought a woman of bad character to the 0|j*;ra, and left her 
side to go and fljieak to honest women occupying a box within full 
view of that in which nhc was sitting, we Tenfare tu call it a 
sign of the limcK tif no nrdinary hnport. It is, at leawt, uiidouiablo 
that woraeu, young and maiden, are not only aware but speak upcnly 
of base ootinexiona formed by (lietr mate acquainfunce, or by men 
of notoritily in tlio world, with iui ubtwnce of reticence, if not of 
igmrnince, lierelofoi'e in our timt" unknown. Tie it remembered that 
in saying tht» wo are finding fault not witli women, but men. 
When wome-n are placwl in the midst of a profligate mule society 
thf^ir choice lieu between solitude and the knowledge, eren the con- 
donation, of much that is re^'olting to their ininds. With \hU 
alternative before them, who can wonder if nature carries the day ? 
Then tlie inequality i)\' nnmbers of llie hcxch is a daily increasing 
dement of miser)'. Great throughout the countr}', it is in some dis< 
tricts enormons. We know of one in which the prnpnrtioii of women 
to men was, at the last census, as 126-5 to 100. Tlie «tory is every- 
where the some — the men emigrate, the women atuy at homo. The 
ban' figures show the cTcistcnce of great distrws among women. 
A clow examination would, we arc convinceil, largely raiHR our eati- 
onie of it. For we believe that the overplua would be found to bo 
far greater in the class of those whtini, for want of a bc'tlcr term of 
distinction, we will call fudks, than any other — precisely that where 
maintenance bv their own labour ia most difficult to lind. Probably 

B 2 



244 



Tfu Contemporary Review. 



nothing at tHs momeiit vrould work such wide and lasting good to the 

iltuman race ait a schemie sufficiently well organized to o\'ercomc the 

jnatutBl reluctance oF women to leave home oud country, and calcn- 

'lated to induce well-educated ludiee to »et^ new hearths in those dia- 

tant, yet sunny and fertile, lauds, where their prc«oncc would of all 

bleosings be most welcome. Other eviU there arc specially nffccting 

liromen, too conspicuous uiid notorious to need recapilulalioii. Any 

' day's Times will place them will) terrible clearness before the ejres of 

the most ha^ty reader. Let ue» pass rather to (ho subject which ritands 

at the head of this pa|H<r, not indeed with any vain hope of finding 

A panaoeu for the cril of our day, but with an expectation, we 

trust well founded, of finding a way to render some useful help. 

In speaking of the educutiou of women we are met with a diffi- 
culty, raised by some of them»elve-s wliich we certainly should not 
have anticipated. No duubt the great end of all education, whether 
of boys or girla, is best staled in the words of the catechism, 
" that they may do their duty in that state of life to which it hath 
pleased God to CiiU them." But a part even of their duty to God 
is to get their own living in the world in which Jle has placed thenx. 
Id iipeukiug of education, -this temporal purt of it is not only kept 
in view, hut, on ordiuarv occasiuus, uaturally and necessarily occu- 
pics the foreraoat place. It by no means follows from tliis that it 
occupies the furemoet place in the care and thought of the speaker. 
The Scotch fiaying, " the mair kirks the muir sin," is true in a good 
many waye. There are times, no doubt, when the higheet view of 
education should be earnestly and fcrveutly pressed. But under 
ordinarj- circumstances we should have fur more faith in a father 
who, having many eons, talked of bringing them up to be lawyers, 
soldiers, uierchaii(#, than one whose speeches always ended up with 
God and their i;ountry. AVe do not love these jwrpetual protesta- 
tions. In speaking then of the education of boys, we should bo 
content, eicept ou very fit oa;nsions, to tiilk of bringing them up to 
Bomo temporal calling, tio matter what. Just so, as the days are 
happily not yet comfe in which many girls start in life with the ex- 
pectation of supporting themselves in perpetual maidenhood, or of 
having not only to bear, buttind bread for, their children, we should 
talk of bringing up girls to be good wives and mothers, being quite 
certain that thi» impHe^ the right way of teaching a girl how to do 
her duty to God and man, even though she never become cither ono 
or the other. But if women who write fairly represent the feelings 
of their sex, this way of talking displeases them. Thus one lady 
excIaiuiB — 

" I do not beliovo that women are to be * educated to be wives and 
mothers ' in any sense in which it is not equally imperative to «dncate boya 



On the Education of Women. 245 

to be hasTiAnds and Tatben!. I lieltcve tlinL cnrh human Wing, duvolopet] to 
his or bcr best and atiuost, will most porfccity fulfil thu dutios thxt God may 
appoint in each cftAe, and, if l4>achi>re uud pitrvutt linve ewr befure their eyss 
tbo Rim of making goo<), trD«, and KouitiblB woui«n, I do aot fear but tboy 
will also train Ihe best wivos and uiulhtTB." 

Nobody iloubt« it. But we repeat Ibat one may be just aa con- 
scious of Ihifl trutb as the writer of tboso words, and yat talk of 
bringing np girU to be good wive3 and mothers, and boys not indeed 
to be good husbands ond fathers, but good Iflwyors, doctors, officers, 
tradeiimen, and wfant not. She docs not obscrro that people who use 
these phrases have in view nt the time only the temporal ends of educa- 
tion; that IB, in the plain phrase of the litUTpr%', bow boys and girls 
may !eam and labour truly to get their own living'. Now boys 
seldom get their h'ving hy becoming husbnnds and fathers, while 
women do commonly owe theirs to being wives and mothers. The 
home cares which these words represent arc the return thoy make — 
surely a most honourable one — for the broad their husbands go 
abroad to win. If such cares are the counterpart of the out-o'-door 
callings of men. we do not see how it can be wrong, in speaking of 
the temporal side of girls' education, to press ita fitnesa for the future 
discharge of those cares. Wc should have passed over the matter 
in silence, content to use our own discretion in treating of the subject 
in hand, were it altogether indifferent. But it is not ho. For it is 
quite poHiible, and rerj' often happcas, that the frequent or untimely 
expression of one's inner thoughts on a matter of thin kind may sink 
into mere buncombe — one of the most mischievous forms of the 
breach of the third commandment. It is akin to the error Hooker 
pointed out in the Puritiins, who would hare had men not pick up 

straw but in Qod's name, and is capable of doing a good deal of 

ischief. 

Indeed, the monstrous rubbish which has been written al>out tho 
position and education, as well as the social and political dependence 
of women, forms ono of the greatest difficuUiea which those who 
would fain improve their condition have to encounter. Right or 
wrong, the fact Is that, as things are, such improvement cannot be 
achieved without the consent and active help of men. Now very 
few men, it is certain, are at heart indifferent to tho welfare of their 
pisters. But they mostly have much to do, and cannot go deeply 
into tlio question. The one thing thoy know for certain about it is 
that, unless managed with great care and judgment, our attempts at 
improvement may do infinitely more harm than gnod. It is no won- 
der then if, when they read the wild diacouraca of some lady writers, 
thoy hold back in alarm. Sorao of ihcjio writers, wo are told, have 
gone so far as to donounco tho bond of marriage as a piece of mas- 



I 



246 The Contemporary Revievt. 

calbie tynumj. Unfortuiiatelir unbridled lalk of this kind la blaieed 
overywhero abroad by fhe idle gossip of society, while the voice of 
sense aud reason is comparatively little heard. Take as an example 
the question of the franchise. The sort of talk which mcu com- 
monly hear about it is pretty fairly represented by such words wn 
these;— 

" The nsaertion that married women are not taiod can only mean that 
they do not pnflReBs propt-rty. Then the arfptmi^nt nmonnto to this — the 
law Dindn by man arhitmrily withholds from wonnn tbo power of possess* 
ing property: thoBo should not bo rcpmsented who do not pomess pro- 
perty ; therefore mivrried women shonld not be represented." 

A man rr-oding this, and knowing that married women by help 
of the law can, and very often do, possess property, and that such 
property is tascd, and that therefore nobody with a bend on his 
ahonldcrs could over have made any such assertion, Terr nnturaliy 
cries " Stuff," and flings the book aside.* AVrong, perhaps, but ho 
does, i'or as thtre arc, anhappilv, but six or eight working hours 
in tho day, a man cannot fully inform himself on every subject., and 
must leave a good many- — no unimportant once either — to take care 
of theraselTCS. We entertain no doubt, however, that whatcTer 
plana or ohunges can be shown to be for the dear and certain ad- 
vantage of •wcmBo, and are temperately and fairly placed before 
the minds of »uch men an have it in their power to promote them, 
will, in the long run, hv carriod, and ia the iaith of this, notwith- 
standing 6omc discouragements, it is safe to go forward. 

On the other hand, it must be owned that if wooien have given 
way to fouUsb talk about wliat they conceiT« to be women's rights, 
there has been talk equally foolish and much more aboun d in g 
on the jMtrt of men concemiog what they conceive to be women's 
duties. "When wo read Miss Davies's citations of what men say about 
women f" Higher Education of "Women," pp. 24 — M), we acarcely 
wonder at tho duah of bitterness which flavours her two opening 
chapters. Yet, with tho words of Shakq>eare and Tcnnj'son in her 
cars, 5K»8 Oavies might well have condescended to treat " Jane " 
ami the oflier fry bm Queun Elizabeth did the besirward's petition — 
silently diop them into Lcthe.f It should be borne in miiid, too, 



: 



* Would it not 1)« posBible to cdrculntc, in a Bopant« Tons, Vm Boulitntt's | 
on tho " C-Vodilitm of Wuinen in Fnmcv " (OiHiUoiporvry Jtt^iew, ICay, 1887), vhif& cm- 
tuna ■omn uiRlnwltv^ rd^, in view of our Iwp into thp dark of 0€ht<iCT»ry, mart con- 
rinang Kmarknon Oi» ruinotw cDnBriiititmc* la womt^ orarini-nnt*i<r>tal taftngot 

t W« must cxprow oar rogteX Uut Jti apMlduff of Uidm who 1*1 Lha " conoeptioiL of 
chsmcrter whkli rcBta on tho hroiui bfuia of u commnn hiiinAnily fiUl into Uia bftck- 
gromd, nad «alftitat(< far it a dual theoty vilh diminptly diffcrant tormt of hiaIc imd 
fbnulo acdlcBw," HIim Piriw tdioald gio 00 to tay, " Closely conn<rct(<d with tb««e 
wpuatiat doebina is the doublo aionl code, v^-iUi il« muculinQ uid fcminme Ttftuos, 



0/r the Education of Women. 



'+7 



that the subject iiirolvos some peculiar difficultio3j particularly in 
regard tu eilucution. Men can manage their own poIitii;aJ, sorial, 
and educaiioiial aflnirs without apposing to women ; but womou 
cannot stir a step without invoking the coimael and guidance of men. 
Kot a single book or pivpor that has been written, in the various fiis- 
cuaBtona of the day, on any «ubj«!t wmncct^d with tho welfarf of 
wumeu, fails to acknowtixlgo this cxpHcitly or implicitly in ahuost 
•'f^ l**^*': so that in mnlKTS of tbomsplvrs nuffioicntlr difficult to 
deal with prudently, wo have the addwl difticulty of difference of sex. 
However caraful vo may be to ke«p a firm footing on the "broad 
basis of common humanity" in ocir rtjasonings, depend upon it this 
will be alwaTf-s found a ftcriounly disturbing element. In education, 
above all^ it ia a hard matter to keep a right course- The wisest and 
most prudent men find it far from «i«y to educate boyn raocessfuUy. 
How often have tho moat, earnest and honest teachers cause to wring 
their handx in grief at the evil frwit that Fprings up from what 
they had vainly hoped to l>e good seed f^caltered on good grouud ! 
Yet in dealing with boys men know tolerably well (ho nature of the 
niat«>rial they have in. hand. Not w> with girla. Only « woman can 
cuter Thoroughly into a girl's heart The position, therefore, in 
wliich men are placed in regard to the educntton of women i« thiii> 
that they must be ftomethiag more than merely interested looker»-oQ, 
and most not merely lend it the uid of thought and udviee, Init lake 
txnuo active ahaxa in it, yet tu a great extent be working in tho dai'k, 
and have uumy reasons for warine» whiuh may be neglected in 
handling boyw. ProI»d)ly, if it were poasible, the best thing men 
could do would be to take no jiersonal share in tJie business, to pro- 
Tide women with mchoohi aiul oollegi-a fit for the uducutiuu of their 
danghtcrK, officer tbeni with cultivated ladies i-qual in iJusitiou and 
aoqnircmcnls tu professors and tutors in the Cniversities, and leuve 

and Ua ivpanktn Uw of ilntjr and boagnr (or citltar kk." 'Wben b 1^5 douliU moral 
KoAv tv 1>c fvuDtl ? A Buin lUHy vL-ty wdl btvadi "vortMndoclrioca — lodi tuLbut Uiq fuan 
Is intt-nded for Ibe world, woiniui for Uiv liorae ; mui's rtmm^lli u In the heiid, womnn'* 
in tbo bmrt," fco. — without Wing Rvniy vfnnj error gmter than Ifaat of n|imwtng 
tana my obvTODii trotlw m a sonawbut «iagg«nUad form, and nortaiiklf witlumt tho 
least propeatily to itdTCKaitiug a " iioah]« nonJ code." Indeed, whAtorcc mAy b« tho 
«rtOTH nf ojodon practice, thero Arc nav-a-dnf a vct}' fow men who think st all wha 
wonM not Yigoromlj r^.-iteraf? the old pttruioxinJ adriy-c, "tot mui "bfi chosto and 
maien bnve." Bat this is tho cial>- limit v« har» to And with Afurs Dnriot't IwiA, 
which flCtfttiB to lu calculfctad ti> do rorjr gtmi good, luid we wish it auij Ikid its 
way into evvry bouDuljoId wli«rti ibcre arv sons and daught«Ti- In parUcular wu with 
jrouDg men could 'be iniluccd to rood it- IndifTrronca to thii locii-.ty of wuinen in otio 
•f tb» tiMMt ropulaivn iiiults of ihti yotmir man of tho day. Thuy rai-ely seem to tliink 
it any part of their duty to giru up th« omplojrncDt, or uYcn thit whin, of the nUMBetlt, 
{ox lhi< hdlp or «&terttJnmont of luotbv-r nnd siAtAn snd their oofup&niotu. Tut tnroly 
if it ia pott at vonca'a btadncsa in the world to pkuc mva, iL is (luito as mocb a 
port of iBca*s to plOHO women. 



«4« 



Ike Contemporary }ievtew. 



them to tbenuelvea. Bat it la useless to ahador forth snoli a acheane 
anion for Utopia. 

It aeenu to tu, tlien, that the wisefli course men can porsnc id to 
flce what has been done iu other timef, or is now doing in other 
aonntrioa, in educaling girls : above all, to examine what are the 
dwnand* of women themselves. After all, ilier must know best what 
ia good for them, and as the feverinh activity of the press now-a-daja 
gives ererybody a chance of being heard, there can be no difficulty in 
tixxding nut what they wish, nor inoch, probably, in sifting out the 
chaff from what is reosonable and likely to be of serrice. 

In our former paper on the mibject wo tried to show that the 
education of women must have been an object of careful solicittHle to 
the wiiKMJt men in all age^. We did not succeed, however, in tracing 
the method they used, or caused to be used, nor do we believe it to 
be now possible to do so. We can only infer the fact fr<mi the illus- 
trious history of women. But post ages have certainly not left ns iu 
the dark as t« the ideal we are to work up to. Hisa Davies makes a 
timely appeal to Scripture and the teaching of the Churches of 
England and Bcotland on this head : — 

" People," Bhc says, " who go to ehnreh, and who raad tWir RiWps, are 
perpettially reminded of ono typo and oxomplar, oda morsi law. The theory 
ofcdaciAtioD of our En^liBh Chureh rceognisM no distinction of sex. Tho 
bitptized child is ni^ed vnCh. the sign of the cross, in token that bereafVec 
be — or she — ibBll not be ashamed to confess the failh of Christ crucified, 
nnd miinfully to ligbt under bis banner against sin, the world, and the devil ; 
and to continue Christ's faithful soldier and scrvuit to hii — or her — life's 

t)Ui] The Shorter Catechism [ScolcbJ leaches thst Ood created man, 

mulu ftud fvuiidv, ufUrr his owu imago, in luiowlcdgu, rigbtcoasucss, and 
bolinoBs, vi'itL duuiiuiou over Ibc ereiitoriiB, and Ihut oaui's chief end is to 
glorify Oixl. iiud tu enjoy Him for over." 

; Tho women, too> who lire for us in the pages of Scripture com- 
pletely Iwur out the theory of tlio t-HHCiitiul equality of both sexes of 
tbohumnn race. Miriam, TTimnuIi, KliKulK'tli, had us clear and proper 
u share in carrying out the couiimcIs of Gud lu* Mosc», Samuel, and 
the Baptist. The value uf tho crowning example of Mary is lost 
tbrougli the uncomely figuietit of bur married virginity disaociating 
her in [icoplo's minds from ll»} n^st of lier hhx. Tho part they play 
ia not subordinate to, but different from, that of men. It is, by 
comparison, not indued sccImU^d — for they lived lives open for all 
the world to see — hut seclentary and silent, for Ihey rarely left their 
homes, or gave voice in song or prayer to lUo thoughts of thoir 
hcarfs. "WTiat is more than all, (ho life of our Lord is in every 
fiinglo particular, except bis pubUc preaching, n model for women 
quite an miirh as for men. Nor does Ho anywhere give tho least 
hint tbut tbcir obedience and agency are of less importauco to his work 



On the Education of Women. 

than iLat of the other sex. Indeed, we find Him frequently takiiif? 
opporttuiitics of Doticing their proaenco und uBSurinf; them, mostly 
b}' acts rather than wordri, of his equal solicitude forthoir tcmfionLl 
and spiritual welfare, aa n-oU aa indicuting to them what they were 
to do for Him. It. ia plain from many passages in the New Testament 
that his immediato folLowtini and the first preachers of his Ctospol 
regarded the agency of women aa a necessary part of the Christian 
minifitry. It must bo owned that the Church of Homo has never 
lost sight of this truth, and in trying to reintroduce women into the 
ministry of tho Church of England, the most Protestant of us arc 
forced to turn our eyes Homeward for guidance. If wc turn to the 
'onnala of heathendom, women arc found side by side with men 
wherever they sought to keep alive a spark of judgment, mercy, or 
truth. Women, therefore, bear the stamp of God's image to the full 
as clearly as men ; and if any one ask tor an ideal of femiaine eicel- 
Icnec, we noed only refer him to that imago seen in perfection, that 
is to say, to the Man Christ Jesus. 

If, then, tho past does not give much help towards tho methods of 
educating women, it doea us the great service of showing us a standord 
to work up to. WhatoTcr may bo tho difforcnco in their physical 
and intellectual powers and functions, our object must be to place 
them as moral and spiritual beings on perfect equality with men. 
With this explicit siatemeut of our views we shall leave thia part of 
the oubject, not wishing to meddle with that highest department of 
education which goes on at home and in church. Cut if, in speuklng 
of the physical and intellectual training of giria, we confine oursulyea 
to temporal matters, wo hope it will bo uiiderst<JoJ that we do not 
forget the important iuflueace this training has on their moral and 
spiritual development. 

With regard to the physical training of girls, we believe England 
has little or nothing to learn from other countries. I^iowhere are 
they placed, as far aa their bodily strength permits it, on such a per- 
fect footing of equality with men ; nowhere, again, are greater puins 
taken to keep them from overtaxing that bodily strength. Custom 
allows Snglisbwomen more freedom in out-door exercinos than is 
granted to those of any other country. They walk, ride, drive, dance, 
pluy games, both like and with their brothers. In this respect, at 
any rate, the restraints of conventional decorum are in England only 
such as nature would impose. These being observed — und provided 
alie does not attempt exersises which demand too severe a tension of 
hcrmu»:les; that is to say, if she will content herself, for example, with 
croquet and archery, leaving guns and cricket bats to the stronger 
sex, and if eho will not ride after ths hounds without father, brother, 
or husband to attend her — an EngLiab lady may enjoy sun and air 



1 



250 



7he Contemporary Review. 



mach as aho plcsso?. On the uther h;iiid, in no country has the 
legislature ho Uoneetly and diligently ^ught to delcnd women and 
ahildrea ogaioBt the croelty of men, especially ngainai opprce^on on 
the piirt of the employers of labour. Saarcdya session bos pasecd by for 
many years without some law being enacted for their protection in 
this purticolar. At this very time a eommiBaion is on foot with a 
view to lef»i«lntionoutho subject of njrriculturnl gangs. W'o must say 
we tUiiik this part of the question is too much lost sight of bj lodinB 
who are ])ronuncnt as champions of their aex. llioir vritings are 
- little else than bills of complaint from the firiit to the last page. They 
si>eak, for the most part, aA if women were deliberately opprojued by 
men tkrougha eclfi«h fear of being oubttript or even dnTon alUigether ' 
out of the field. That this i.<( nowhere the rase wc are not pre- 
porcd to say; we fear that it a ormspicuouflty ao in France at this 
monienL But ax far as England and America aro concerned, wa do 
emphatically deny it> AVTiatever restraints or diaabilities are in 
theAo countries maintained or newly impot«ed, we believe to be dna, 
almost without exception, to a desire todowltat is best for women. No 
doubt ttoiuool'thrm ni:iy bemintalien, or rather imperfectly attain their 
object. But that is only saying they are human, atid nothing appears 
to our mind more alarming iu the excited outcry for reform we hear 
on all ifides, eapecially in respect of education, than the apparent un- 
wiUingness to ackuowledg<> the inci'ituhle errors and shortcouiings of 
all human schemea. On the whole, WQ rep(-aJ. that Kngliafa law and 
custom aro favourable to women. Take, fur example, the laws a&ct- 
ing marriage. Keeping within tliat over-cure which, as in Fmic«, 
de&atH ttM own object by imposing an intolerable yoke, thoy 3'et 
sbifiti women ua tur aa ]Kwsible from the dangers of haato and inex- 
p€rii;uuu until iheyaro oM enough i\> tako oaro of themselTes. That, 
for ail thia, tiiere should be ample aoope ft)r caruelty, uppniBaion, and 
wnmg iu thu rrlations of men to wom<'ri ia inevitable. I.aii*8 can do 
very liltic in that or any other department of Immiui uffiiirs ; leaat of 
all can ihty liiuder the bitter fruilB of mibridled folly and poaaion, 
nurtured by bud homea and prafligale mciety. It ifi as much as can 
be looked for if they proleut those who are willing to be protected. 
Certainly, ua far ua the ph)*ai(;al well-being of women i« concerned, 
the temjwr of the Knglish, and. a« far as we know, of tho Amorican 
logiohitui-e has been at once kind and prudent — deeirotin, on the one 
hand, to protect them a& the we-nk ngatnnt the strong, and, on the 
other hand, not to carry that protection so fur as to turn it into 
raproBaion. 

However, the real battle-Sold is on the ground of intellectual 
training. Here, no doubt, women have a good deal of reason to 
complain, For many years past, except in the highest ranks of 



aoci^y and a (ew enlightened hmuelioldti in burobler life, Tory little 
care or thonght ha« boen vuuclisafwl to llie education of dauglitore. 
How far wc have strayed in thi» re«pect from the path of our 
ancestors is well indicated irhere ire Mhould perhaps least expect to 
find it — uamely, iu farmhouse*. Farmers assuredly arc not given to 
innovation. In many, perhaps most, part^ of the country, they go 
on much as their great-grandfathers did. Even railroads do not 
tempt tljpm to travel much further than to market.* Now farmers 
almoiit nlwuys vpend more money on tho bringing up of their duughtirrs 
than of their sona. Ol^en the girla ore aent " to buardiug-»ehoo1," as 
the goodwife will tL'll one with no little pride, whiJu tho boys pay tho 
quarterly crown, iiwlcad of the weekly twopence of labourers childien, 
to faim of the tillage. Very often, it is to be icared, the girhi do not 
bring much home fi-om their Ijonrding-school beyond a smattering of 
showy accompUshraeuts. Uut that is not the farmer's fault. Give 
him a good school to send his girls to, and ho is not such a fool 
aa to pn-fer a bud one. True, he is not oiten a gootl judge of results, 
and will perhaps, at tin<t, be inclined to like tho tinsel bettur thau 
the pure gold, but his eyes will aoon be opened to the truth. How- 
erer, this is not to our present purpof«. What we desire t^i remark 
ta that the fanner, in trying to educate his girls, is probably doing 
what hi» forefathers have done for yoarv, perhaps centuries post. 
C3erg\*, again — likewise apt to be fftaunch adherents to old ousloms 
and ways — often talte great pains in teocliing their daughtcra. Many 
of them are among the most earnest and efficient supporters of the 
local examinntiens. It is fiiir, however, to add that clergy, in matters 
where tbcy can see their way to nseful results, are, in a multitude of 
eaaoB, the most eager innovators. Indeed, nothing can be more mit*- 
takcu than tho common habit of mossing together the eh'p^y as 
faking any ]>articnlar lino on any q^iestion. In most secuLir, and 
more theological discussions than layraon imagine, they are exceed- 
ingly independent of each other. Still, when Mr. TroUope makes 
Mr. Crawley teach his daughters I<atin, Greek, and mathematics, lie 
is trtie to tho life of many a sccludM Knglish parsonage, whither 
new^wpcrs and reviews or modem opinions in any shape rarely find 
their way. 80 that on tlic whole we have rather gone back than 



* For initutcu, in l\n muatan of IS&4, on k vi>tt at « r«untry pananag«, « ckuced 
lobo Rt n loM ftbont tho time a parlJi-uLtr tmn wm to that, And tnmttotba honM of a 
aeighbcQr to borrow a hr^thatc. Onn «iu fetihwith huntM up and ]wodnccd — dutcd 
ISIfl ! We «ir the good folkfl w«ro so wHwly untonecioiia of tho tlmndtty tint we 
nndc ao rwiiunlc, prefeondod to coaralt it, uid wubedthon good moiKing. Nov, thonaa 
WW a &nuut cf bufTB inltetifaKl jmbataavt^ and lioldiag it Cum of auoy haadrod ooks 
in Eupcrl> ooniUtton. ]nile<«J, Iub iifun<- alone would codi'idoo moet readon tliat h« stood 
in the forancMt rank of agrirulturiat*. lint he bad boDght a ISrad*k*u> on hi* vroddinp 
trip, and bad Barer had ooouion tax ooa cinoc. 



'Tht Contemporary Rrview. 

forward. Not that thr point lit of much conspqucncc, except to con- 
Tinoo Bomo that the doctriDe that girU should be taught as well as 
boys u( at all c\'ent« not nnw-fungled. The fuct rcmauu, that at thLi 
moment few English girls get anything liko tho samo measure of 
pains and cost bestowed on their education that is laid out on that of 
their brothers, and that those who doairo to change, and, as they 
belicTO, amend this state of things, encounter vor\- considerable oppo- 
sition. Wo must own, however, that, as we have already hinted, thia 
opposition is becoming daily more insignificant. Were it poasiblo to 
aeatch into it thoroughly, we believe that most frequently, and espe- 
cially where it is loudest, it prcMiecds either from teachers who have 
no great reason to be confident in tho results of their teaching, or 
parents who are not disponed to encounter tho expense of giving 
their daughters a sound eduoatlon. We should be inclined to treat 
both these claaws with Bomo tenderness. Ladies who entered the 
profession of teaching with old-fashioned views of what was sufficient 
for girls to learn must find it hard to encounter a changed world. 
Again, while it is every day easier to make a certain amount of social 
display, it is growing harder and harder for people in modest cir- 
oimistanccs to do well by their children. So we do not caro if tho 
change comes slowly, provi<le<l It come well. Indeed, we know not 
whether wo ought not to be gruteful to the opposition which enforces 
alow progress ; for it is very far from easy to lay down what is tha 
bettt coLUTse to adopt to secui*e the improvement we deaire. 

Certainly, we venture to think that the University of Cambridge, 
in extending the Local Examinations to girls, took what was for 
them the best possible first »tep. It matches them with boys, Kprccwls 
a large field of study before them, while, at the same time, it com- 
pletely screens them from publicity ; and sbotdd it be found not to 
answer, it can be witlidran n without tho smallest loan or injury to auy 
one. The public are, perhaps, not generally aware how ample that 
field is. Kvery student is required (o satisfy the examinenj in read- 
ing aloud, spelling, writing, tho rudiments of arithmetic, grammar, 
geography, Iilnglisb history, and, except in case of a written objection 
sent in by parents or guardians, of the Christian faith. How great 
au improvement has been achieved in these elements of knowledge 
may be in some degree estimated from the single fuct that whereas 
in 1858 about 10 per cent, of tho whole number of candidates (then 
boys only) were rejected by tho examiners in arithmetic aloue, in 1805 
scarcely more than I per cent, failed in that subject. Then follow a 
number of sections out of which each student must choose two or throe, 
and is forbidden, to attempt more than five or six. These include more 
advanced papers in tho preliminary subjects, English composition, 
Latin, Greek, French, German, pure mothonuitics, mechanics, che- 



On the EduCfJthn of Womtn. 253 

Biistry, jjoologj', botaiij-, geolog}', heat, magnetism, electricity, mudc, 
geometricul ilrawiog, drawing from Oie flat, from model«, in perspec- 
tive, and imitative colouring. Let us add, for tlie benefit of that 
ignorant part of iLe public whicla loven to be called practical, tiat tlie 
art of land Kurreylng belongs to trig<jiiomefry, which is included 
uuder pure uiathematics, and tliat engiiieera are taught by mechanics 
or applied mathematics hov to measure and u»e forces, and we think 
Mr. Ewart himself would ecarcely find any subject to add to this list. 

The distinguivhing i;hitructc'riiitics of the girls' work, as compared 
with the buys*, are uarrowness of range and goodiicss of quality. 
Last year few of Iht-m took in tliu full nuaiber of sections allowed, 
while 21-3 per cent, of them, against \'-y^ per ceul. of the boys, 
obtained luarka yf distiucliou iu one or more subjects. Now exa- 
miners are instructed for the Syndicate to award such marks 
"not for comparative merit shown by one candidate with respect to 
auothor, but for really sound kuowlcdgu of the subject, so far us the 
examination tests it." 

It should he remarked, however, that at present only picked girla 
are, as a rule, sent in, while many schoolmasters send up boys in 
wholo classes — a practice excellent from many points of view, and 
from none more than as showing that they take eijuul paius with all 
their scholars. In English, French, and German the girls, as might 
be expected, were pigiudly Ruccessful. I'W nltemptcd Latin and 
Greek. We looked with some curiosity to the result ; fur wo never 
could see any (i priori reason why girls should not leoni thi^se tongues. 
AVnmeii, we apprelieud, contribiil^d their share (owanls formiug tbcm, 
and millions upon millions of women sptikc them iu Uieir day. The 
New Testament is addressed tu women as much as to men, and it is 
of no le«8 advanlagt^ to theui to rt^ud it in lh(> language in which it 
was written. The point seems to uh uiic purely of tastuajiii L'X]jt>- 
diency. In 1865 no girl tried Oreuk, btit twelve took up Latin. In 
18G(> Greek was attempted hy tlirep, Latin by fifltxtn girls. The judg- 
mt'iit of the examiners is in getienil thai they show a very fair ap|)re- 
ciation of a work they have read, and can translate it into vcrj- good 
idiomatic English ; but that they fait in grumiimr, and in tntii^luting 
passages they have nut seen before. In 1SG5 mathemutics were tried 
by six girls, in 186(3 by filYeen, with no great nicceaa, one senior girl 
excepted, who diil singularly Wfll.' Several did well in music, and a 
few in drawiug. Contrary to our expectation, the natural sciences, 
in particular botany, do not seem attractivo to girls any more than 
to boys, who OS a geTieral rule appear to hate them. Wv quite indc 
with those who think this a pity, hiil: it ia a fact. We admit that the 

" I%e ncarlj- ci^urtA the [«per oa Agftiti MatkttntUt*, g«ttiiis full mMrka for erety 
queadon tibt sttemptdd. 



254 



thf Contemporary Rrview, 



Bcheme hat been an worldng too short a time to ullowr of any oertaui 
t-onclusions being ilniwn, but prp>sOTil. results, bo far as they jro, inrline 
us to think that theio in no reason for shutting ugainat girk anydc»r 
of knowledge vhich i» open to boy*. 

A further qtwKtion arise* on which there will probably be a very 
great diflerence of o{n]uon. Thix is vrhether, in learning, boy» nnd 
girls muet be kept separates or may work together ia classes. Many 
penoas will probably say that tlicv ought not evim to occujjy separate 
Twmm in the same building, but should be phiccd in dilfereat sehooLi at 
least some furloags apart.* Others may tliink that nature, as expressed 
in the homely Laaoa»hiro proverb, ** T'laasea always cooiu where 
t'ladH are," may, after all, not be a bud guide ; uml that u boy 
may grow up dodo the wortie man for having sat side by aide with a 
girl at his lecisou. Purhups it is a (juetitton va which it will be safest 
to appeal to experienco for a decision. 

In formerdays there appears to hare beeu no unwillingness to allow 
hoy» utid girls to work tugotkur. Host of the old Ibundation nchools 
seem to have boon established for the K-nefit of the chiMrat of the 
paiiah without distinction of sex. In a great many of them this ha« 
surriTed nearly, if not quitt*, to the proBeut hour, ouly they are no 
longer frequented by the families of the parson or the tsquire. But 
a generaliou or two buck, when in the remoter part« of the country 
travelling was twetly and irksome, the little village school, endowed 
with its twenty, thirty, fifty acres of land — often, and Tcry properly, 
on adjimot to the cure of souls — received within its walls all tha 
young fry of the parish alike. If we are not mistaken, the school of' 
a little village in Norfolk reckons Sir liobert Walpole among its past 
alumni. Within our own rcmembronco an earl of exalted lineage 
sent his cliildren to the school of the parish in which he lived. 
In tmo school of some considcrntion the practice of teaching boya 
and girla together still survives. We refer to Rivington School, 
attached to St John's College, Cambridge. The "captain" of 
Kiviugtou School, we wore told by a fellow of that c<Jlego who 
was lately sent to examine if, proved f o be n girl of sixteen. Next 
came a boy between fourteen and tifteen, then a girl again, and 
so forth. He discoTeritl nothing which woald lead him to desire 
a change ; on the contrary, he appeared to think the plan worked 
extremely wclL In Scotland, if we nr(> not mistaken, it is the orrli- 
narj' rule. Cambridge has been applied to in two sncceeaivo 

* A boy irbo sent ttp an Knf^iiih ttsAy in the I<or>l Kxominntian of l^& infonDcd 
tbe euuniocr that " lb. A's (hu master's] eohool ns next door I* Vin B's," aal 
iuldi>d Ifaat " had Uwy 1i.-ca fuLlier ftpnrt, th* iimatu ^ Htk AwMt mifH A«r« Um , 
^artd miny tfrafjtj." Lot not, Ijowoier, tho eepantUel* rve«nl this xs t«Iliiig cnUmly < 
m Qkeit favour. It ni^l y»y well Iw arfpud Uiat b^ hofm mud giij« bocn teughlj 
tog«tlicr, Ihcy would not h«ToiOugbt foibidiien oMnmuiucatioiuL 



the Juhication of fVomen, 



255 



years to send cxominprfl to n grrat 8cotcli coUege^-ihc Dollar 
Institution, neur Stirlitii; — nttenflal bj more thnn five humliixl boy* 
find girls. I'ho examinors speak highly of the school, anil find no 
fault with tho system of bringing bripi and girls together. But it 
is to Amon'ca that wp must Ifwfc for tlie widest induction of cxAinplcA 
and the fulltnrt information ; for in the I'nited States not only »ro 
there a great number of schooln and colleges of long standing for 
both soxcs, but they have been lately Tisited and fully reported on 
by two iridrpendent observers. Mr. Fnwer, sent by the Schoola 
Inquiry Commisaion, visited many schooU in tlxe TTnited States in tbo 
summer of 18fi5. Miss Sophia Jex Blake did the same iu i\w autumn 
of the same year. Mr. Fnwer's Report has been printed by the Coiu- 
minsionerii, and Mitt--^ Jex Blake hatt writt«n a uarrolit'e of hor trip 
in a small volume pnblifhed by Messni. Macioillan. Both give very 
ample accouuts of various school-* they visitod ; both, it is cl«ar, had 
thoroughly divcated themwlves of any prejudice against the bringing 
boys and girls together at «chool ; both, aflei' produciug auch fucla 
and arguments on the subject as were presented to their uuud« in 
the coorae of tjieir respective journeys, review them at the clo«se of 
their work. Neither ventures to give a very decided opinion. MLss 
Bloke says : — 

" Witli rwganl to the joint eflncntion of the sexes, I have CDdcnvoarcd 
Kuiiply to BKcnrtoin facts, tinil am by no mcone) sure of the cxistenco of 
sulHcieat data wbcrcon to fouml ajvisl coDcluitioD." 

But elie appears to be inclined, on ttie whole, to look on it with 
favour. Thus we read : — 

" As boya and girls have to live together in Uie family, and raon Euid 
women in tho world ii( large, it certainly bocihh that they ought to W able 
to pursue their comnion studies together : and perhaps, if tbey did flo, a 
much more healthy mutual rotation would rusult than now exists." 

The American teacherss, whose opinians she had the opportunity of 
leamiug, appear to entertain no doubts on tho question. One ground 
on which they found their judgment is, we apprehend, invincible — 
namely, that whore provision for educating both sexes together is 
not made, tho girls w^ill go to the wall. But they support it on the 
fiirther ground of ita being to the advantage of both sexes. Thus 
Pnrfeaaor Fairchild, of Obcrlin, as quoted by Miss Blake, says; — 

" That society is most hnppy which conforms most ptrictly to the order 
of Qatnre as indicated in tho family rulatioii, where brother and sister 
mntuaTy ficvnie and restrain each other. ... A sehoul for youDj; meu 
becomes a commnnity in itself, with \i» own standiird uf niuriUily and its 
laws of hODOur ; but in a college forboUi hoxi-h tho Btudunt will tlud a puhtic 
Bontimeot oot bo lomcnt fts that of a commaaity of asfjuciatcs uucdiiig the 
sAmo indolgoneo." 



256 



the Contemporary Revinv. 



Mis8 Rlake further tclla us that tie professor, upeaklag of tlie sup- 
posed danger of hasty attachmeuts and marriages which may arise, 
remarks that — 

"There is something in the oseociatioa of every-day life wblch appeftla 
to tile judgment rather than to the rnncy, and Ihnt weekn and taonths of 
Bteftdy labour over the same problema, or nt the same sciences, will not bo 
more likely to create roiuonccs thao casual uioetings at fetes and bails." 

"We owu tbcro appears to us a good deal of force in these argu- 
luent*. Lot ua see what ilr. Fraser says : — 

*' Very bigb authorities, founding tbcmtjelves upon cxperieuee, tuEiiutaLn 
without bcsitfttion or reserve the advantages of the syEtem as it stands. 
That it hua cortaiu very nuoifeiil advuiiUigcii I am not prepared to deny; 
but as all resnlt;^ ore but a, bolancL- of opposite)!!, there are certain us mnnifest 
disadvaDtages which have to be reckoned and considered too. And there 
are high authoritiee on the other side. The great Athooitm statesman, the 
great Cbrittlian teacher, appear to have formed different conceptions of a 
wouau's ]irupor sphere in life ; and it is probable, tberefore, that they would 
have fiirtiurd diflcrent coDceptioua of the proper training of a girl. Kven the 
Frcncb pliilosiiphienJ thinker (I'e Tocqne\'illti) admitfi that ' such an eduon- 
lioii iti uot without danger, and has a tendency to produce moral and cold 
women rather thantcuder and amiable ^^'iveR.' And it may well be doubted 
wbetbcr He, who * at the beginning made them male oiid female.' did nob 
nUo murk out for tbcm in his purposes different, though parallel, jmiiAx 
through all their lives." 

So for nothing can he better. But when Mr. Fraser proceeds to 



" Their " (the Americana) " conception of woman's dntips, and their ideal 
of wiimaiily perfection, arc probably diir»!r<'nt from onr«. To thcni the Roman 
matron of tb<t old repubUc is, perhaps, the typo nf female excellence ; to 
them sflf-i-i'liance, fearlessness, decision, energy, promptilude, aro perhaps 
the blxhcMt fvmale qualities. To us the xofler graces are more attractive 
tbiiii the dtenier viKuex ; onr object is to train wonieii, before anything and. 
everjiliin^; brsiden, for the duties of the borne; we care less in tbem for 
vigoronn intellects anil firm purposes, and more for tastes which domesticate 
and aecouipli^hments which chana "^ 

we confess he appears to iis to shoot beside the mark. An far ns tho 
"Roman matron of the old republic" is concerned, we know too 
little of that lady to be able to pronounce whether she either poa- 
teewd the " sterner rirtues," or was dofieieut in lUo " softer graces." 
"We think, however, that there must have ulways been at Home 
many dames worthy to rank with Tiillia and Octaviu in the tenderest 
feminine charms- Moreover, Romans, in the freedom anil courtesy 
of their socifil interconrse with each other, appear to us to bear a 
much closer resemblance to Englishmen than Americans. Indeed, 
if we havR rightly understood Cicero and Horace, the terms on which 
a Roman gentleman lived, with his friends have always appeared to 




us delightful. Ho we bbould be inclined to think the Boman mothors 
who taught them manaors must huvc been fur from wanting in 
womanly attractions. But this by-the-by. To return to tho main 
point, wc cannot help thinking that the balance between " atcracr 
virtaoa " and " softer grat-os " has very little to do with the mutter 
in hand. To us a woman's life iippearH to be quite as eerious aa a 
man's, and to require quite as frequently iind aa largely bU the help 
that experience, self-control, and good seuac can give her. The 
only thing, then, we have to keep in view in the education of women 
is surely how they are beat to live the life and fultil the duties God 
has given them. To this even tho " tastes which domesticate, and 
aocompUshmcnta which charm," must be so subordinate that, except 
just BO far as they conduce to it, they ought to be thrown out of view 
altogether. Compared with this, the *' ideal of womanly perfection " 
men choose to frame for themselves is absolutely insignificant. And 
when Mr. Frascr in a note a little further on says : — 

" I Bhould have supposed, though I don't think wc have quite hit it ia 
Gngland, that thoro was a mean between tbo 'cloiatral education of France' 
aad the ' democratic education of the U&itcd Hlatos.' I quite feel that 
there ts an indefinable aomething that makcii a difference betweeo the rela- 
lionnhijt of man and wife in America, tmd tho rclationBhip of man and wife 
in Kn^land. I do not mean that there is more mutual affection, or more 
mataal confidence, hut there is a different ["«<' in the intercourse. I thiuk 
tho secret of the ditfi'roneu hes in iids, thiLt the Amtihcuu husbaud has mora 
respect fur his wife's oitud ; "— - 

his words sound to our ear liko an ackuowledgmcrtt that the 
Amerioan has in Imh judgnicoC fewer faults than the EiiglitUi Fystem. 
We can ourselves give no opinion on tbo point, as wo have never had 
the good fortune tu know any American families. Hut we coufesn 
the passage ahovo quoted in one respect astonished us not a little. 
We should havo thought that most English hui^bandti who were 
willing ht b*i taught — that is to say, all worth thinking aliout — 
would have found their wives in many of the mast important duties 
of life the best toaubers — next to or equally with their raothere — 
th^ ever hod, and, therefore, have at least us much respwt as tho 
men of imy other natioji fur their minds. But lot uh see what are 
the educational results of tlie American plan. For even if a comparison 
of manners were more to tho purpose thau it is, we don't see that 
tho difference, whatever tbcremay be, between Kngltsh and AniiorJcan 
ladies depends so entirely upon tschool life as to be much in j>oint. 
That, we conceive, springs at least as much from tho difForcnod oi' 
manners throughout society. But do women in America gain otiougli 
in knowledge and power to make it worth our while to cliauge all 
our own customs ? Here there appear to arise very grave doubta. 
All authorities socm to say the girls do as well as the hoys. Mr. 
Frascr writes : — 

V(H.. Vlt. B 



258 



The Contemporary Review. 



" Rome of tbe best mathematical leiuibera are worn<>o ; some of th« beat 
nmtbematical stntieiite nre girln. Yoang liLdies read Virgil nnd Cicero, 
Xcnophon aud Homer, as well (in ever}- Bcose) aa yoang gcntlcmou. In 
mixed hi^ schoolfi the nnmbor of fRmnlc students generally pr«pondenilc<t. 
and tbcy arc fmind in PXnniiiiatioiiB to carry off tlio largest proporlioQ of 
prizM. In Bcbools whcro I beard tbo two Boxes taoght or eabicMzod to* 
geth«r, I iboald mygelf have awarded to Lhc girls tho palm for qaicknets of 
pcnrcptton and precmon of reply. In do diipartment of stndy wliieb they 
pnrsacd toj;t'thcr did they not wcm I0 mo. as compared •wilh their male 
cnmpctitoM, fnUy competent to hold their own." 

So Miss Bltike : — 

*' The profcasor of Greek told mc Uuit ho was uoablo to see much diffor- 
onco hctwocn tho flindontft of the two BfixSR: * Bat for tbo difference of 
voic«, I shonld find it hnrd. or iraposftiWo, with ruy eyes shnt, to t«ll ono 
from tbe other. If X am to find n dintinrttnn, I may, perhaps, say that, 
spoaking gcnorally, th« ladies bavt^ moro inlnhive quickneds in (lonstroing, 
and earlier aeqnirc cicganco in composition ; while Uje gentlemen [in pnnsiug 
may we beg this rcpnblioftn professor, aa well ns his matbcmftticiil brother, 
to havo nothing to say in future abont ' Indies ' and ' gentlemen,' hot to be 
ootit«Dt with * girls' and ' hoyH ?'] seem more able to seirc on points touch- 
ing the philosophy of the laiign«g«. As r4!f;ards power of attention and 
oppltcatioD, I hare never remarked any diffsrenee, and the work done is 
UTiaUy abont equal." 

Again — 

" Tho professor of mathomaties said, ' I have foand the work done by 
bdics to bo tahy oqual to thut of Uio gcnth^mou— /uUy; and it has more 
tlian once occnrrod that the beat scholnr in my cla.is was a lady- Ladies 
are generally thi3 cjuickcat at rriicitation, and will repeat long problems more 
accurately than most of tbe young nifin. I do not know that they biive any 
eounferhnlancing defect. As to strength and power of ftppHcatiou , T know 
[thai the advantage is said to lie with the men, bnt T havo not found it so." " 

Bnt of -what kind of work do these «!;ontlenitm speak ? Wo oonfcag 
we don't fool much struck i^-ith mathcmaticaUnstruction which attri- 
, btilts high value to " repeating long problemB,*' or which, aanrc read 
lin another place, — 

'* Makes the pupils work most tlioron^ihly, though not pro&sstng to cany 
liom lo so high 0. p«iiit im wns iiUemptcd elsewhoro; not, if I remerohcr 
^, beyond a sort of suminary nf Euclid and ({aadratie oquaiioDs." 

What a " summarj- of Ruf,Ii(1 " can he we cannot concoire. We 
ilBnry, howevfT, that at Cambridge it would please the imticrg;rtidnot« 
better than the tutorial mind. Nor do we think that tho lady " who 
stood," as a Mrs. Blann informs us, "before her classes .'wlWng the 
most difficult problems a.s if -the had discovered them, and as if books 
had not yet been invented," would there get many pupiht among 
possible senior wranglers. They prefer teachers who can "discover 
problems'* for themselves. If she did, we fear it wonld be chiefly 
dnc to those " feminine traits of character " in which we read she 
was " aa "rare as in her intellectual cullivation." We doubt even 



Off the Education of fVomen, 



259 



whether the fact that " one of the mo«t talented [we cannot help pro- 
testing aguiHRt this horrible worct — one might as well sa.y aoeetvigmd, 
thillinijfyf, mpolrotifiC] actuaries in the United Stales is a woman," 
would curry much weight in favour of iho professor's views with 
mathemoticul men.* In classics again, when Professor Fairchild 
tellH us that " proper discrimination will evade all difficulty ; " thitt 
•*mjch authors as Plato and Xonophon, Cicero and Tacitus — as noble 
and chaste as the entire range of literature affords — ^may be read in 
mixed daasee without causing a blush," and serenoly add^, " it might 
be well even in schools for young men to keep within such Itrattii,'* 
we cannot help thinking, with all (he respect dnc to the learned pro- 
fessor, that he must be talking about what he does not very well 
onderBtand. We think he miglit find a good deal in his pet anthora 
that would prove rather awkward to reod among boys and girls 
tt^ether; and wo Hhould uncommonly like to know his ^news about 
Aiistophanee. And when wo hear from Mr. Francr that the books 
a»od in American schools are mostly after the model of Mr. 
Anthon'fl, we auk for no more evidence. A good deal of the Gntha> 
sioam of the worthy professor must be simply " tall talk." 

Nest, as to the effects on the bodies of girls. Students of either 
sex arc, it is probable, less robust in Americji than in England. Bnt 
Mr. Fraser leads us to think that girls e«pecially suffer terribly from 
overwork. Thus he writes : — 

" There can be no dmibt that ever^-where, si least in the city bcIhmiIs. a 
SSV«re »tnun is pat npgn tbe physical strength both of teacbers and pupils, 
particularly in the girla schools. ... I remeiuber ver>' dititiactly in a N«w 
York school, nt the ctoBc of oae of tbose littlo addresses wLicli, in my ciipti- 
eUy of a \-ixitor. I wan eo ofloD called upon to mviko in the Echools, in trhtch 
I had endea\'oared to explain oox EogUA system, sod had spoken of ths 
RrowioK prevaleace of the opinion that fire hours of stody properly distri- 
bated oTor tLo day were as much as it wu prudent bo attempt to get out of 
young people between the ages of twelve and cightc«D, a general sigh issaed 
from the class of girls who bad boon Usteoiag to mo, followed by the aadible 
enpreesion of n wish lh>ui eoverni that the same opinioo might begin to 
piBvail there." 

Miss Bluko eouins h little reluctant to acknowledge any neod for 
more care for ^rls in this particular than for boys. She says '.— 
" It Beemy to bo proved that at least a considerable ntiinbor of woiftM WHI 

* Hik* BUka roIatM an wittcilotw whii-li aaona Lo u« U> throw oontiderable light 00 
Uia rtal« of mathmnsticiil U'wIiinR in AmcricaD ictoolB:— "Th© tcaclicr will npiilly 
aumciate rntHi a qiusKtion m the following, and aa hnr voioa c«hk« muio pnyiit vill 
gOBsnllyba taidj- wUh the answfir:— 'Tal(« two; add vno; oubo; take away two; 
■quan; taka awajr odd ; diridabytwo; suMncl twelvtit divide byfiUcen; ditidoby 
tcm ; squatc^ tquare, aquare. Uisa SmJtb ? ' ' Two hundred and firty-EU.* ' RighL* 
And K> on. }n>t as qni<^y M roim can xpnlc" Him Blak« Bsama to faara bean nodt 
atrnck wiLk thin faid. So a.ti> w«—vtth its ittter-nsalMnHMiifBO irons, <o MiM&aUk. 
This WHS at the achool where there w&s a " (int-rate Blaff of taovb eansit lady tauHina, 
whose Actoal nmditi'm tru almost ororirlielnuns." But thoir " BhoorlMuning," -whatoTur 
that may mean, feamsto havo " co-existed wilh a very imp«rfect knowledge of Engliah." 

s a 



26o 



^he C(mtemp<frary Review, 



uudortitko AD^ saccessfullj oompleto the tuime coarsd of stndy that i<< QStul 
for niuij, luid that without more apparent dctrimeDt to their health thui 
RtadentH of the othor sex." 

Again, witli a fine sarcasm, — 

" KxpcricQCA Hecmii, mareover. to fnmtBh many vamingfi that in'XcgliUitl 
ftt least it 18 not well for most prls between the ages of flftd^n and twenty 
to work KA hard as L<i supposed io be nsaal ^vith their hrothers ; thaa(*h, hy- 
tho-hy. how hard th^ boyi^ really do stndy I do not know, occaskmal gUmpsM 
of n'«ulb« bavtug made mc a Httle sceptical on thin jioiitt. " 

Misa Blnko does not nppcar to nndcrstanil honr the pressure of 

work increases us you go on. It is much like climbing up a mountaiiu 

for the first two or three hours it is nil very well ; nfter that Uie 

weaker merabcn* oi" the party begin to be what iithlcte-s call " pumped," 

and drop off. Only one here and there may boost— 

" Itiglit up B<« I^mond ran )te proeSi 
And not n Bob hu toil conf«H." 

Uii Blake very little knows, and we are quite certain rery few 
women could hear, (ho tttrain of mind and body nect^^ary to attain » 
good place in any Tripos. Tt i» no urgumeiit to say that many men 
aeem tc do it with ea.tc and ploa«ure. Look at their strength of build — 
of mind wo meian rather than body, though the latter often goea with 
it — and aee whether it is such a^ \a likely to full to a woman. "WlioTe, 
indef^l, i& thero any experience which should induce ua to think it 
desirable to carry the literarj' education of women in general to the 
same height as that of men P In what branch of the service of tho 
MuBcs have they shown original power ^ In poetry and muaic at 
least they have hnd fully as good a chance as their brothers ; bat 
who among women con be called, except according to the most 
moderate standard, either poeta or composers ? On the whole, wo 
cannot help thinking that the results of tho Local Exaniioutiona, 
crude as they still are, lead us to a tolerably safe conclusion — viz., 
that up to a certain point, say about such as these examination* 
indicate, there is no reason why girls should not receive pretty much 
the same literary ^•ducation as boys. Without going so far as to nay 
that they ought to go to school together, we think it is fairly made 
out by experience that there ia no reason to fear evil &om such asao- 
ciation, and much reason to hope for benefit to both sexes. Of one 
thing wo entertain no doubt, namely, that not only boys and girls, 
bnt men and women, live too little together in England just now. 
Uow this is to be amended is another question. If a change in the 
habits of aciiool can help to bring it about, so much the better ; but 
We are bound to concede at once that it is a subject on which it is 
absurd to attempt to dogmatize. Taste and oven prejudices must be 
oousulted, and an improvement can only come to puss si volet utus. 
Bnt after the Hmit of rudimentary education is passed, we see nothing 



On the Education of Women. 



261 



to intluce us to &lt«r the opinion we Lave always entertained ; tbiit 
is, that studieft conducted together Trill, genenillj' speaking, be in- 
jurious to both. No doubt there are girls — though we believe com- 
panktirely few* — who are willing and able to carry Uieir studies 
ftirlher. For these we conceive no better plan could be devised than 
one which we hear is already on foot. We advert to the project of 
ImUdiiig a college within a ceavouieut dialance of London for girls 
of bixteen and upwards. Tf it be true, as it is alleged to be, that 
endowments intended for the youlh of many parishes have been 
seized for boys only, this fact would constitute a fair claim on the 
oountry for the building and support of such a colluge. On the 
lide of this uUegstton of the ladies let us tuni to an American 
decision cited by Mr. Frasor : — 

•• In Nelson j-. CusHng, 2 Cuah. (Masfi.) 619, decided in lS4fl, the testator 
beqneathed bio property ' for the efitablisttmciiit and 8uppDi-t ai a free EngUith 
w^ool in Newbury- port, for the iuatractiott of youth wherever they may 
belong.' The conrt wati of opinion that the teiitator meant n school for girls 
aa well as boji)." 

Mach, of course, would depend on the wording of tCBtaments. But 
however that may be, wc heartily hope that such a college may be 
•omehow or other built and endowed. Onlv wc trust that it may bo 
as far as possible ofhccrcd by women. Just as only men can make 
men, so only women can make women. We suppose that in one or 
two d«partments of knowledge the emplopnent of men cannot be 
ielped, though if Sir William ITamilt^jn is right in exclaiming, 
' " 'Wliate>'er ic good in a lecture is better in a book," we don't sec 
why thej' might not be done without. But that argument might 
perhaps go to I he abolition of colleges and unireraities altogether. 
B«stdes, we think he ia as much the reverse of right as it is pos- 
nble for a man to be. There is a power in the living voice the 
printer cannot attain unto, and we believe that without speaking 
teachers learning would soon die. So let the ladies have their pro- 
fessors. We adviae them to be careful, in making their choice of 
teachers of either sex, not to be led away by the lyMw fatmis of 
*' European reputations," but to look out for persons who love their 
work enough to be honest and sound instructors, and to this ivaming 
ve will only add a hearty wish that they may succeed in founding' 
an institution which may be abundnotly (ruitfal of " good wives and 
mothers." TiioMAS Makkhy. 

* \it my/fK, beniue it ia remulubla that the wutk of tho Beaiftr fpilt in tfao Com- 
IcUge I>ocft! Kininiimtiona io, u a whole-, •• inferior to IhiLt of the juniors «s U found 
fo Iw the case with Ihs boyB. Wo did not so mwrt wonder at tt m the latter. The 
IFniTamitiM md tho Osfurd A A. woold natundly attmct IhamoaL pramioa^ hoj*. But 
Oitn b ao luch cmm Rt work with Lho giria, aod the bat rather poinU to th« oogoMilii- 
■m that a majority of both boxm nra not (np>iblQ of murh litwur; lulTiiiuwiaeitt aftor 
■ucteen— that, in iihort, their hsiida are better than their ht^ads. j 




OVE or two of tlie topics raised in the previous paper under tlu* 
hcfldiug arc in themselvc«> eren apart irom necessarily hasty 
treatment, so eustly capable of heing- Trrunched and« for purpoaett of 
misreprewutation and ridicule, that it may be as veil to guard them 
by a few sentences at once. 

"With respect, for example, to Culture, it is an obviously easy 
tbiog to Bay that to depreciate culture is only another way of praising 
. ignorance and stupidity. But nobody that we happen to know of 
can honestly be supposed to mean auythitig of the kind. That the 
greatest possible amount of knowledge, with the greatest poflsible 
amount of skill and refinement in applying it, must always be 
desirable, in journalism tui elw*where, is nomething very like a truism. 
But it is surely not desirable at uU codta. If a good, able man 
without culture, and a good, able man with culture, presented them- 
selves for certain functions us public writers, we ishuuld scarcely 
hesitate in choosing the second; but the iirat would most uuque*- 
tionably be preferable to an able, cultivated man with no particolar 
depth of character. Nor is this all, or half, of the truth upon the 
subject before us. Nor docs it meet the cofie to treat Culture as a 
mere qaeetion of the inteilectuol kid-glove against the strong, Iree 
hand. We must try and get it understood that what is offered to us 
under the name of that Culture whose pretensions affect ua dift- 



The London Press, 



263 



ngreenbly is not merely refined and thoughtful knowledge; it U a 
certain result of special training, with a deaded Tooral bins super- 
added. Nov, what is that btnsP In a man liko Mr. Matthew 
Arnold (whose name can acarcely be oniittod in sncfa a connection), 
it may be seen with peculiar distinctness, thongh its impact upon 
porticalnr topics is lightened by the elegance of his mind and the 
fiueni^ of his sympnthiBs as a poet, and it« very existence disguised 
from many oi his rt^aders by (what appears to us as) the conJu-iing 
inconsequence of his method. It may be described in varying 
terms, but it is, to put it in one way out of many 1««8 simple, a bias 
tovfirdg unity, thf temtt of the unit]/ to be dictated by the caliivated to 
the iinctilticaUd. Only this is putting the casein the most favourable 
of all pottsible light:^ ; exhibiting the bias as il exists in a choice and 
beautitiil intelligence like Mr. Matthew Arnold's. Kven under tlie 
meet favourable circumstances, this bias ts propelled towards its end, 
unity, by the estabti-shinent of ca.stes (u fact not new to hlatoncal 
Htudents) ; and in that way ita final tendency is discloaed to us. But 
we arrive at it in practice by even a shorter cut, without waiting for 
historical developmcmts at all. Wliot is the obvious tendency of this 
bias which constitutes the essenti&l tnoti/ of the gospel of culture in 
minds less tine and sympathetic than some cf the bestf" Plainly, Co 
isolation. If a Fntnc^man were to say ( ' ' pQ« ai bSte ! " whispers a voice 
OB the other sido of the question) the logic of culture is segregation, 
he would uLter quito as true an opignuu as that retiihuttou is tho 
logic of crime. We oil admit, most ungrudgingly and thankfully, 
the sorvico renderud hy tho Saturdat/ Remete to literature, it has 
greatly raised tho standards of appreciation in book matters, and if 
it hod doue nothing ulso to deserve our gratitude, that would of itself 
bo much. But the spirit of tho moral criticism to which too much 
ol' tho joumaL'sm of culturo has accuntomed us is acHurcdly one which 
tends to segregation except for purposes of pleasoro. Let any one 
honmtly examine himself, and say whether the hours when he has 
been disposed to make any sort of capital whatever out of the weak 
and foolish points of wdl-intcntionod people have not been among 
the very worst huure of his existence ; whether bo docs not feel that 
if tho line uf teiuhincy wore continued, it must end in moral isolation 
and the total los8 of faith and lovt;. To laugh at what is laughable 
is fair enough, but to make capital out of it iu quite another matter ; 
and to make cajHtuI out of jHvti/i/tritirH of all kinds in the noocssary 
policy of a gospel which has tho bia« we have hinted at. 

Consiflered as a mere protest agaiutit hlaiuncy, tho goBpel of culture 
is welcome ; it is nieivly one force working freely amid other forces ; 
but what it inevitably points to is u despotism of taste, — and 
this and faith can never suboist togetJier. Accordingly, we tind a 
great deal of tliu political, social, and other criticism of culturo not 
only diitit'u^tful of high inutivc, and constant in depreciating ita 



i 



264 



The Contemporary Review, 



value, but distinctly proelaiming its mseuBibility to it. The everlaat- 
ing mark of dirisioD between men nud men is for ever being tlirust 
; under our notice by such chticiitni. Xliere are those who beliere m 
■ no cnt«rioE but that of consequences supposed to be calcuLable.-^and 
' those who believe in spiritual laws invisibly working through all 
actiona and things to consequences utterly incalculable ; from which it 
follows that the moral value of conduct is determinable by its motive, 
00 far as human eyes can judge it, God alone knowing beforehand 
the moral consequence. Hence we tind such criticism more con- 
fident than a jory of archangels would have any right to be m 
matters of the most awful uncertainty. It knows exactly when tho 
notfi of Bcif-aocrifico is pitched too high. It knows exactly when u 
life like Henry Hartyii's has been " wasted," and boldly tells the 
universe in good leaded bourgeois when some of the greatest ctfortii 
of the humiia soul in its anguish of glorious labour have beeu 
*' followed by no commonsurato rosulta." A smug article-maker 
eits down in a well-appointed editor's room (having just had a 
eandwich and el glo^s of sherr}) to locture on old lion like Oori- 
baldi about " ahedding blood." '* Kisxun tcneatia amice f " — we really 
must lug in the old quotation ! Again, it knows the precise value 
of such poor old rags of thought and feeling as that the sea and the 
stars are awful, and that what will happen to-morrow is quite 
uncertain. ■' Wlrnt is the good of telling us nil that ? Wo hove heard 
it before. Why don't you look at facts? 'ITiero's a cubmtin giving 
another man a block eye at this moment ; the strocta are np to your 
aiiklcH in shisli ; mutton is lonpcncc a pound ; and wo can't be 
blithered with the uncertainty of life — there's nothing in it." It 
no-er appears \a occur to the htghly-cultivatod being who foda 
bothered by a. rrrtain c\m!a of ideos, presented over and over ngain, 
that there are two ways of lonking at thia matter. It i?, perhaps, not 
that there is nothing in the icleo^, but that thc^rc is nothing in him. 
There 19 a platitudinarian way of saying that the uncertainty of Hfo 
is an awful tJiing; but when once the platitudinarian line is {idisacd 
in the upward direction, the presentation of certain great pathetic 
thought's can never weary a serious mind. Wo must and will have 
it I'ccogniwd, Srst, that that class of men and women with whom 
lies tlie whole motive power (w<^ do not say the heitt directing power 
always) of labours of goodness in tliin world, is a claat of men and 
"women whose life is, by their very constitution, no surcharged with 
the feelings to which these _great pathetic thoughtji are affiliated, that 
the oxpro&fiion of tlioro by others is a necessary relief as well as a 
discipline ; and, secondly, thut the impatience of '* culture " in theso 
mattera is the brand of inferiority, and not the wgn of any right 
whatever to lecture the other aide :— 

" 8h« is tli» M-oon'l, not t})<i lint,"— 

and she must ho taught her ploco. If &ho will not Irani it other- 



■ 




wise, the knowlcdf^ vUl camo to hor in the conflicts arising from 
that increasing separation bdwetm different classes of society in 
which flhc has so largely nnsitrtLxl. 

Tho second point raised in our previous article, which might be 
made to lend itself to misrepreHontation, in that of the enthusiasm of 
humanity conwiderod aa possible to become a conceit, or little hotter. 
To soy that it would he possible to carry humane ftfort too far would 
bo as absurd as to soy that it would be possible to carry cultivation 
too for. But for oil that, there is a .scriijus meaning in otir lan- 
guage. It is not certain that everj- mind in sensitive enough to a 
Tague imprcsition — to what wc might call the mii-a of an idea, or 
way of thinJting or fe^'^ling — to cjitch at once what wo would now 
hint at ; but surely sensitive minds must have heard in recent 
journalism a now "noto" struck in relation to humane effort. Tt 
is so extremely difficult to finrl the roquJwile tenderness of txprcssion 
for any criticiraa of what is kindly and relieves suficring, that we 
must bespeak a little iudulgence in our attempt to make our meaning 
somewhat dearer. No one would bear to hfar of any form of the 
enthusiasm of humanity Iwing treated like, say, on enthusia--4m for 
post age- stamps ; for it could scarcely get rid of a moral element of 
some kind. But the tiornc remark might be made of the love of 
'woman, couiiidereid an a hontimcnt diiTuf'od io society and iu^ucuciug 
conduct. Yet this did actually become a conceit, from the time 
whca iu the middle agow it Ijocuiuo a sdmdrmavi — and it is tho 
uearest illuatratiou wc can tkiuk of to iUumiuulc a little our meaoing 
when wc hinted that thora was possibly some danger of the enthu- 
aiasm of humanity becoming a conceit too. And we steudfastly 
believe it must do sq, if detached from what we Lave called the 
theological spirit. When it is in&istcd that faith in a good Lord and 
Governor of the universe is thu necossarj' postulate of HUstaJned 
goodness of any kind, people suj^posc, or pretend to suppose it is 
intended to convey tho idea that nobody will continue to do good 
without hope of reward in u future ulate. But this is not what is 
intended. What is intended is simply that without fuith in a Divine 
purpose, guaranteed by Divine symjiathy, with the assurance of 
Divine support (not reward), tlie sense of duty col]apBe;B, because 
life becomes an absurdity. Felix Holt, wc may perhaps remember, 
was of a different ojnnion. Life was worth something to a bravo man, 
he said, even without faith in God, and hh, at all events, the suffering 
around him was real, he would go and du what he coiUd tu lessen it, 
and teach others to lessen it. This sounds to some of us ns if he 
had said, "Tlie sea wants emptying; I have no awHuranco that the 
work can ever be aocoraplislied, or thai, a tub for it exists even ; but 
I will go on as well as I can with a kitchen -a trainer." The most 
rational, or ralhrr the Iea>t irrational, tiling for .1 niiin to do who hod 
no fuith in a Goil would, in our opinion, be to constitute himself tho 



266 



The Contemporary Review. 



apostle of the discoDtinuaBce of the human race. His task woaLd 
not be a ven' feusible one, but it would be qiiito as feasible as Uie 
Idtchea-etraiiier sf niggle. lu sj'ite, then, of here aud there a Felix 
Holt (and sncb people undoubtedly exist*), we must hold to the 
opinion that service of humanity without faith in Ood, if it shoold 
erer become a tchicamierei, will coUajwe into a conceit, And the 
" note " of such a fcktcarmervi has been most distinctly struck in oui* 
journalism. The i*a{f Mali Oasetfe of the 8th of January, in a 
powerful leading article from an iinmlstukable pen, pat the case in 
small compass in the following seuteuceti : — 

"Tb«re is a largo ad^ important cIilsh uLicb, if it wen liOMSl, woald 
8R)-, Yon may talk for e^-or lum] vwt, bit! I do not tov« Hmnanity as 
Uoscribed by you. You will uwcr pvrvuaile mv to love it ; and if >-ua 
Duocwtled in couviuciuij uiu of yuur cnrtUuuJ doctriuvs of Htbvijuu uid 
maluriuUsm, you would tiiiujtly dtprivu uio of Ibu ouly olgttcts wbicb 1 do 
or can rtspect or cure for. If tht-rc i» a Rood and wise Ood, who bas 
created Lhu bumiui race, who guvtims it, aud Las imposed upon its various 
iatiml>cr8 duties towards eacb other, «ur/r n Itimj in a natural vbjfcl uf atl 
wr iti'j!if*t ujlvclioiiv, and a source vf ^uli/ us bt'lutrn tium uml imm, Kftoif 
(wiant/n rdulions lo the samt ilah-t i:i>miilfitc « U'lui of uu'mn /•rtirrff finh 
u(hrr: but if yoa mo right in suying thut this God is a mere human fictiou, 
thea I cease lo core for any meu other thnn those particular persous or 
cluBiias with wboia 1 individually am cuDcerned. Whiit's Hecuba lo me or 
I to QiMiuba V \S1uit do I care whether Yeh did or did Dot cat off tha 
beads of 70,000 Cbiocsc in and about Canton ? Lot ns cultivate oar cab- 
bages and amnso oorsclvca afi well as wc can. /' iril! noi fv/orhntj. 

The italics are oui-s, aud the sting of the passage lifs In tfao 
italicized wonb. The fact is, the noiiou uf »q enthusiasm of 
humanity without devotion to a personal God and Father of men, u 
notion horn in that atmosphere uf crowding and collectivo movement 
itL which we live, is threatening us in much more diffusion than the 
inattentive reader of newepapera aud periodiculH wouM suppose. 
Journalists have to write in haste, and they can only bring to tho 
topic of the huiu' that which they have ready for it in tho way 
of distinct or deep-felt fuitli. How many journalists possess, what- 
ever their ability may be, a religioua failh so tliffiised over their 
other beliefs, uud so distinctly formulated, that tboy con at one 
glance of the eye pigoou-holo any topin tbut comes before ihem in its 
relation to their faith ? Yet without that capacity of pigeon-holing 
ideas at a moment's notice, social criticism, like all other criticism, 
may he mere clever chance work steeped in the atmoepbcrc of tho 
hour. The enthusiasm of humanity is the ntmofliiht-ro of tho hour, 
and without faith in a Divine Ruler it tends as di.stinctly to an empty 
despotifiin of a conceit as the gospel of culture to a dtsspotism of 



* Obs of ths most sotiTdy iind men we ever knew vw ui entire did)«liow— « psn 
athsiM — though hit had teon foimcrly in Chriatiui commuiiiQiii. Hla govdaaa wu «a 
Mhibmtiiig Biwclaolv : liot not Die l«ait exhilaralinf; poiiit sbtmt it wu, Lkut the nma's 
lift wi>» n rvfntitig uommml on tUo toit ol' )iU li< lii.'''. 



T'he Tendon Press, 



"267 



We rafermlj in tlie pi-evioiu paper, to two ideas as having been, 
onue for all cleiKwiced, lii^^Uirk-uUy, iu the liumiin mind by Christ iaiiit}', 
tliougli they did iiut cuiistitutc Christianity. Those ideas were, the 
importance to tlie individual soul of a faith dominating tho life, and 
the i[)iilieuuble rempontuliility of the individuAl soul. We must now 
add a third — namely, tlmt sepunitiou (to use the aocustomcd phraae) 
botweeu the ainner and hid sin, whieh permit-s us to love the doer 
whilu we hate the deed. Whether this element is peculiar to Chris- 
tianity or not, it is through Cliristianity that wc have received 
it| incalculably intendhud, into our Uvea. We cannot conceive 
it existing aeparate from the justificatiou of it which is afforded 
by the theological spirit, and wuc to the community among whom 
it ceasee to be a prevalent idea. Too mueh ridicule has been 
tolerated in our jmimaLism of the religious attentions paid to 
crtmiualii, tou much ridiuule even of the Ingubi-iuus Htories of prison 
ecmTerBions and gallows-sainte by which the ridi(?ule has been pro- 
voked. It belongs not only to Christianity pn;p<'r, with its story of 
the tfatief on the cross, but to the theological spirit, tu decline to ftz 
any limit to inherent possibilities of moral rustorotiou ; and even 
when this mode of action of the theological spirit huppons to be 
exhibited withlugnltriuus urmauiUin uii truth fulneuSf public criticism, 
unless it openly abjures all faith in God and immortality, is bound to 
separate the wheat from the chaff. But wc have too long permitted 
ourselves to adopt a lazy cyQici«m in these and Icindrcd matters, and 
our irrcdigious joomoliuu has done much to create tho moral atmo- 
sphere which makcA o\ir lazitiGss como so easy to us. 

Whenever the old-fashioned idea of separating between the sinner 
the sin is exploded, wo are sure to find, and we do, as a matter 
of fact, find in some of our most, ciiltivated journalism, something 
for wbicli we shall also employ the old-fashioned phrase. It is the 
reverse of one of the attribu1«s of charity, and is happily and snfii- 
ciently described as rejoicing in iniquitj' : words as old as St. Paul, 
and still standing for a very distinguishable fact. It is the spirit of 
the eavesdropper at Margaret's door ; — 
Mff/U. — To-uight Ihi'u we- 



FitUdl. — And what duos it import to yoa? 
Mitph. — I bavt; my jiluosuro in it too. 

, pasaagc so frankly nauseous in its dcriUshncss makes one pause, 
and wonder whether the poet is not sometimes caught down into the 
third hell, and shown things which are not lawftil to be uttered. 
But the spirit of the situation may constantly be recognised in our 
journalism, and, for tho moat part, in ostensibly moral writing 
addressed in a spirit of indignant ^Hrtuc to acknowledged abuses. 
Just OS an car quick in one sense catches in, a poem tho " Lyrical 
Cry " if it bo there, so an car quick in another sense catches at once, 
in manv a colmnn of chaste sarcasm, the Vulpine Cry — tho call- 



.ontemporary Review. 

note of the fo3[o« that, hnvinjf lost their o\\'n tails, arc only too glad to 
bclipve that some othcra have lost theirs. Kven where this nolo 
imhf-ard there is frequently another, only less disa<^rccablc, to hi' 
oatif^ht by on attentive listener. It would be almost ludicrous to 
sigTiab'ne tliis hs the tScavenger-noie — an undertone as of a spirit 
which looks upon wrong-doing as so much inevitable sewage which 
is simply to be kept out of sight : " There arc fho iaimue for these 
things ; draw your cordon Httnittiir^, appoint vour health officers, and 
let us hear no more publiely of the subjeet — it is not decent, 
really." This seems, as we have said, almost a ludioroiis description, 
but it would scarcely he up to the mark if we were to characterir.* 
the spirit in question merely as the Ihienna spirit, though this 
also conveys a portion of the neccsiftry meaning. Call it the 
Scavenger view or the Duenna view, its essential "note" is the same — 
diatmst. It is a view which is totnllv inconsistent with the presence 
of the theological spirit (in on intellig:ent and cultivated, perhape 
even in a dcoplv honest or simple nature), because trust, or con- 
fidence in overruling though invisibly- intermingled currents of 
goodness, is of the essence of that spirit.* 

As it is with entire deliberation that we have up to this point 
been making comments which can onlv be said to describe the best 
theological preas, or those three types of it which we have here selected, 
by negutivea, wt- pass by a natural transition here to the reflwrtioa 
that the theological Hpirit, with whatever mivtakes or crueltieu theo- 
logians may have been chargeable, ts the only spirit which con be 
depended upon for that which it i» the first function of journalism 
to foster ; namely, « icorking jmtnQtisfn Hint m/l nof rvckhs^y ojyprrm 
CM it citart the ground b^re it. In no one i>Iace do we find thi« 
doctrine, the true doctrine of patriotism, so explicitly put in brief 
compess as in one of Wordoworth'B Ecclesia8li(.al Sonnets, which i«, 
perhape, not quite fre«h in the memory of every reader :— 

" UJigratefuI coimtrj', if thou e'er fwrget 

The •ona who for th^ civil right* tiavo bl«d ! 

• • ^ • ' "J 

But thMe h&d Allien for profitlpM rogrtt. 

Had not thy holy Chare h her champinnti hreiJ, 

A]id cUiniN tmm olhvr votMi iiiBjjiriteJ 
The SUur of Liberty to rise. Nor yot 

(Onv« thin wLthia thy bort !) \i (plritttaL things 
Bo l-oA through fLpttthy, or iconi, or (ear, 

Shalt Ihou (by hiimbk'r fhuif'biMMi luppcrrt, 
Hovovrr hardly won or justly daar ; 



* In Tomarklng u|ioa the entDtiAlly theological ch&rnotar of torn* of our pablie 
vrJlinK from pmi* which would, fnr what wo knirw, totally diBcUim tfa« thM>logic*I 
ajtirit, we applied to the caM in quealioo the velNknown truth, thM men do not alwaji 
uft t2Mt lr>gic of thbir own potilinn. llioic who wiah to tea what appeon to u s 
comptotc and amoualy appropdat^ jiuitiAcation of the TGnmrk will find it in Uuj Sfto- 
tmtw uf the Hlh of Jununry, in as nrtidn cntilliid "rrofuaior Huilo)-'a ilidden Cfw-j 
PUyer." 



1 



'The London Press. 



269 



Wlut came from llmrem, to Hoaven bjr natura clings, 
And if dijwwiicd UinuMi tU couim in *h<ut." 

Tliis sonnet is ontitlod " OWigationa of Civil to Religious Liberty ;" 
and the very title bringa us back to tho point from which we started 
in the previous pupcr, namely, tho inalienable respoii»ibiiity of tbo 
individual soul. This ie a religious ideUj of course^ for it simply 
[means that whatever collisions may come of it, all human beings 
tare primurily reaponsibio to One Ruler in such a sense that if any 
particular human being becomes convinced that the law or will of the 
One Ruler contradicts the lawonrill of wU other rulers put together, 
[lie is simply bound to disobey the others^ and do what he believes to 
'Be the will of that One. There are only two forms in which this 
iloB is workable. The first is, that a human being munt go to his own 
I conscience to find the will of God ; the second in, that he must go 
'to some existing infallible source of knowledge for the will of God. 
Of course this second form of the idea in question appears to Pro- 
testants to be absurd in logic, and in practice corrupting. 

Strictly speaking, there is no ai^t possible Ut any human being 
I vhich may not concei^-ably become vital, and demand to be solved 
Ion one of the above principles. But there ih an enormous portion 
lof our existenoe which we provisionally assuuio to be indifferent, 
I and which we all consent, in variouH miy«, and with various degrees 
of cxplicitness or implicitness, to place under the control of external 
Uw. 

Differences in natural character, and differences in culture and 
position incline different [Protestant) persons to various shades of 
opinion in these matter^*. Their tendencies on public and social 
questions in general may be detomiined by the answer to this 
specific question, — To what centre of gravity docs their doctrine 
of provisional authoritj* tend to refer itself? With regard to tho 
school of thought represented by the Noncon/oiimif, the answer 
obviously is — To the will of the individuaLq nilwl, to pure aelf- 
govermnont ; the government being deliberative only for the pur- 
pose of arriving at the will of the people, and executive simply 
for the purpose of carrying it out. Circumstances of exceptional 
danger — analogous to those, for example, of a ship at sea — may 
justify a departure from tlie theory, but that i* the theory. Well, 
a man might pass from turning over the pages of the NoncoHformUt 
to turoiag over the pages of the Spectator, and not be imuiodialely 
conscious of any particular difference of political assumption, unless 
Ur. Bright or the Irish Church question happened to arise upon the 
very pages ; so full of the spirit of freedom and personal conscience 
is the Bptetaior, and so large in its allowances. But, upon looking 
again, the reader we have supposed would become conscious of a 
diffci-enco. To put it roughly, the Spectator is more national. The 
community is something more than so mnny people ; it la a personal 



^o 



The Cmtemporaty Review. 



aggregate. Tbe nation U much more than all the people added up 
together. To put it more plainly : Ulcc the rery strong««t phruM 
in whicb any piou8 ouhacriber to the Noncoa/ormist. would de«orib« 
the organic life of a church, and chan;^ the terma, you hare then 
the Spectator's idea of a nation. Even Ihia is not a Balisfactorj- way 
of putting the C3«e, hut it will perhaps pass. Fair play to every- 
thing within the nation, but the nation supremo, a National Church, 
and in all things a perfect organic federation of interests. When 
we pass to the Otimtiian, we become aware, among other points of'* 
difference, of a distinctly capital difference here at all events. No 
words of our own could illustrate it so wcU as the following sentences 
which we extract fcvm the Qtuirdian of the Ist of Januarv, 1868 :— 

*' When last year opened, we were anticipating the Lambeth Confarenoe.' 
We can now look buck upon it aod accept it tbuikfnlly — in spile of all tha^j 
cavils and all the Hdicalo of UT«lipoait or hostila pens, whicb have inj 
truth done little more than betray tbcir instinctive sense of itA real impor-'3 
laiiCL' — as a great and momorable ^^vpnt. It remains now to look forwanf"* 
to its future isanes. For that it will bnve important isanes we do sot for a ' 
moment doubt. Tbe remarkable documenta which we pabbshed last weel 
are <)uite eoongb to falsif)* the predictioDfl of those who were never tired of 
taUing OS that a Councit of Biabopa could cot possibly do asytbing, becauw 

(hey coiiUd exercise nn leg&l or coercive power. These doetiment^ 

draw tbe lines on wbicb may be constructed a vast confederation of EngUsb- ' 
speaking chorehes, hound together by a eommumty of doctrine and 
wunbip, muntained not by legal compulsion, but by the true unity of 
vttlautary agreement 

*' Oor objections to the euggestu'd central ecolusittstieal conrt of appeal, 
apply with yet grL>aler force to tbu tribuuaU which at present exist. These 
bave all the ovils iuciduut Lo tliHtuuce and iguonuioe ; and Uuiy have not the 
oompletenesK b^jluiigiiig Lo the buhenio coutaiuud in Uio Lambeth Keporl. 
That scheme, with all itti incouvumcnccu, has the great advantage of pro- 
motinf; tinity nf judgm<!nt on doc-triual (jut-Ktions among iill the ehurcfaes of 
our €ommuiiii)n. It will bardiy be bobi'ved that this very eircamstance is 
urged s^ittst it by buHtUa critics. Liberals of thu Enuitian type, such 
aa thu Spcrtiiior reprii^utit», suom to thiuk tbul a man ctumot be a mombiir 
of the Christiau Church uulesti ha m a Hubjuct uf tbu Quuen of tirosl Bri- 
tain ; with tbu gain uf puULical iadependenflB he must, on their showing, 
asBoeiate the Iuhk uf religious fuUnwahip." "" 

There can be nothing strictly new to say to any reader of the 
OoNTR-HFoiLuiY Review upott the usual current of opinion in either 
of the throe journals whose names appear at the head of this article ; 
and in making tbu above qnotation, wc assume that they aro 
familiar with tbe lino taJEen by the Spectator upon the i.Amboth 
CoDfcrencc question. Upon the final question which underlies all 
these difloussioiiB llio writer of these lines adheres decisively to the 
position maintained by the Nonconforpmt — though if he were a pubHo 
man, he would be willing to undergo the severest criticism of the 
OuardtaHf satisfied that it would have too much conscience behind ii 

" * SoRM^tboe ve» a writer.ia the*iW Ji<*U <7«rf(«.cill*d tbd Sptfttttr tbe " Snlurday . 
BHons." 



The tandon Press. 



271 



to do him nnv harm. From cither of tho fhrcc ncwap ap ere before 
us Gxamploa might bo citvd of that cquitublo kmdncee of which we 
have spokon as being proper to the Ihoologicul Hpirit, Justice in tho 
lower forms — or fair play (which is leas thaii juntioe) — you may got 
in plenty nf places, but oquitablo kindnoeR is born uf an interfusing 
tnut; and trust can only justify and support itself in. one way. 
"We might relVr in detail, only that it h unneoeoeary ami would 
occupy much space, to tho parts takeo by our three contemporaries 
throughout the late American war. We might quote ba an example 
of equitable Itindne^, an diHtinguiKliod from what people call justice, 
tho Sprctafo/a uaual treatment of itr. Bright. Or we might confi- 

' Gently refer to any filo of tho Nouconfommt that the reader oould 
hiy his hands on. 5fr. Matthew Arnold, in his usual unnccountable 
way, misanderstaodfl and objects to its motto (eawenttally a fighting 
motto, and he might aa well object to Nelson's watchword) ; but when 
wc roincmhcr that, tho Nbittot^omtttl hoH, perhaps, had more pre- 
judice to dcul with, and in doing some of it« best work, more risk to 
run than any other journal in England, we are unable, for our own 
parts, to refrain from words of the warmest liomagR to its candour 
and fearloasnefls. Of the fiuslaincd ability of its original writing 

j its readers can judge witliout worrls of ours. Tho following short 

Ipassago from the numlier of 4th January, 1868, strikes the key-note 

, to which the journal has always been true : — 

"Tho Now Year, then, like a new-born child, comes to ns with this 
f IftBson— that wc 'bo not weary in well-doin?,' and that in wetl-doing wo 
'commit oareclvrrs unto God, as unto a futhtnl Creator.* tfV hto-fi htil to 
tin n-bat ny fan. and it will iu: aeeffUd meeorditig to ahtU vt hary, and vot m- 
ff}riliU'>toichaf wf have iwl. To be faithful u hrtirr ihiiii to U metv-aful, 
iVdf/, fnthfulnfM u s(«'tv.w. \STiotlicr wo or those who come after us shall 
wiluess the ftUI accomplishment of our desirea, is n matter of very secondary 
I rnportance, in comparison of whether wo arc acting as good stewards. We 
Bee but a very Kttle way before as. Wo know not, nor would it ho of any 
advantflfCB for us to know, n-bat isimoa may bo at hand. Tho new year 
admomebes cs to porauA our end by being instant in soasou uid oat of 
season, and we may be sure that whatever sbiill oomo of that, our reword 
will he as great as it is certain." 

This ta a just and apposite example (the italics arc ours) of the true 
theological spirit, and neither man nor joiimal is to bo wholly tmsted 
in which this faith in not dominant. 

There is often a peculiar simplicity about the Konco»/ornu«(, — (he 
kind of simplicity, bom of high honesty, which makes you fancy you 
I conld hoax it ; and it is exposed, like other Dissenting papers, to tho 
great inconvenience of being obliged to insert *' denominational 
intelligence," in which there is too frequently a touch of the ludicrons. 
The fcjlowing is an example : — 



Nbw i'liut's Sebvices,— Thero were services in 



Clupol, 



■— , on the first day of iho year, of which n corrospomlout gives the fol- 
lowinjj nceoimt ; — 



272 



^he Contemporary Reutew. 



; •> ■ Aecordmg to an Mrangemetit made tbe previoiu Stutday, it mu yto- 
potod to the eoDgregatiou thut tbey ihoald oj their oitn proper nth^ttnce 
[bow eoald tbey do it othenriwwithoQt steidJog?] mnlte a tbanksgiviog 
offetiug to tb^ Lord for mcrciet received tbroogb the pre^-ioas year. At 
Ibo close of Uio B«rviee, the nunister took his stalion at tho cotumoiiioo 
lablu, vrbuu the wliole coDgregatioa. uou, woucs. and cbildreo, began to 
touvc dowu ouo oiele and up tbo other iu one coutiuuoas stream, frtmntiH^ 
an 'ilferhuj to the Lont, KTiip/'^l up in jiiijirr. 'Xhe pastor shook faailill 
with cvt;r>' momber of bis fiock aod wisbvd tbom all a bappy new year., 
Thr tiatf tma evlJ, hut (he htartis of tht firvpif arre trnrw, and tbe resu 
woru thu iiublfi sum, for tbem, of £3i, wbicli waii approprinted to tbe : 
of the <;hiirch." " 

We could quote bits of •' intelligence " from the GHtriititru quite as 
Ukely to provoke a smile ; only we fear tliiit nurnble aufi solemn cou- 
tt'inporary wotiltl be down upon xm for ''joking/' as it was upon Mr. 
Matthew Amoltl, or iqmn tlie author of u Initik wo once happened to] 
eeo reviewed there, for speaking dijires-pw^! fully of the nave. 

Literature culling itself "evinigcliwil " is notoriously, and with only 
rare exceptions, deficient on the "human" atifldnimatie sides. There 
uaually a certain dryness nlwut il. In the Guardian and the Sj^ator ' 
the " human " flavour is very marked ; there is, as we say of wine, a 
"boily" about the writing which is mostly missing in religions 
journalism. This "body," so to put the ca«e, is even stronger, we 
think, in the Guardian than in the Sprcfator. But in a certain 
cquiialile subtlety of kincbiees, und a quietly heroic discrimination, 
difficult to exhibit without an example or two, the Spectator is, in 
our opinion, hopelessly superior to any other journal whatever. In 
no other newspaper that we know of is it so persistently maintained, 
by 80 many and so subtle lines of observation, at unexpected opportu- 
nities, that 

" The ftbaolutc moral right of every human being, Rubject Blwfl}-8 to tho 
BOproma law,* to lead his own lifo, the lift- ho jui3^en to be fiilloat of good 
Ihuigs, seems to be the great forgotten truth of Engtish aocioty." 

Tn tbeesJiay from which this sentence is taken, the opportunity was 
a particularly natural one, for it was upon Dr. Mart' Walker's lecture 
at St. James's JIall. But the same truth may bo foimd set forth in 
the Speeiafor, from week to week, in a thousand direct ways ; and 
always, indirectly, in the kindly moderation of its tone when criti- 
cizing men and books, ns occasion ari^^es. From the same OMay vre 
extract a passage containing a comment which, as far as wc know, 
tlie SjKCtator was alone iu making at the time. Our readers will at. 
once remember the whole of the story, and. that many journal* 
deliberately echoed, or half-echoed, in print, tho " laugh " for which 
a stupid audience may have been almost excusable ; — 

" Di. Mary Wulkvr told a alotj' abuut a patient, dyiag, aa wo anderetand 
h. but, at all eveuts, sovoruly woimded, waQting to kiss bor, and tho very 

* yht " lupnnna law" u tli« "gold«D ruts," wo prenune. 



'The l^ndon Press. 



273 



Qproarious andioTico l»»ghod her into silence. Fbc told it, in fact, very bodly, 
witbftn ont-or-place aUhkIoq to fais oomrnde'e proBoncc luidhia ovm cmacintod 
look ; bnt did any human bfiioR not ntterly ft briit* ever IniigU at this, wlucli 
is tho same story told prupL-rly ? 

Etqt ahc pAMed on her Vky, and came to a couch wh(>r« pinad 

Oiw with a foco from VonfUn, white with k hopo out of mtad. 

Lung she stood and Kcuc«d, iind twice vh*' lr[«d at tbo name, 

Unt two gfent riyatu.! t^'-iin wpri< nil thnt TalUirrd uid ratnn. 

Ooly a tfiir for Venico ?— sho tnmcd bb in pasaion and loss, 

And etoopod to hid fonhoBd and kissed it, as if sho woro kissing the eraiB. 

Faint witli that »trttin of heart, ih« moved oa then to aDothei'. 

SUtra utd Htivng in hi* <li:4tth. ' .\nd dost thou kufTcr, iny brother ? ' " 

From the sarao papor we will extract one more paaaago, which has 
dwelt upon our njetnory over since, on account of its exhaustive 
subtlety of treatinviit ; — 

*' We believe that tbe WoHtem theory of female edocation, which is hasted 
on obHCorantixm, is, on the wbole, tho goondefit and bealtbieHl yet tried; 
that ID abrogitliiif; it lui aristocratic, and Red ideax t<!ud to librogate it, 
wa run tiid mk i>f detitroyintif that Hower of mod«Hty, that nncouiicinuii or 
half-cQnHcioiiti dvliuacy of thought and fv^^liog and oxprexfiion, wbit^b, tlioiif^h 
not as vmIu.iIiIw iw chastity, i«* us beautiful, and an much In bo rov«ranced. 
It was thv lot of the vrriter years since to talk for sotno hours to a feiualo 
medical iniMMiouary, Lbuu engtged with bcr huKbaud iu the civiiizutioa 
of a wild triije. Hhe vest a lady, if eulture could uutku ouo, oud was doin^ 
the work of ti St. Pan], — was civilizing au entire people lui uo toan ever 
could have done, and was in roluni followed by a lovo nad reverence almost 
painful to see, it was bo liko that of ooUcy dof^s for a fibephcrd. But 
sho Biiid things, could not L«lp sfiying tl]in|^.>t, which one would be ver>' 
sorry to hear cnrrcmtly said in drawing-room!< — as they are. for instance, 
said, if Miss Cobbe iind a hundred other obsorvers may ho tntntod, in 
Italian dnl^^'ing-^oo^ls. liut that holy ignorance or retiir^^nco it* not worth 
guarding at the expense of a career of nsoftUness or philnnthropj-, and the 
woman who tbnist<i it aside becanKo her nature retimrcs that particmlBr 
form of warfare with miserj-, or becanso she ia specially fitted so to war, or 
beeanso it in to hi^r the readiest path to independence, has as tnach right to 
reverence in her course as a man has." 

This really Icavca nothing to bo said upon the subject to which, it 
relates, or upon kindred snbjec.(«; it states, in a touching and effective 
shape, the tirst principle which applies to all similar questions. AnA 
how kindly, and yet with how evident a sonse of tbe humour there is 
on the surfocv of thosti topics I 

Because it it, in tls tone, closely alliod to the foregoing ex&mples, 
wo cite tbe brief passago which comes ntixt : — 

" Without going the leogtb of the cynical mondistg who hold that we are 
punished fur our ^ood actions in this life, and for our bad in the nest, we 
may probably nay that there is a shgbL balance aysinst the chnncefi that 
averajjo virtue wrill he prosperous, and u hi(;h pndmbility that heroic virtue 
will bo unfortunate. The man who is bent fitted for the game of life ih one 
who will never infringe ronvontiona! morality, never govern hiniaelf by 
a hi^er standard thuu his uuighbeurs, and never omit a ohanoe to his own 

VOL. Til. 1 



27+ ^^^ Contemporary Review. 

radvimtage. Men of this Eort, adaiirablc for common life, am apt, it ia 
jinMi to break down under cxeeptioiul deuuuids on thoir strong ; and in 
[fiuB waac it is i]aits probable that society would Booa bo dissolved withoat 
I ft eortuB admixlure of niornl principle." 

Tbu comos from a recent review of a ladj'a novel, and is as good 
aa a hnndrcd esncrfplcs of the spirit which dooi not rejoice in iniquitr, 
and can jot keep ita eyes open upon the faefai of life — this \asi a 
qoolity, of course, most t-ssontial to u journalist. 

We have picked out parages from tJtic Spectator that had fastened 
theouelvcs upon our memory by (wliat we look to be) their intrinsic 
and peculiar merit ; bat the mont Htnking inKtance of eqitilable 
«ubclety of kindncM that we can remember in that jounud* and 
indeed the most fitrtking we ciu remember aii}'where, occurrod in 
June, 1865, in an article about John Clare — a review of Mr, Frederick 
|3fttrtin'ii memoir : — 

l*ho 8ua« cfauMlerif^ic of profonnd im|iMMibalily wbieli Clare sharad 
'with ali tmo poets, lof^tbcr witb limt oxeoadia^ belploasness in eoaToying 
a trae eoncepUoa of bia own feelings ftud wanta lu the world, which ha ez- 
in a far higher dcgroo than moHt puuta — in f^Teat measiire iio doubt 
of bifi defeeti^'o oduentiuu, luul thu UDcollurRtl nnturo of tlie com- 
of bia boDiu — houotad biui Uimugh life, randunnf* lum in sotae 
meaauru n riddle trvon lo tboito who wore diepoaed to udmire him, and 
tfatowiag bini porpctuaUy intu duepundoncy, when be found that neither hia 
feeliagB nor Ium wonbi wore nndinitoud by bitt fritnds. Clare was not in 
bia way deficient in a certain strmifttb of cbiLmcter. Ht« prid4> nnd hatred 
of deptndence w«ro, for hi^ position in life, very rcmarkabk- ; wm) bis pei^ 
tinaciiy in carrytnf; ont anjthini; bo hnd once detenoimxl on. ewn tluoagh 
a whole aaoeoMioQ of diMbvurtenini; ciroonutaBees, wus f»r muro tbAii bvlangs 
to most impressible poctitr nMtuies. Bot what strikMt us so mticb in reading 
bis life ia nol bis wnnt of prscticaJ force, but his gn^ai Esilnro in tbe kind iMT 
practical force requisite for eanuamiicittinK with Lho world. SometiuiiK or 
other always parxlyxed bis tongue at tbe moment when he sbuuld have 
spoken, and miide bun speak when he did sptrnk eitJier in a way ur luder 
cireaiastaiiees which cnuoLui him to be nwiuuderstood. There was a gaii 
between him and bis fi>llovi--crt3ntarefl which could be paased only from their 
side, not from hia. . . . There never was n puet who. vritb so deep and true 
a fecUtig for onivental beenty, wss so unable to realize it adequately except 
in objeebB to %vbich inihrithutilii be bad grown attached by long himiliarity. 
Iheio caa be uo doubt that biit madness was greatly accelerated, if uot 
broufjbt on, by the wrench of n removal of only Mfw mlks from tbe bat at 
Holpstoii, ill which bo bad lived all his Ufe, to tbe pretty Utile cnttage at 
Northborough given hiiu by Earl Fiti-.wiUiam. For weeks after bis new 
cottage vas ready he lived iu positive Urtvr of the retnovnl, and actually 
weni Qvar to Miltou Poxk to tell the Enil hia Luabihty to move ; but was 
dinoaded, as usual, at tbe crilicikl moiubnt by the prc»imre of friendfi. and 
still Btore probably by his own consciottRDesa of incapacity bo make his 
feeliaga understood. . . . There is no qncatiou but that the beauty of Clare's 
poetry inoroused as this gait between bini and the rest of the world widened. 
The aniversal or gCDoral Bide of bin intelliicl was so little colUvitted, that the 
eflbrt to tranidate himself, as it weeo, in thought and practice into the world 
in which others U%-ed, eubtraoted too much from biti small fund of intoUectaal 
strength. There was no real egokism iu his mental iniialatiou. A being 



7he London Press. 275 

mOM deeply ^nrappvil up ia hlti aQi^UoDs — tUuugU liiey wdrc too often 
«ff«clioni» little retumtf<1 — ficarc«ly vvvr vxitiled. Tbnt which bv lovei) both 
in nnture aud buman lifi>. be ch«riiibe<l \\-itb thi> ubsorhiDg i.>ntbaBiHt«ta of a 
poet and a child. His iDBulntion therefore Wii8 Himply a kind of nuulal 
inarticulateness, a want of power to see in vr/K-r MoM/mniViW objwls the 
sane ^junlitica which he really loved so deeply ia them, and whiob, with a 
littlo iiiorg of Lhat muDtid claBlioity which cnriy ctittaro ^Ivcs. he woald have • 
400Q luariiud to see iu nioro uuiversal aspcctg, and to he able to separate 
h-om tho particular foiua iu which ho bad firnt learned to lovo Lb«m." 

It certainly owiured to us ut the timo we vend the ioregolng 
flentenccs, and it still seems true to oa, that we never read oritioism 
of such deb'rato, perfect insight. And it ia this Rubtlety ok' equitablQ 
kindness which we should fix upon. 08 tAe c^uuuctenstiQ of tho 
Sptctaior, if we were limited to ii single observation. 

It may be over so true that this subtlety is not a necessary appen- 
dagG of the tlieoloj^ieal »pii-it ; but we ma)* at Ico^t be permitted to 
aak vhnt would be tho probable consequences if tho some Aubtlotj 
were to be cxcrciaed in jonmalisui without tbo chocks afforded by 
that i^irit. Thcywould.wedaretoafiinri.bodisastrotuinthceaEtreine, 
sloping down to gulfs of cynicism undreamt of yet in our literature. 

Jlcvcr praise another except ia uividinm, says sorao wiseacre ; but 
the counsel docs not concorn us. We have uo right to jkraiio, and, 
in these papers, have not intended to praise. Our desire has been 
to call uttcntioa to certain tendencies (muoU under-estimated we 
think) in journoli-im ; to tbe relation of the theoLogi<;al spirit to 
patriotism, the appivhooaion of the truth in passing events, and 
sustained effort for the good of others ; then to olfcr a few words of 
homage, not prune, lo three weekly joiuniJs whicli bear much of the 
brunt of the battlo iu the existing opposition to the tendencies in 
qucfition, and which uro yet w-jdely ditferent from each otbor in 
specific ehuractcr. Of coarse newepupcrs, Uke men, have specitiu 
characters. Krer^body muiit havo been struck w^ith tho manner in 
which distinguished names t^plit oif to opposing sides in the Cyre 
oontroVL-r»y ; and yet uolhing happouod except just what wus to bo 
expoctfid. We cannot recall a singlo name that we did not find on 
the side which wo should, beforehand, have iustautly and decisively 
ttssigued to it. Wu found *' (heologiool " peuplo taking a part which 
dearly belted the Ihoological spirit ; but there was not a aiugh iutiMtce 
of tho kind whit-li oiio's pi-evious knowledge of individual tcmjiera- 
loent and Ikuiuing did not cnablo one eouhdcntly to prc-dict. The 
case is the Bsme in journalimn : when wa once know the general 
ohanieter iiiid the K}>t<i;ifii; chamctei-iNiic, wo can mako tlie neoeseary 
allowance or nMrtJlieation, predict the course thiii will 1>e taken, and 
retain our faith. Nor da we shrink from saying that a nonscieulioun 
activity on ilie wrong side will nlwnvs in tho long run bo found to 

T 2 



276 ^-^^ Contemporary Review. 

hare helped the right ndc. Ijct us not fear any fair fighting that 
hfljE bith in it, however hard the blowis ; but let us dread, lilcc knoura 

[jterdition, vhutfrrer point« to the issue that there is nothing worth 

[fighting for. \Vc cannot help drcoding, also, the teoching, direct or 
indirect, that there iii not Infinite Sympathy at our hocks. If there 
ore any who think there is something to fight for, and yet that there 
ifl no personal Power that watches the orent, we &iiy, ho that is not 
against ns is for ns ; but the battle cannot and n-ill not go on upon 
iMe terms, and such fighterfl do not know their own colours. But 
in the meanwhile let un know what wp are about. We lire in ticklish 
times. The working-classes, having l)eon long and unjustly excinded 
from (a certain form of) political power, are now admitted to it ; but 
it remains to be seen whether we sliall not be punished for onr 
previous injustice to them, by being taught, to our coat, that their 

'•dvent to power will bo far from an wttiieffintr gain to liberal ideas. 
The writer of th«e lines firmly believes that that bitter lesaon 
awaits us all. It was no part of our duty to postpone — no, not for 
lUi hour — an act of justice because we dreaded the immediate con- 
sequences ; but for those consequences we may surely prepare as well 
as we can. Tlio question of national education, settle it as we please, 
comes late in the day — we have a long journey to go before we reach 
result*. And in the meantime? "We have iilr^;ady said what we 
think arc the dominant tendencies of the hour. Much depends upon 

'the individual outlook, uud opinions iiiukI difier; but what icf think 
wo SCO is boforo tho reader. A moftt threatening lendenoy to mere 
crowd -worship, or waiting on the will of uu in hers. A Kcftimmirm of 
humanity withuut fai|}i in Gnd. Au itieliiiutii)n tu cnu^h individual 
ros|H>nsibility out of sight. A dispoHitioii to treat individual faith a» 
of no great conspquonep. A tendrnity tu ijromote a st-gregating deft- 
potism under the nunic, or l)y the path, ttf Cidturc. The importation 
of tho conceit of seieutifiu certainty into a new and alien njiherc. Now, 
tho natural enemy of nil these teudi'mties appears to uh to ho tho theo- 
logical cpiril. or. as we luisr defined it, the spirit i»f trust, believing 
in a Divine Purpose, and leaning on a Divino ejTiiputliy. And we 
havi! taken the liberty of adopting, nitlier as ti'-vt-wordn than any- 
thing else, the names of tlii-ee " uld- established " representativo 
journals in which that spirit is the controlling power, because wo 
dosire tn indicate the rfirrrtmi in which we see most to hope from tho 
press in (lie ilifHi-tilt tim4>s which, we fear, arn ciiming upon us. If 
loss has been said of the journals themselves than of tho conflict 
between what they stand for and what they oii[»08c, it has boon 
becatine the more serious purpose of the foregoing paragraphs 
crowded out the teas serious. 



278 



The Contemporary RevKW, 



TWn B)Im Um fair, with ib« loag mUtn kur. 

Aad b«M* lo* mA fat Um ou-Imkb's «aar. 

Wlkfl* laMa «u trinaft IIm raddsr-libdM ap. 
Aid Maa* loMed Um wmv-akiB wid Ml Car tW cap. 

Hlipp«4 tlown fcrom Ibv aUrm. oa bia ■boitldtr ui Bnu 
Aim Dpcd o'«r tb* cbisglc uiit op (hnnq^ tW fiuD. 

Willi flloM-knit brow II*niUei tnn'd 

Afiaitirt Uia f[lM» thai a'«r him Inini'd, 

And ^>ncad Uw tsndoti Qioi wremtb'd hiB bow. 

" — 'Tin Urn Iws fuid tuo Mv^j) fur him. — Sotcw of jaa go 1 ' 

And tlu) rttit leapt iluwu ixoia Ktam aod pruw, 

Bcfora tlw bahaal of ibnt doM-knit brow ; 

All MV« Injion lud OrpbcntM ainiir, 

Wlin Htiick by thd ubiii with u heart of their own. 

— OrnbtitiN tiUI um) luton yuting, 

WaitiHK ^'Itilo llic f{"^<l "''ip Hwang. 

TI. 

I) (it witli wblUi liiiiliH fleil nnd iipiirkling fe«t 
y DiiiiR Hylaa dud up tlio nvulvtH b«d; 
And wo eunld diMcuni, 
Ah itbor«ward Ibu Ar^u Kwung ber stttm, 
Kow in fligbt iiM Htriuglit ax a utartlcd hern 
']'hi> boy n,ni\ hi* pubadow west skiimauji: tbc foni ; 
Wbrro Lbu iiiuuulaiii'ii ibuik uiu jilou^b'd u»liuit. 
An with n Hburo of odamoul. 



TO. 
WItb burst of cbflor w« foHnw'd rnin. 

For DO DIM vtay'd wbon UoraklcK bndi- : 
Aa bxatfleB afl«r tbo b)v«rol strain. 

Wo follow'd tho darling of nil ovr crow ; 
Aad fn raw througl) the ahndc 

Of wnlnr.) plnmod in tbfi foontniu dew, 
And mnnd i( in trrinnlona motion dauniijt. 
Tht boy Aud bis oru like a sunbeam glancing. 

run 

Saw of fool from toH vrvrn wo. 
Ptiiy from Ih' nproariotts •«« : 
Still wfl tAMnod to he«r its roll. 

Still tbe tnmblod pnlsp cf on-att, 
'rbntUbiu)! ovrr dt>«>p and viiiwl, 

Hi^ld witbiu our bou-ts its tuuttnn. 
Uufif^d and ulccp tbc rhminol wound 
(IVr p(.il>blrs oif agxto wntOT-jn^mnd. 
X\ 1,1 ri' th» WTOlrj- toTTtnl'* crnnt rtrtdc 
Hnd '•|>i;ni<1 \u wpwV v '"miain'fl stAe. 

tttit N xniiiDKT ).trt>ai», lii. . doe, 

VieaX tfanadng tbe roek-nbb d lab>-nntb tbroogb. 



Hyias. 

IX. 

Toppling, or baluiccd, or flung oa an areli, 
O'er Uu3 hiivoti liim uF Uie walar'a mardi 
Tho eiBgB u] a ruui of glory luy, 
XbUow, and purple, and anlmn i^tiy, 
Wliilti many h keenly- twiokling sptir 

And frosty edge of crystal voLa 

Shot thro* the gloom of tboir cloudy grain ; 
And earth-fast ninnoltths fen- nnd far, 

Set liko tnslts in the jaw of the Rorge, 

Now snmmordry from its frothy snrgc, 
Bhow'd the storm-wrntb of its wuitor war. 



279 



Through hart^ferns drooping the cLsmmy tongue, 

And wild fiow'rs waviug Ibt; xtorple bead. 
While the marble Kbelv«8 to our foot«t«ps rung. 

Steeply we follow'd ibjit silver thread, 
Here and tbeni a biistu scooping, 
Ueru aiid thure iU) current loi>ping 
Kuuutl iMJine boulder lon-unt-liituda 
Over sand from crj'stal sifted. 

Slowly we clomb in Uie maze it led. 

We knew that a hnitut of the nympba watt there, 

For over erei>~ sJab-piJed stair 

Each broad-wobb'd tcnf that swimB the air, 

Each fairy blndo that boada tbo dow, 

A wft%-ing mactto of verdure threw ; 
And wild-wood vjnos thoir tendrils spnn, 
With clusters purpling tDW*rds the sou. 

XI. 

At length we enter'd — the emjity um 
Idly ciist iirnoag tho fem 
Made no sign — we were alone : 
Whither, ali wbitber, was Hylaa fiown f 
On the foontaiu's silent face 
Oazod wo long, — it bare no trace. 
In iX* glassy poo] wc pcer'd, 
Hopefid Usteu'd^while wv fear'd. 
Xhoro we waited tiD the son 

Threw tba mountain's shadow far, 
Fortist-crdstiid, deep and dnu, 

Then wo fiU'd the water-jar. 



By coi]jpice and crag wo wauder'd toi^t, 
Shooting the eaveri)!! and cliflii among. 
We chanted a snatch of bin favourite BOUg, 
Till oar voices grow feeble that eret were strong. 
Bat into dead ulonco each nbout sank down. 
Aa a pcbblu Binlu in the fountain throws. 



28o 'the Contemporary Kevtew. 

" O honey," we caJled him, " where art thcra gone ? " 
And taoght cmr nad talc to ea«h DAk of the vole. 

Till the sun nank down and the moon ont^hone ; 
Tbcui we Inid Ulio a apell hiB name on the feD, 

Aurl citU'd njMm echo to [xaas it on. 

xm. 

But Berakle> oome from the slaugbter'd game. 
With his brow all cloud and bin eye all 6ame, 
With how-Btiittg braced and with arrow nick'd, 
As thro* thtt copse his track he'd prick 'd, 
As ibo' he honied still the door; 
— Hot oh, in our looks there was heavy cheer ! 

Ho Cftird to tho boy who was all his joy, 

And tbu iiniiiv wbicb tach one loved who knew 

Id windy cirelcH wider flew. 

'Mon^t the rifU where the Voice-Nymph dwells 

Fell tho dinted iiyUublet<, 

Khiirp and clear. itH the woodman's ittroke 

ItiugK ou the bolo of the forest oak. 

For nlout; by the Pontus' fthore 

The Beared Roa-iuon&ters henrd his rotir, 

And old Oceanag caaght the sound 

Where bis current swings tho earth orouod. 

XT. 

But the sounds died out iu tho hollow sky, 

Ah a watch-fire's sparks, when tho mom is nigh, 

X)ie in embers uiiheu groy ; 

Then down like a butilud bouud bu lay, 

"Whilo one — tbe last and loudent ycU — 

Like the c^raub of tbo oak neatb Ibu parting slroko, 
Thuud'riug down and down Ihu dell. 
Sbunk the mounlain'R pinnacle. 
Then daiibud on earth he profltrntc Iny, 
WbtTt' tho Ruds wero wet from thf fountain's play. 
And drank with the thirst of a beast of prey. 

xn. 

Bat n soft whisper thoro. as he stoop'd o'or the brim. 

Like the shadow of a voice tteem'd lo fall on him ; 

Stirring the imago within hi» soul, 

lliiit ripplu of sound o'er the stillness stole. 

And ho spake not a word, but soeoi'd to know 

lliat his boy was lost in the foontaiti's flow. 

Then without farewell, or uessngo to tell, 

To the comrades whom ho loved so well. 

Be was gone through tbo glen and was lost on the fell. 

xvn. 

Tbronijh knitted abadea, over rock-slabs piled, 
HMvUy down to the sea wo filed. 



Hyias. 

Soon ai BUppur via were sot ; 

Umigur aui3 f^'icf in Biletice mot ; 

Hanger fltid. gri»f tAirJed yet. 

Cku>erlos& tluuiks tci tbo gods we quafl"dr 

No uuti ovBT the -nnne-rup laugb'd. 

Witl) Uj« hretjze h^bind and Uic moon before, 

And nn empty plncc nt tbc midmont oiLr. 

Wo hoiBed lip the flail «nd wc left the shore : 

There wilb wind «i)ougb to have vinnon-cd whcftt, 

So we hoiged it up with tack aad sbeet. 

xvm. 

Oar boarls wero sad imd our words wcro few. 

And the moaning billowii eecm'd to ruo 

Our fitripHiij; fair and our comrado true. 

For wlio. liku Horuklix, the Htroko touUI bolil, 

With K(jimro-H(?t chesl all Hiiitiw-srroU'd, 

When th{! w.a tiroke shnrt anil the our blade roll'd ? 

And who, hke Hylas, the cup could ponr, 

TVhilc the wind like n Btreatncr his long hnir borci 

To freshen the work of the wetiry our? 

xix. 

Bat IIkhd oar trance of griof we broke, 
For Orpheos' voice and Ijto awoke — 
OrpbcQs, whoBc vision-bnuntod eye 
Could all that is or wafi doscr>' ; 
With lifted voice a strain he sung, 
Of Hylftfi fair, and bright, and young, 
While ronnd tbo listening dolpltius hung. 



2SI 



" Oh loBt, «ver lost to tb7 eomndcti true, 
Fair u a miuden, and fr«fth m the dew ! 

Tbe Naiadit. who rise in the fountain foam, 
Wrought with a spell in Uieir crystal well ; 
And caagbt thee, lull'd by sleepy charms, 
lu tbe woven snare of their milk- white anus. 
Tbou wafceet beneath the wnler-dome, 
Yti in the river-depths of earth. 
Where world-wide eireams have ceotriU birth, 
^^tre vaulted ripplvs the BUubcaoi tnru, 
;Vud Kriduuus rulls from his amber uru. 
And Tngus bidulh biii golden head \ 
On pearly Hl»b, nud coral bed, 

Tbiiu risoi^t up to the ncetiu'-£up, 
Frow uit for ever rBviahetl I 



** Oh, lost to the love of thy hero crew. 
Fair na the rnschud thut dips in Lliu dew. 
For the Naiuds have wtiued thee all too well, 

hn& won thee for over with them to dwell 1 



282 The Contemporary Rcrviirv?. 

Aud aow uur momory t'uduH fruiu thou ; 
AjiU Uic vivid ruob uf tbt; rulling sea 

Evur wiuies l)on<>utb tlio Bpall, 
Drop ]i^' drop uu ear aoil eye 
KviT riUling dreamily, 
S;i]>pin(; drop bj- driip thj love 
For the Imatiii^' heart of tho world above. 
And blnnk obliiion wnips her veil 
O'er tlie horo-qaest of tlio onr Aod siitil. 



xxn. 
'* Faint grows tbo form of the good ship 
Her faigh-peak'd stern nnd bcr swiui's- 
As ill tbo mist thnt Acuds tbo sea, 
Forms into pliimluuiti fadu and flee, — 

A mumuut dim in thick iiir kwuu^ 
Then are lout beneath onr l«e I 
Such are wu and onra to tbtte I 
Tbe goodly ship on her courBO flhall mn. 
As tlirongli tho sky goes the rolling Ban ; 
Biit tlioii art 1o£<t, and never again 
Shalt gladden tbo eyes of godti and men.' 



uow, 

noek prow ; 



Su sang tho Beer, imd (be night wind fell, 
Lull'd by thf uutt.>s vf the wiLrbled epi^Il ; 
Tbeu on our oars we caught the tuue, 
As forth they flosh'd bouefiih the moon ; 
And tho white- wcbb'd sail wns folded soon. 
We know wo were plonghing Ibc magic water 
By the drcttd islt of tbo snn-god's danght«r; 
For from our prow, ae it clave tho eurgo, 
The spray fell in fire, like aparka fixins a forge. 
Along the nca, a league astern, 
A servient meteor seem'd to burn. 
And every oar-blado's plunge vftia track'd 
By a sparkling catiu'acl. 



Bnt when we toode tlio Colcbian atrand. 

We saw o'er Ihv »urf Henikies Kland, 

With f<looiiiy brow and with bow-cliarged bond. 

All afoot, with liftwi eyvs 

Guidiui;; hie ntvpa by the stars in tbc skio8, 

Ue wander'd atraight a» an arrow Qiqs. 

We slew the wiso dragon, and won the bright Fleece, 

Aud turn'd back our plow tow'rda ooj own loved Qreece ; 

Again he sat at the xoidmost oar, 

fiat saw Ixis Hylas never more 1 

Hbkbv Hatuah. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



L— IHfiOLOOlCAL. 

Lift in ikb Li^hlvfQid'4 \V<^d. Senooiw bv \Vu.u.u.i, JiOiui AtwuBiSHOP or 
TOHJC. London: John Murray. 18«8. 

THE cATMt of AreHbiabnp XfaoToran, liko that of most men vhn hava bMn 
Ter>- rapiiUyouDomsful, KrinK^witli it u cortoiD wosoof diMtppoiiitmeut. Hia 
BuapUm Lecturer on tho Atnitei^ioni nvo promlso of powor to enter into 
aad BjrmpatliiMi vitJi Haa donhtn and perpVexitim tJist vox moti's miotls. Tbon 
inw a iridth nbout them whidi made men hope tliat he vould take bis plaoa 
among tbo Ittuders of reli^ioiw thought Ju Kogliuid, recoiualfi ctmflioting oLo* 
ment^, "bno^ forth out of hie treaAure things now and old." InteUoctnitllv, 
hid later work hM boou below tliu lovol of his earlier. LnneniiKo and thought 
haTo become more convxitional. Nothing comparn'blo to tno Hampton Ii»c- 
ttir«e, or tho "Outlines of the Lnwn <w Thought-," hiw appeared «nee his 
promotion to hirfi placoti. But it would be wrong not fo ackuoirl«df^ that tho 
Arcbbiahnp of York hue <if liiti* taken np. wilh manifcut cAmestnom, a work in 
wbi<^ be mny do much to restoro to tbn Cbarch of Englnii<l tho loot uSection of 
tho gmt maasM. of tfac Sn^&h p»>pIo. Pcwmcmbrrrd of the cpiseopnta (if 
cmy) bftVD shown to clear a uoroeption of tho ovils whiob thiutitoii our •ooial 
life : few hiivo come forwam ao TiMTOiwiy to oppow thorn. If there is leM 
sympulhy with thiiikep! at cit^or extroiae of thiwloKtval thought, there ia mora 
for tin Kuffurtngfl of tho poor. No nmn (not oroii ifr. Hauri«e or 1&. Kngfllev' 
in \as vuxlifir dill's) ha« spukou etrougor words ogRinst the sulfish Luxury whiioa 
cauH^ii or 11^'gni.Tato-t nr nf>plecbi thti.io (rufToriiiRt. Ho ha^ gitit hiiiiiielf at the 
head of the eaniDHt bund of rofonnura (many of them v«ry far romovud Qrom 
hiM ovTTi thei^lcwioa] oonriotionH} who iiro t>Qut on niiikiiig' our Pi^r-Tjftw aystera 
eomuwhat less urutul or kn apathetic tlian it is at pn-eent. 

In tho Toluino now ba»foi« lu Archbi^oi> Thomson spvaks in tho aDina 
etniin: — 

" Half-cNo Tuid'TT tho lampliffht, ^ nuaed smUorae, whom a miojiubI capitnl has uaod 
and naat away, lu thiiugh God £d notnake thosi, gUdo about q\\x tOstt^t and ahaina sa. 
XIm workman tlist dut)i» oh, or thitt fubion* tlie pretlj jawel that is to glUton on a 
roand arm at a iini^na court, you tnnwd htm ftoro his two room* bacauio you wantod 
a acbkr bitildiihr ) lio found ono r\>oin afar off, and then, ttifled and doproMod, h« ftU 
rick, and he ii in \ wnr1(h<int>t ni-k-ronm, und hi> hibM arfl in a worlcnouso aarMry, 
whtT^- welUiifiiniiur peoplci will hoDti«(lj- try tu f^LV* him such tending aa ia coaaistont 
wilb camfal n-proMOn ni tlir< rab.*. lie i« in daof^'r of pawiitg, ftom ona u( thoia to 
whom wo owe honour, for Chrial'i itako, Into a thing, into ono of the bfokea pot- 
riterda of our great foort. broktm by accidoot and swept off corafally, that tho imA may 



2K4 



heijontemporary Review. 



eliU go w«U and Metnij. Then, it ir n titci that in thii capitnl, fill of mo&t and Iuxot}*, 
oiitfi tlo »tar%'«i to dmlh. Ont- rouU that thi^v diu of NOtUL' ailment ' aggnraXed hy ex- 
|ioaiir« tmd wiuit 'tf fotxl.' That ia tiie t«clinif?a) phrase. We may ny God maila tham 
to live their Umnj out ; xaf>a. tot llium di«." 

Ami lie Keen, hh Mr. S«>1«}' wiys in the [laper which ve noticiil IiiHt niontli, lluil 
ulmRgiTing in but "pnlchvork;" tJiat tlio nation, and the C.'iiiii'di tu hvlpiagit, 
mnst ^nipple witb tne vridvr ijiieKtioti^ vhirli pn>«H on iL 

** I-IdtiMtion, n^imil nnd r^nul lavs, public hraith, the irtrrcourM of nationa, ttu) 
rrformation of i-rimiiuiln ; thuia ia not une uf thoif siibji-L-ta in which tho miiiiatcr of 
tvlif[lon tvna not an equal iolt-rect vith the wicial rcfumier. Thp t'hriatian minister 
cannot ilo hiij work ugion an unUught lirulivb miml. Eniarting undor tht' uppruaion of 
a Kill Kovcmmcnt, mniiliit cvrty infliii^re? d<'pn-(win(; to hrallli. and aunonndts) 
by a criminal or vit-ioiu no]mJnu(JU, TliB cure uf Ihtjuo t'vils, tlica, ia un eaaential 
DODditloil of the Chmtiim Ivavbor'a tocovm ; but it cimnot stnud iostr^id q( Cbriatiaa 
tntli." 

Nor ix it Iakm to hin honour that he K{»^akK pUiinly a»d wilJiiHit xhriiikiiig of 
evils whicli the cntivciitiiinal " diguily uf tho pulpit" for thu saotA port never 
ineatioiis to "turn* polita:"— 

" ' Am I my br«tIiM-B fcc*rrr r * Thi- young git) canning homo her irarir acea aa Bh« 
{laxHf'A the ytitiof^ mas, wIiiah locilii anil drt«ii pTncliiim htm to ber ftioliah oyea tko ^nJlt 
darling of a higb^ k-wiitvi vf lil'i-, Inaning nualy on the nil, and wilhuut h thoiisht of 
ahitDU', loiaiiig tu and fro Lbu Joke and lauf^h with ono whom lifi- ia a publie uauno. 
Onns sho siva it with a aho^lc. 'IVico aho hkm it; thrice >he bow, and custom now haa 
•talod it, and thcr« in un ohork. Ily>And-hy wfirk ^^ira alark, nnd hiuif^or preaaea. 
8ha can no longnr ljc«r llir ]iuuii<hiiiHnt which aociiity impuHiii, iu> it mRnui, ou innocenoo, 
Sh« lifts the ktch luid t.l<!p* out, to ictiini no moru to any hom>i> where industipr and 
rurily dwrll togpthrr. And whut i» that old nlory to ym^ An yon your aiatt^r'a 
K<T|ii*r ? Sliiy you not unuiHi' yfiuracilf aa rithurs do ■ 'I'o whom urc you rcapoiuibic !■ " 

Those p[is8afri:;s aro fair saiiii)]«8 of what svema to ua the noblest eleniout ia 
tho volume Or the n-a.t wo CAnnot itpoAk in rletikil. .Studcnta will find it It'ttst 
Hitir^tiivtory, vd think, where it corner cm the border- land of exeg«HB. The 
Eci'uion an Social .Scien<% hbowit eomethinp of fbe old power of ^rappUofc with 
iho quofltion on the other bordor-torritory of rcli^on and philoaophy . inronghout 
tho xl}'le i« TLgoroiu and effvctire, seldom ovcr-fiorid, atill moi'o seldooi falling 
into flatneaa. 

RYXO.VOrtON ; or, Uot^ of rmywt. Bring Forms of Worfiip iHsnoi by the 
Church ^ei-vico Society. Edinburgh and tAodoD : Bhuikwoods. 1867. 
The "wuts of rwlipioiut tliaught which paased oyer Eurojio fiunw thirty or forty 
youra nso. civing n<w to Tuiiuuii ugilutiouK In Uvriiuiuy luid Fjiuk-'b, and btiiiin^ 
WTi in Bupland th"i TnicUuian movement, Boems at Lu-t bi havu reitch'td the 
Ket^iblirthod Churvb of t^colluad. Thuiv ure not ^^-»utiIlg sigiiH that the thun^rbte 
of ntuny tniiiiibi,'r'<^-<mj«n:ijtlly of many miniftteiit — nf that, ('hiirih hitvo over- 
lioved the n.iin-ow dnuiiit-jH providL^d bv Ihu W'.'stmiiiHU'r dinnL>i) of the acvon- 
tvvuth ci.-iilury. l>r. Mii>:l<K>a and Dr. Uobcrt Lei' do not Iniuk u|>nn the ifiiMit 
tnithn of (..'hrii^tiaiiity with the eyua uf Uillv^i^io m- BuLhui-fonl. And in the book 
before u» w« have lun indicnUtin of a certmn dii«uitJsfattion with the ei>nirii» 
which havo satit^<<d the oapiratiouit uS iiigiuy gonettttODB. To uae a book, or 
" bitn o' ptipMr," ill pni}'«r >ind preaching ia no longer the abomtoation tluit 
onoo it WBJK ; it va UAt that " fi-oe prayur" u nut uoce^Barily fervoiit and devout, 
nor pmyer aoid from a writt<'n fijnn necosmirily cold and dead. Thi< " Church 
fienioe Society," JWrni which thn Ei-xoXdyiov omanatra, t9 an asiwriation of 
miniiitera of the Church uf Stotlund, formed {to use their own words) for "the 
study of the Utiir!>ics. (incient and modem, of the CltriittJnn Climvh. witi a 
view to the prt-puratien, and ultimute publication, of cciiain lorma of prayer fox 

Kblio worsnip, and !*crvices for the tulministnttion of the wioraiuvnt--', " &*. 
oy do not attempt to t*et on foot a movement for the general iuti'odiit-tion of 
liturgical foi-mii into the Scotch Churth, but to fill up, -tt-ith tbt- boat mut^crial 
Ihut con be found, the wide chaaiu. "between the bondage of a positive liturgj- 
and the povtrtj* of an absolutely cxtemporanoous acme*:" lify wii>h for a 
worship more solemn, uniform, tmd devout than the pro.sc]it feiTicce an. 
They wiah, in abort, to rniw the gem-iul diiotionnl tone uf the Scotch Church, 
by Butting bcfoi-o the inindji ol iiiiui'-tii-)i uud j^eoplu cxmnplati ol the noble 
and truly npihtual form in wbiL-h the Church Uuiyeraol naa e^qirnsed ita 



^tices of Books. 



285 



IjfciirntiotiB 'tovanlB Ood ; and tbflee they wish to gathor. " not into u fomittl 
namiil of devfrtion, but iiitfl ft inngmiur of prnvcr, to which OToiy niinisl«r 
miRht bavo acc«eH, and froui wbii^b each tuignt Jraw." Tlio id'jii L- nol now; 
"Miiiisturs* DirocloricB" uro ulreadv Bufficiently numprona. The Ipcding mcii- 
liaritr of tho preitcut coLloctJoo U, that it dntw« lurgolv Iroui Ibo audont devo- 
tional litemtUTO of tho Chtirch. Its oompilera aroiJ tbo old (kjijiroljriitm of 
Scotcb tlieolo^-, that it ignorud ovvi'ytluntf b«twi>uu tho AiioetXaa and John, 
Knox. 

Tfao wLootioa is truly catholic ; exuiuploB im> fuuuil iu it both of the ttatcly 
Iwauty (rf tho early Bsateni wrricea and of tho lersn vigour of tho Weittsrii 
cwUocU: St. Chrj'sostom and St. Loo. Joromy Taylor aud jUchbiBhop Tinufl, 
the aerricoa of the Knglish Church and «f thp KHfonji«d rhiu\'hi.'H of tho 
Couti&ont, all ooutributo tn thio armoury of devotion, 

W« hope that it may attain the i*nd wliich its contpilL^nt hitvo in viov — that 
of giving groalor vurmth and breadth tn tlio services of their Church— sml 
iiiat it luay he a atup tiiwurilit 11 public liturgy fonnwl on oncioat luodoU. 
For, to aay nothing of thu common dufeot^ of unwritten prayer, it^ tendency to 
d»gonorat« into pruaching, to «ub«titutw a rwcitatiou uf tho Diriiie attributt^, or 
a BBtiaa nf parttcutor requests, for tho toree earnestness whinh should cbarac- 
terixv prayir m tho coiigrveation, it awjuw to us vwry unfortunato that tho 
Befoi-mefl rhurehfH genomlly haro sevoriid thnrnRRlvm so ontnplotcly from tho 
f(>nn and (tpirit of thu idd MnTioo-books ; it invulvoa the loa* of a valuable tra- 
dition ; and thoug^h. no donht, at tho time of cho Refomiittinn, tho oldor biMika 
contained abuiidiiiio« nf pupi'rvtitton, a oaroftU hand mi^ht have gatherofl much 
whbat from tlu> ht-ap of mingled com and ohalf : to iiws .Swift'H homdy illuati-a- 
tioD, the Isco mi^ht have bei.'ii stripped off without leariug tho cout. A rich 
(itoro of Christiiiu ihrmght would hiLvc boen found to romuin <^er all false dogiitu 
and merotricious omaoi'ent had b«eii romoved. 

Thft motto on tho titlo-page of the Kiix«^ojtov ia Atcbbishop QrioduJ'K 
praise of tho foi-m and rite of tno Hofoi-mod (;hurch of Scotlund ; roferring. of 
ooui^M), to Knox'o order, which was niturwuiiLi sui)er»fded by tho '* Diretlorv" 
of tho Wcstminrtor diviTic*. It wiU bn I'mg, iirobably. Wore an Hnglialt 
iirchbuihop rciMxitw this pruihoo ; but if tho Kirk dt-VL-lops w.'n-iw» in the dinw- 
tion indimtnd by the Ki'X'^^uj'*"''. w-.i arn by uo uif^ans certain that it will not 
show itself, in sumo r«<pects, wiser than the Chuivh of Kuglund. 

Vrtrk'<ias Smnfins. Hy II. Vi. MALE, U.A. Trfmdon : f'tmhan & Co. 1867. 

Ix tho second yolnnip of Ihis jiuitnal, we had occasion to sipcak of Mr. r)ali>'s 
prtMChiog powers in tunns of Iiigh cnnunondatiou. Wo uro bound to tniy that 
this little volume fully jiialifin:* nil that waH then aaid ; indeed, that it im a 
further earr)-L&g uut of Mr. Dale's peculiar puwor which wv Ihuu uutiuod: that, 
namely, of putting practical mntUira in tli>; ntrmig li^ht of Christian oonunon- 
BCTiso, and carrying convic-tinn, even tn the dulleat mind, of the jUMtioo (]f his 
blanio tmd praieo. Theae " WoL-k-day Sermons " wtwn t« derive thoir churactet 
and titlo from a thought thus oxjirosaod in tho preface : — 

" If Wock-dnys ■Ji' wvm- thought nbout on SiindiiyM, w-itl not Rundav? he for{{otton 
on WMk-dayNi* Would it not bo wcU fur ori-ry ihtih to K]>«od au Ik^iu' on th« first 
(lav of the we«k thinking OT«r— not ihc bnainew aflain— but the moniUlv uf the oth«T 
•iaf' 

A^ance at thfrit «nbjiv:t» will lamh tho reader wh.Tt to expect. " Tho V»o of 
iha '^dorfllanding in kRRping God's Law," " Tbt- Kindly Ticatntuiit of other 
]Cen's Impflfrftotions," " 'Pttlwljoaring," " I'uwboleanmo Woixla." "Ang»r," 
■' Ohcerftilnesa." "ITi© THscipline of the Body," *' I'oaui.iabli.Tiio.w aud Puaco- 
making," "The rtrilu and Uw* of Rich Mwti," " Amuaomcnbs," "Summer 
nolidays," "Chri>'tTtift« Parties." 

Bomo of tho above titles might makv certniii of onr i-eaders fear leat their wub- 
jects ahotild bo, in a Amruni. treated an thpjr havo been too much uc-cuatuuiud to 
H'a diviuM treat them beforetime. Againjtt any nach danger at thi) hamU uf 
Mr. Dale wo can aafdy fruarontM them. We are only sorry that tho limitH of 
a nottcti will not allow ud to giro tbotn more amplo opocimetis in jmttitication 
than the following extracts, mny tunii:*h. 

On one dcparlmtiiit of "The KiutUy Treatment of otli»r Men'it tMipPi-fec- 
tions" — yiz., the treatment of dull people — he Bays: — 



286 



The Contemporary Review. 



'■ Tli«> OTil; trw^dlAaiia U to atecpt Uiu incvilAblo ; And, if vc vi»h to ' fulfil U» l«w 
of Chrut,' we ibMHbair it iw chocrluliv n* w mn. N^j kiwn ahoftB of migry cuntempt 

will niake tliesa (wfortiianto men n wbil i 1. You oumot iting ihtna Into 

dcrcTtiea. Yon mii^r nnnoy tiiaa 'by Etc. ' mpati^uco, and mulmig tbvm fiwt 

it, tiHt Tou CMnnol diiin^ tni^m. Yon »h><L.i.. .1... u.Ut timX j-our (]tikkiMiB b u gnai 
n trantlfl lo them u thdr kIowtk m to j-ou. Jf yon and tho^ havo to live md work 
taMtlUTi tho aooBDr yon aii'ce])! tbtm frir what tJiey nr«, tho n<^i>r it will 1m tor both 
bfirtic*. It in>r bp alnost uiu>tidunililo to yoii, who ^-oiitmonly tnvvl astpnav, to bo 
do-'iniHl lur fifty luiira to the niiw'iy nf h ' jmrlmmpntan- ;' but wbcn this lA your bto, 
!t i> of DO iui« trtuKiinng ynxir feet mid knittinif your bioKH nnti jBcUine cuL uf tc^nptr. 
Yoa tnuit bikt' «t%tK men. a* yna fiud thcin, and plac^ your •tiingth iit tlio arrvic^ of 
their irwkaeflB. If thoy an blind, it is fur you Iv i>v<> fur (Iwui, aiul bo tcvoiJ ihoai out 
of Umiu'b way ; if tboy an lame, it is for you to k-t thuiu lean on your aim and to 
niodvntQ your own (p»ed to Ihctn. 

"illKQia nothinfT olso to be done; no fiimintf nnd frriUiiK »~>'l miilci- any difTorsHM : 
by gentlenan and pnti«Dc« you will h.t70 youiK-lf brat ua w<^U lu ihuin. Somutimai^ 
too, ihato hCnTv diiU-f'yfd peojile have ri^l erilid mdsc to vrhii-h cnr rcncait Mimb 1^9. 
Tbolcad«inciuKL-t *jni«tiinaB contain* the je«-d. By erlf-mtroint and fuibMrancttw* 
am tometfaBca g«t sobetantial wrrin from Ri«a whom in our kiwt« wd Ihoitghl hop^ 
Ittaij atapid." 

The fuUoirinK i* really rofKisLing in tho inid»t of the morltid nem vluch 
oro, ve fear, gnioiug ground nith tltu luiH-^uwu and lui]f-i-dncut«l uinong ns : — 

"It ia quite trun Lhtl C.%ri»li.-nUrim ban >'JM:uitntg«iI whKt » Oalholii^ wriirr i-alla, 'a 
holy muliuichuly.' For nitheU, I lisd notlacK huly in it, arA lIii; lui-ans u lui li huw 
eacouragod it appaar to mo Aa^iuitly unt:hnKtiiiii, What light have wd, for inttan<'<'. 
to make a crvtiu the CMitru 01 < hnMinn miriihii) ? (VniM tlio angi I^ oi' thr n^jxilibra 
reristt th» world again, aiid ii]']H'iir iu Ihi'tr nuii khiniiiK f"nnii in Ihn cttlu'lnlii .tnd 
[AnrtheaofooniinpittsI Kuroiu', Uii-j-wohW point with (i^c'stun'S of aniaxenient and grif-f 
at tho imn^^ of C'hml'i hist a;:oiiy, iinjund which <hr milliutu of tho Catholic Chineh 
continually gather ; thoy would rc]i«at the word* which thi-y nttfwd rap htifm rrnluriea 
ago to Ihe aamiwiliK womm who tuM) oatiie in tho mrlj moininff lu rriMlar ta tlia dead 
body of Chriat tbahutoQeoaof deipairiiutloTo. 'llict- wionld <'»>iaiin aeaia, 'He la nut 
Anv'— -not la t^ciopnl^ur*— Boboa tlwonea— 'Bo w riicn.' If thcdeath of Lhriitt, 
while atill htililinit iho aojiicnie |>ltu>c in the memoty nf the l.:har<;h, no k>ngec conoeaied 
from lu Hii presi'iit power and ,^lory, much of the 'holy mukiMlwly ' which Iwa boon 
nrfitmfcTH lor dsvoutoaa would duappuar." 

Tbi», with vhirh we abnll conrlude our notioe, streogUiciu our guanuiteo : — 

" Damiatf ilaelf nood not. be wrong: ; mid tho awt^ptOR moral ohjtcbon« tu it whirh 
hftve MaaetnncH bouu ur^od froia th<j pulpit arc uii[iaDl'iiin1i!e inBiitta to ihouiandt of 
wnmon who are as pure- minded a» any m tli-- country'. Th^iv niny be rome dancM 
whidi trood taat-3 and dcticntv mpfiil feeling ditapjirori:', but so long: na hiph-mlnd»j 
En^Iinh Indira find plr\-i«niv* in thf ball-toim, no one ftJiull p-:^«iiAde mi* that the vBm- 
xive iind indiEmnainiilt.- rhnrf-T-n which htiro Wi-n mdclnnly fliin^ out ngaiiuA Aanctng 
hare any tnith in thcTn, Hut ih''**- rli:(rgr>) mrty be all falsi>, imd j iH thwv nay be nmy 
■dntuate ktouhiI* fur divcrxii-DTins liillii. It k •nry pleaeant to sua a d<Keen or « KOre 
of giaoefid idiiUreil, daintily dri^sscd, danftini; nn a lawn in sumnicc \iiat. or, irith Ibe 
bright rrd berriee and rich green leavm of the hollr uad the pite-white misllatoe 
about tliem, on TwhIDJi Nit;hl. CliihlniTi were DiHde lo (Uiive as birds <vvro iiumIi: to 
BlDg. They sleep toundei Rii it and wnkv [>(< all iho favahcr the next tnominf. And 
if youoz men and wumm find thtmsilvw f^ttlintr chilly on a nifiwy winter')' £y, or if 
thcii Kinrila are \-«rT ixnlnnrvnt, I riinntl «■>- why they miiv not |iuiih Ihr tnbks iiM>h> 
and auk sonie one lo ail duwn at Ibi- jiiimo Tind jiIhv ihs " l.Rnfi'ni,' Dui lor [leoph- to 
leurc home i!elii>nrnli:lT nt ten <>*i lock at nijiht, wiifi ihc intention of daacinr fcr thtfw 
or four hours, ajipiiuii to me to be ii violatUKi of all the tawi and pdnciplM vhidi Aould 
di-trnntar' tho choice of oair filnuatma." 

Wc cju ouly rctiiminend our rwidfiw Lo hiy tWaTohiinfl of Mr. Thxio'fl in stock 
u MKtii an may ho. I'or Ti-;wHn^ aloud, and exdtia^ (rJcndly discussion, yn 
hu'dly kuuw any uioikrii Ixfok Uko it. 

Mmwria 0/ Olirrt, By J, K. Macdwv, IxD. T^ondao : Nldjefc. 

Umjke the philoeoplier vho tat on tho MoimC of Olives, and fonnd no 
thotutlit sug^goated by tho tccno savo the poTertr of the Hp-i(i«Uiiro around, 
Br. olacduil ha« eat a:;d iiitu«d. aud fouud tho Mount to he to him tho Mount 
of luftiitnttion. Tho volume coiiaista of twenty ohaplors, of which the firet ie 
topogmpliicol and introductory, and Uw otbars are, in foct» a seriea of coDteta- 



Notices of Boaks* 



a87 



platrve wsnsusas, «(ith witli a mWmf^, in^igrvfihi^aX uid luKtorical, tnoro 
elaborate tllUL vo ordinarily meet, villi in puluit diwaurso*. Tbora is nott 
porltaps, mucli tluit i« original in tlia vnirk, but mere ie the chu-m of fmnhiioii, 
'Cho improstuoiiR pbotograpbod at the numoat ondor Uio liviug light ol Um 
Uouat are thorot^elilv' Lrathful. Tlwre is often form, almost alvays a soft and 
contlo boauty, in ui, Macduff's itylo. Thos, iu ouuincnting on Hob mcasose to 
UoCbpltagei — 

" We ouuiDt all f;tra masiuBcmt oSOTinga, or hava our nunoa asMKiatod with ma^ 
niScent de«d«for th'i forthnranceof Ubirauw nnil Viii^um; wi; luinnut all Im ((juiiipeil 
vith apostolic sual nad fsrronr; w« oaas<^t all, wiih a LiiUwr apirit, Xtn ' hcni« iu tha 
lighl;' liat WD can laaTa 'iodprinU' to givo h«trt and bopa to tbe ' ibipwrMkfld 
lifotlifer.' W« coo gire tbo mlto to tba troMUiy when w« knra neither thu (uund nor 
Iha talent; w» can giva the Livly Rniaial whoa wn hara no otiutr toral tiibutn. If w« 
bare not thU, y*e can atNW Iho gnrmi'nt on the 'way ; and if evon iLu jtaruhiul to ua- 
vorthr, poverty can cut down iu> own palm brtinctiwi ; and with thr^c, povtrty'sOWiL 
oS^B^, Uie s/mNnl of ihlling ipirit and lojral heaJl, we can awnll Um Jubiluit 
hoaanoa."— (P. ISO.) 

Dr. KDicduff's " Memories " run through, the f«w Old T^nlaraent alliulona to 
Olivet. Tho sermon on Solomon's High Placon »ii tho ^rount in on impreasiTO 
waruijig on the " p^'r^^tuattve pow«r of evil inllueiices." In the aennou tm^ 
the " }u<d Heifer ' ibo author hits 8nz«d vith much powor on His lesBona to be' 
dertTod from tht Rabbinical tradition of the haifar iM-ing dnvvn aoroes the 
TUdtlct vhirii Bjmnnnl tlie Ketlroii rnlicy. puMsing ovur tba craru or the dead 
without il<-Dlnm«nt. 1 1 ia, hiiweTor.acarufiy nocc wary to nimark that thv tmditJon 
iii vithiint foandation in fact. Bat tho greater part of the mlumt^ it, Af cotirM, 
oocaimd by th« Uospol toeinoviaSiapintualiwdamlliKlitvd npby tbo warmth of a 
love OToked to now expreasiona of ii« fervour under tbe local a^HAAtatintis. Yot 
tbeve is acuwlj one dwmurai.- which thn critic <-r>uId chiite as «xag];«rated or 
ffc iy tj ^l- Some of T)r. ^rscduifa ilhistxaticina aiM c^injechires strike OS a* new 
and worthy of oousidoration even in 1bo«e critical llelda which he profbsEes to 
docUno to ent«r, f.'j., his anjunbed idnntiBcation of Both-IIaAcerom, or PranJi 
Uotintain, with tho plww orAbnham'e saorifioe. Certainly it i» a plnea that 
eao be soon " afar off," mad dovetnila better into the namitiTe thao Gerixim or 
the Temjde sito. 

Sermom on SuttfttU of the Dtty. Br UiatinKaiahnI CuFiailict Prolatm and Th«)- 
laptoia. Unblm : W. B. Kelly. I86S. 

Ths Pon^AjigUcan Couforouco hud nu iuiuiixliate prodacasaor aeron the 
Atlantic, which maylmvu hail more to do than wl' wutb aware of with thoatraag 
defliro ozpruewd by the Aumcuu and Ouiadiau Kpiecupal Cliurohes for aaeh a 
token of their unity with llie Anglican. On Suiiduy, dclnIxT Tth, 18M, Uiece 
mot in Bollimnro uie "mcond plenary Council of the Catholic Church of the 
Uuit«d fitates," " the larj^l' ov<ir held in ISiristwudom since th« Cotmvil of 
Trent." It namhenMl 7 arrhbUhops, 36 biahops. 3 mitrod abbots, iit mitrml 
protatee, and npwardM of I'JO of the moat onuocnt clort^r. Th«y mot "with 
magfniGooot robvA, with mitroit on tlieir bonds, and inch l«.4nng a i-ToxiiT in bis 
bond," uodor the aanctian of the I'opi:''8 .-Lpwt'ilic lvtt»r«. L'hfiy tvlc^mij livd a 
maasa^ of f^rootirig to Tins JX., and roooivod an otl'Mttionut'j written nnHwt-r. 
Fourtix'u 6«iinona (coUeeted in the Toliinw b«lnra ua) wero |a«e<:had dunag tho 
Mouoo. Thoy ended with a PiistonU Lott'^. Tlwir decmos, drawn up iu l^itin, 
are not, it would worn, publialied. The " Sermons" do not amoar, od (ar oa a 
curaai:^ iniiEttCtion eoabW us to jud^ to rise ahove the udual level of Romiflh 
rbotuni:. xEio "oepeoiol Cavour" whiob *'tlieLord" has l>cHtowed un the Utiibed 
Stab>« is dun lo the fact Uiat they aro " ospodally oasoeiatorl with tlie honour <tf 
his bleasod Uotbor." Did not Colunihiu sail iu the Santa Marut ! l>id \xf not 
name ait ialaud after the Immiiculuto Conception ? lias not. *'un<i diruvh in 
onuy fivo" Uiront;liout tho country the " evor-ploriou^ Mullurr of Hod" l<ir its 
^trou«ss?(r. Vi'i-) The "idea oif the priesthood u in<^>in|)l)>te withunt the 
oelibooyof the olor]^-." (P. 145.) •■Tho ark of I'uLuc fluat«d," and ntili. oi; 
oounSi floats, "s<'cuntly lunid the dolu^ of tho nationa." (I\ 144 ) Tha 
nhaenoo of any troou of iougbt into the great qucstiuue, moral, eoeial, reliciMis, 
which men aroumi Ihem are trying to face, and, if poasible, to solre^ m untoet 



288 



The Conttmporary Re'vtew. 



aa striking in the Uultimore Edca'cIioilI blu iu tluit of LiLiaboLh. On two point 
only (]o -H-v iintico niiy mfeirenco in thi-t Tolatne to tho greet struggle!* throagi 
vliich tho Uiiitc<I States bavi.' pusBL\l. A pi-eiicb(xt cliurine the ** Knuw-nDthinj;" 
pnrijr with hnving takmi thoir watch vord fii^m CViaj'iWi [*'1> know notAiiigmt 
all"), and with opposing tha Catholic Chui-< h tut bo cmpoaed ita Divine EEead. 
(P. 203.) Tin- Council, thmiigh tho I^«lor«3 I.oltflr, declftro that they " eoold 
hATO wiabod that, in acL-ordiuice with the uction of tho Oatholic Ohuroli in put 
Bge« in re^furd tit thn kpHW of Karo^w, a mori; gruduttl A«3'«tvtn of emuicipiitioD 
oouid havn been adopted." 

It would be unjust not to acluiowlMlgo that tb« " Sermons" give eridence of 
eoneidomhlo rulturo, oftnn rieo into Rontnthing like eloquoncp, and are not, so 
far aa w« haT» reatl, disBgured by the violeaco which hw often of Into charao- 
teiiiEfld tho lunguai:^ of th» Sormons and ChArgi:t.4 of QallicAu and Iridh prcUtM 
of the aame Church. 



n.— mSTORICAl, AND BIOGHAPmCAL. 

LtatK* frma tht JuuTunl nf Our Lift in fA« Jliftftlnmb, from tlUS to ISfil. 
Edited by Aiciui/ic Helps. London : Sinith, Hder, & Co. 

If wd would diHcovor far uui-selven what tha ideal of any giren period haa 
been, we could scarce do batter than svarch the Boc-rut cvnion of tho Uvee 
of tho«e who, either from birUt or IVom force of character, occupied the most 
coDb-picuouH ploccj! IU jt. For that which men conficioualy and oponly olabonta 
in oftuii but a kind of fancy -jiiutui^ iif-mtfU unncMttling frnui all, save tho moat 
p«netnitiug, tho gpiiuino movements of imuginalion and dtieiro. ThQM> wboM 
outward and inward IIvvh art> knit into ou<t hv tbv dc.xuk of Irtitli, which in 
othsr words i& unconacioos consisteiicy, are, if not artista, yot workers in that 
wondioua natorial out of which all art is lund^i. Thvir life, wh«a tti 
inward upon itaelf with eiillicuiiit intensity to rvpruduct? itxolf, is a nr^tic 
of poaaibilities, a Sner or ruder jirRsentation of an idool. in which all true 
and women find [h<*ir henrte— their most si.>cr«t lupimlionH, joytt, deopuira, doul 
and foarH — faithfully rellectod. Without this uniiinmouH coneistoncy ooloarini 
and inteiiaely deepening down to the Tory core of individual life, and thi 
that ultimately of national life also, thorn can bi? no truo art, Oioeoo< 
moat mietj«ss of perfect forms vheu bee aun was waning to a cold Deoeml 
eaDMt. and tho ol«gancioa of a Modieoon court were but poor many-colour 
dixguiaea huug over opprewive vacancy and failhlenanecB. The high ideala thai! 
reet on tho commouoat relations and tho moat simple boUefe had gon« astray— 
were actually lost ; and only tin- poor coat of many culours remained. And 
oa it iH with nations, so boa it often been with indiTtduala. 

The wotidwful aympuLby — the deep and g(.-uuiiie interest — with which tharl 
nation haa reooivod tho Qu(W>n*.i two books ia a t«fitiinonT to their trnthftitoBM; j 
and ut the rsame timo a proof that iu the tifo of tho writer tho common ideall 
has been fio lifted up as to lighten and brighten thn vhote field of EngUahJ 
dometttio lifo. What our Qti«Bn haa said takes really little adyentitioua int*raafr| 
from hnr lofty position ; for .ihn writes aiuijdy as thu woman, out of tho fulOHB ■ 
nf a heart ketinly olive to all the highest and puroat human inlluoucoa ; the 
eovercigii dii«pppiiring, Oiat the woman'e h«irt may 8ini'«n-ly justify iladf in. 
the hearts of all her subjectH. Donbtlo*^, htir MujoBty, with that noble uuoon- 1 
eoiouanees of wlf which lod bor with such simple graphicnow* ami unnwtrainnd.j 
franknfi8A to writn many paaaagM in this hc«utiful and triuching booker 
would bare preferr(>d that it aboiud have been faithfully kept, aa it was origin- ' 
ally moant to be, undor the seal of a womanly reticence, lint lovo and duty — 
inetinctiTo desire and a keen seuw of the clamu) of others — do not go harmo- 
nioiuly hand in hand in the light — often, aUa \ the " fii^rce light— that beat*., 
QpOD a throne," any more than m tho cottage of the humblest peasant. Oti 
Uueen boa laid "hor ncaretl. her dearest" memonas and experiencea on thfi 
altar of duty at onco to tho liriug and Ibu dead ; and lo ttie Holf-denial thiit for 
others' Bake will oxpoao tho treasures it would naturally guai-d and keep from 
tho common oyo with tbo utmost jcalouay. ahows bereelf a womuu ooubly 



Noficfs of Booh. 



Wnai *— liny under tho cirelot tlint Imms iuwar(]. &nd mAkcii rovot heads 
"lie Momaf," lino "crown of wifehood and pur© lowliboad," aondiog eub- 
dning asd qnickfining light outwu-d, For tma Journal is «inphatioaU]r a 
ironian's book, and owes its exiflloT.co ontireljr to tbat doepert feotiueof wotaan's 
heart which would almost bum itsolf away if by that it tni^ht kindle a glow 
offoeliiie in which others might juitUfDwthoworihand beauts' of tbo chamctar 
in which it« ideal onshrined itself Bfmoo tho peculiar manner in which 
"Albert" indirectly raoroe b«for<> us in tb«M pages. Tho widowed hoart. drirun 
into a solf-catuoioiui brooding oTer its own treo^urM by rudo and nnhallowed 
infloMiGW from without, is forcsd for rolibf lo initko a ^stury for ttatdf, u did 
poor Elaino, to fortify horac^lf n»ainat tho rudo taunts of h^^r friends. But at 
fast tho stricken queouly huart niuit rotum lo tta own uiiuoiimous and faithftjl 
pioturea, written bafoi« that Mlf-couBctouauew (wludi lo<:i oftnu Imuia to morbid 
halplaasooiii and hopelMmen) hnd cast its shadow athwart ihom at aae^ to dim 
and to distort. Uur Que«a is braTfir aud truAr than thn Hlninn.t itf Arthiiri:i;i 
EiibLe. Tho fact of har giving tho public this diary ia tho b*et proof wo could 
poasihiy cacaire of the hfalthnilu^HH mid truthful ii<wt oF hi<r ditiriictvr. If stio 
nela hamlf unequal to doing the partial justice ciF drawing-rootn and leT<^, 
she can udmit all hur KiibJnotM, fniin hi^'hr!>t to lowijot, to share hor inmuet con- 
fidences so fur an thpy are worthy c.f Huoh a trust. And the pnbliphing of this 
diiu-y wui truly m wiiu_> and prudt-iit Ht<?p, iniwiiiurh tu, whilu it opens the door 
to tho inmost chamber of the roval b«'art, it only admitn thaoe who arft preparod 
for the revelation, Thoee who i^eli|{bt thvmwtlvw iu mere go«sip, rollingil like 
a nwnel under the tongaa — the sweetor to their loflte thi^t lol^rr the personage 
it ooocems— w)U tind here something for tbi'ui, tnit something which wo hope 
will carry that kind of repraooh which hides it^mlf in an oppresAivo and embsr- 
raaaed silsDoe. The Prince Oonsurt, as soen through the Queen's emotiona, 
miiuxi8 iJte high and pure and noble character we had figured him, and yet 
no more than the good genuina man. Little concerned for himaelf compared 
vHh hin warm oonoem for others : and wo eau oosily trace through thii 
book hiii (juiet, IwnigTiant. and elcrmting inllueiioo. Id thus showing us how 
much she has lost in him, her Mnjeety aufflciently justifies herself in the 
priracy she hue to steadily sought «dnoe ho was taken ^m her side. 

Were any one to s.sk us what during the past twenty-fivo yenrs hna been the 
highest induence in English life and Enghsh thought, we shciuld without tho 
leiut hesitation rcfor tlivin for aunwer to her Majesty's books. All the Loftier, 
moro liberal, and himtani^ing tendencies of this period are hero lifted up aud 
coucoutrtiU'd iu tho lives uf the two most ^levatea porwos iu tho renlm. And 
not only bo, but through their clearness and directness of character tho light 
retutus in Doucoutratad rays, boooming tbo moro powerful as thoy dilfuse 
themselvea the &rther — the remotest corners feeling moat powerfully the forcp 
of thoir example aud thoir aspiratiouti. Thus tbu book, though written by a 
Queen, is iu esaenco di^mocratic. In this respect it U nnit^ue in the annals of 
all Uteiature. The rauk which separates claesvi), obscuring those elomtots 
of genuine atauhood and wouioiibcxid, here becnmea a medium to aid in tho 
eSaanr and wiser discemmeut and arprociation of worth down oTon lo the very 
lowest tirade. That paasage dnHcribiiig one of her Tisit^ to poor old women 
near Balmoral is iuexpresaiuy touching, uud is of value as showing hor Msjoety'd 
fin* notion of chara^tAr, and hiT tinfuignod and simple delight in lowly thing' 
and persons. It would not bo easy for any person of lower rank to speak of 
common domestics with the rvsiwct and otwu tho love our Queen does, without 
aome apparent oompromiHO of position; hot now that fhe has thua spoken, 
maoh iu the same direction seems passible to ail of us. Pvrbaps her %Iiije«ty 
baa unoonscioiwly done more to aid a .'wttiemcnt of tho vexed domoatic-Berrant 
(loastioa than all our noisy theoiy-riddou pglitital ecouomisls put to^L'thur. 

Bnt besidw) this, the honk is a testimony, ntrong though indirect, that. 
eiNntiaUy, the marked political morementa of tbe iMt quarter of a century 
hare not only been anticipated by loyblty, but looked forward to with at lea^t 
a fiMliQg of wtiaraotiDa. Of such au upheaving and mixing of all the ranke ax 
heralded the great French Berolation. her Majesty hot no fear, because throagU 
her own example she eaeks to mix tho variouii cla£fiee by that method which beat of 
all maintains them, making ea-.h helpful and noceassryto the other. Her sarnie 
faith in the justice of her people, aud their regard for whatsoorer is worlby 
VOL. VII. U 




290 



The Contemporary Review. 



and bfluitiful, enables her to cherifih sach ft mom of seeuritr u a rednctioii of 
the fnuuhias would be the but thiu^ in tho world to duturb. And if we mis- 
talce not, htf Majesty '« f«ith in well founded. BrillijUM» of ootni-lifb and 
suiutauaiioe of that gA^ dieplny, which fuc a timo may {tWw aad inbot tha 
low«r middlo cUm, kMpiii^ ii. bitsj-. and TierbBpa makiDg it h&If-mad with the 
gttina poured tbou^btlcMsly into ixa Up. did not mto tho uoble, aimpl-.- " p«UMul- 
airlof Tnttiioii" rmin Ui« roiijih handling infa grim Paria mob. But Uumq Victoria, 
toioi^h tha purity of her iiiatinoti lU wifo and muth»r, bat eoeo more deeply, 
aud, ID th« very r«ct of uot vieldiiif^ to a temporary clamoar, baa aatohUuMd 
an iaGoitaly hieher place fur hw-salf m the boorta of all cUuues of her ptraple. 

yiv. if«lpe, who hn« jMrformed hi« editorial work with ntoe dieerimiuatioo, 
hna done well in KiTing na some of thone little gUmpeea of more buoyant 
expwieuce, and ho dim oleo done wiaely in keepina diiefly b«6)ro the mi'ud's 
eye in his intn^iictory parofrapha those poltila m ohanoter whi<-ii gira tha 
seeasBary snppUment to much in the volume, and which oomt; with force and 
fltneaa Arom a hand like his. 

We have said that this royal book reveala at once an iil«al and a tendeucy — 
the ideal tii a eoTareign. tho tnndonry of a people and a period. It is the glorjr 
of Qneea Victoria that the hiKhest tondoucies are impersanatGd in her. and 
that her ideal, worn near hi^r iniuost heart, ie the hi^uit lymbol and exprw* 
Btoa of these. For in what doos the England of our time speokUy differ fnm. 
the WnglaiMl of all formor times ^ In thie, that it La more domeetio — that more 
aad moie clearly it in practioally eeea that all real roform most beein with 
piii-itT of life, aud lofticeM of aim and purpoiii] «priikpiii|( out of it. nituratitig 
and urtitiKiDK the wtu^e field of life. I^t our KuftUiul be for a raomeat 
comparud with the Ku^laikd of the rk'Coiid OhurliM. or oven of the Poorth 
Qoorge, and what a dilTerenoe! .VLd the dilTeroiiee betwe«n the ooorta of 
theM poriodtf and ours if not grL-ater than the diirorauce betweeo the general 
idA^ of life and duty, aud the etforte made to r«uli/4 ibem. 

Is it too much to hopo that the tjuoen'a booka may admiuiater a great 
impulM to that roform which ifi Iho key to all other roforma, w'thnt, graduatiog- 
downwards. " tho awwtuo^a aad the light " of g<.-imtuo Chriettau fwliiig aud 
example, which haa thrown round the throue a uow halo in which aliuw or 
abftulutii^in is impossibk>, luay so brigbteu tho majority of iudividual Uvoe. that 
each of us may mor« and more become kings and queenti of that province 
hardflut to rulu uf ull^-tho kiogdom within ounailvue 1 

Memmra of f^ir Philip rrantii. K.C.li.. with Cirretfvndmet and Joumali. 
Ocimmcncod by tbe late Jo.sRril l'An.iCF.9, Ew). ; oomplntod and edited by 
ItK.tmAN Mrkivau:. M.A. Two Volumes. l.omloii: T^ugmaas. 1867. 

'rimsc Tolumw acquaint ui with tho liftt of a man often mciilionod but little 
known, and are a welooao addition to thr> potitii^al biography of tbo dara of 
George 111., with whOiO reiga Sir Thih'p Frnjicia' caroer almost esacUy ootu- 
criled. The sou of a adiolar— tho well-known IranMator of Horace— he lu&ted 
tmm St. Paul's i^hool, at the ago of Bixtoen, into a GovQnimcat othco, employtag 
his loiAtre in perfecting hie elaa'^oM and in luivkiu^ btitisAlf thamtighly cauatur of 
tlte DotutitutiOL and history of lua country. At the end uf sixteen years 
illiS—li) aa a GoYortimiiut cl'-rk, he epent six (1714—80) as a UemMr of 
OvtiTtoil iu Ui>ugvl. and thirteen (lTJi4 — 1807) in Parliament, dying at serent^- 
eigbt, I)acerab(<r 22, ISIS. Him grrwt piJSthumou<< ili^tinctton waji founded m 
the Unit of theao pCTiitda. when, aa on anonvmoua nfWHjmpflr cDrraspoR'lont and 
tiam|phlotear, bv Hhoitk the political world to its ccatro for alwut Um years, 
luaTing a notn itc plume which it haa long been the puziilo of pnlitioal antiquarie* 
to bring home to tlw writer. Thomt stinging and latempetiiite ioTVOtiTee 
in tha years I7(lf) — 72. aimed at the Iving and tha administrations of the I>alm 
of OmfluH und Lurd N"rth, undw the signature of " Juuiua," are better known 
than hi<i earlier prodncitinna in ITtiilH. at xhf age of three-and-twooty, under 
the aamrt of ' ' Uaudor." which wt.>re of real sernco to his country. The memoiablQ 
■elzare of tho XortK lirtlon by (Jorernment ia ITiW hronc^tup a boatof writora, 
having not tbu loaat aympalny with the demagopue WiUcM. but most eagerly 
critioinng th& aet itaeu, which they maintained to bo a groaa breach of oonatitn- 
tioual liberty : and it la to the discussions that thud eiuacd that we owe the 



Nhtices of Books. 

great boons of « £r«e proM attd Uio pnblidty of parliamentary il»b«t««. Th« 
nroohuiea of "Candor, ' ou the popular itide of tha quetilion, noon attracted tbe 
chief «ttODtioii. Th« iL».itiniMl cluLn»ol«r of ati ulil tnan, the sfTectutiou of legBl 
phtaae, a data from Gray'a Itm, wore the sbiftfl «»ip!oyt)d to turn oU all 
oye« Groia tlw biditiK-placo of tb* tnarkinnaQ, auil litue ooough did Oabuiet 
Mioialora gnaea that the arrava wbicli vnnuided tliata wore shot by a t^pliug 
ia OQO of th«ir own ultioM. The moxt raniarkable of the " CaQdor " seriea, 
tliourii oaLy a half-a-c-roiru pampUlel of t.V> pagoa, wa«an olabotuto trcatiitD 
that Moamo tlie precorsor of iax'n Libel Itill, ;uid that drev frniu Horace 
Walpolo tbe oompumout that it tras tbe only ttacl that cTur maJo him uodor- 
gtana lair. Its title vraa, "An lotiuiry into tho IkKlnuo of Libeli, Warrauta, 
and •SmKuroM of P*p«n." A\luu " Jiuius " trroto a few years aftorwarda. tho 
towa could prelty Toll recognise tho ]>ea of " Caudor " agaia ; hut the author- 
sltip romaioed ax much a my^ory u " Juuiua" himaolf till IHiKi, whou Mr. 
Hackee doarod it up by uiacoveriog a " Oaador " auto^-aph in, ibo wiitiu^ of 
" Junius " amoDf; Um papers of Woudfall. ib« printer of both. 

lliis iiidefuLigsble iiit^uirer took incrediblv jjains to uaco all the auouymoua 
ooulnltutHioii of Frantuft, uuder bia Tanuuii mgDntunw, tbiuu^h the ponodioal 
pretw Uif the time. UufurtunaUtly. at tho liuio of Itu diwth (l^it^). he hud uuly 
oompleted faia memoit- to where the Juaiau l»ttan commeooeo, aod all that uow 
romunsof hiaisduatry forthiaporiodiaamaaaormifloullaueoue material, mri„lira 
di^fecttt, whoaa vouusotiiig lioka were all carritHl iu thu oullni^ior'n luitid and 
roemoiy and have poriohod with hia dououae. But atirh un elaborate plan do theao 
lV«Kni«at« reviMtl, loat iMr. M-rivalo teiiiarkK :t wunltl havti taken- t«u yean iB0r» 
of Mr. Parkoe' lift.', and luaiiy voluuiee, to comj'lete tbe reeearehee tm tin nale 
uf the "Caodoc" pt^rioil. It waM luo umdi tooxpecC nucha vontiauatiooexcopt 
from one who had made the inquiry hts hobby : from n person whoso map of 
iutvllvctiiol labour in alnady vketched out balbie him, nx Mr. M^-rivalu'i mast be. 
it could hardly bii looked for. Tet he kaa luit bofln tmvortliy of lua ]iredeceaaartii 
theee Tolumet. and there will l>e multitudw of ourioua ej'e« to soau hia pages in 
eearohofthocld eeoret of "Junius." The peoring curiosity <■! Franoiroon- 
t«mponrie« began to oommct him with thia Aiguature even in hia lifotime ; hut 
be aucoeeefuUy batfled it till his old agv, whoa the appeanme, in \H\A, of a 
pom&hlet: entitled " Junius Ideutitiod" aeomad t» make hi» aoorot hardlj 
teaaole any lonser. A few meagre biographicul skotcbt^s have left Praaota 
fltQl only an obscure p«r8ontif^ to thia geoemtinu, and tho IcnnwIfMlfff* of 
moat people i-'sprobaUy limited to what MacauUy wrote of h;iii in his " Warren 
Haadngi." Tho prei^iitt full " Mitnoirs " will bo onjoyud by a reader who oau 
rater Irmly ioto jHtlitical by-paths ; and if may one oaa uot tbi« taste. IIh-so 
Tohunea arc just mich aa may tompt him 1o tr}*. Let him put binisoU iu tho 
mood of a sjiortaiuaii ; and under too Kuidaoce of Meears. I'arkes and Monvole 
be will follow, on tho one hand, tho War Offico clerk in hia almost daily moTe- 
menta (which his \>vu joui-i^ul haa moat minuu-ly <>broiticl"d]. and bis corm- 
■pondenM (of which be kept copiea. hia own lottera included; . ami then thetnwee 
of tho laaeked li^uro uf " Juiiiue " ou the other. For this \* the uaturt; of tho 
eridi'iiw ; them i» no mora Jirtct and explicit proof now— not 6Ton with Mr. 
]*-4Tkea' reseanjhee—tbao there was whuu "Junius Ideutiliod" vauio out. Not 
tho most dtMuiit confojUKOn irt mat with. Hut then the moremonts of Fraiicts, 
with tho revelation of his Ibouehta in journals and lott^re, uud tho datee of 
palilinitinii and the sulijiv].-* of tho " Juiiiu.t' HatiroK, luiitch liko subataaooand 
ahadow. 'When thn I'uhlit- AdirrHit^ baa no Junius ia its columns, it is 
aooounted for by Fn>nci« being roeordod on !iii< Iravale, or being aiok. 
Ilioeii " Juniua '' on one occasion obaeire a oertain soquence of thought 
■DffBeeted by what is goian on iu tho political world i 3ome letter of Frands 
ia detoctod'of noarly tlio aante data with an aaaooiation of ideas curioasly 
siiniUr. Aro certain public cboructeix Doticed to have beeo uuexpeotedly 
avoided by Junius' lash? Homo known poouliar ptfiunal relation of Francis to the 
Kame charootot* aocounts for it. Every now and than a moiuoraodam or a part 
of u letter in the Wancis uionuacripts sooms on tha oertain track towards proof 
direct ; but ju-<'. then tbe duo nape, for Fraaoia' own acissora have unutly 
removed tbe very pieoe that was want*.-d, and so the game has tak«n to the 
earth. Tho catalo^o of l''ran«tia' hbron,- ahowa that every book quoted by 
"Juniua" and "Candor" was on his ihelvon, and bound- up oollectiona uf 

v2 



J 



292 



T'he Contemporary Review. 



nvAry !>ftpftratn A^ition of tht^M^ In-ochurm annotated \>y hia hand Wftra tbtro too. 
On'me otbcr hnnd. in nil the ennrmous niaiia of tho Fmncts ronuuns uotMng 
fa«Mb«nn fi)uu(l ■n'rcoticiLiidUiirilli hix hiLTiii)^ In-ou Uio luau. It ia thruughoiit 
UQ andergrutund cliaae, and all the Hrnl vohimo, vhicb is uccupiiMl in theae 
inquirim, powMwa tfae<<>xi:it^Tn>>iit, th(>dis>ippoHiliDi<nt, u)idlh<i()ryn«s>iofsuch a 
puraoit:. Fnaoin va^ not a rflc^tiuo, but from hit* potfition and duties he had to 
mingle frocly with ntlier* whil? "Juniun" nnd "Candor" irem beiiiif nw«t 
talki^d of ; and ■'OTni^limos h« wa.t Hiidor thn very «j'o of tliofl« who trsrc buttg 1 
roupfaly handled ; nil which make" the pcKsibilihr of his secret so ramarkabto. 
Indeed. th»ro iiosins almost an ab^luto nooossity that throA [htmiw nt least 
(oo« of them Woodfall, hin printer) must huve been in it, and yet there ii 
uo Actiiol proof. Tho bunixn of this concoahnont i« anid to havR had a marked 
efibot on ma character and balnU. nuikint; him as wury in ooDTcrsatiim aa " a 

last even 

that might 

lilt pages of 

his boaritig before tho scrutiny of thoMt who anproachid him after tho appear- 
ance of "Juniua IdeutiGed;" bow adroitly lie »ioidecI, or how tioroafy li« 
silciiood. tho impni'liiiiiit quMliun, SumuuL Itugurit uiit.« at Ilullund Iloiue 
had to ri'liri' very oinall and diecomlited ; but the render t-bould uut mim a 
hooutiful unocdote (holon^jing lo an uariiur year) of Burke, whum FmnciB him- 
self could iiiily huVu inferml to b« convint-'ud of tiio tdoutity by hi* oxoeaMve 
di'Iicacj- of dtnnnanoiir. 

We mniit forbimr tn touch ou his Tndiait otinn'r, whii-li wai< wms long nuarrol 
with bia chief, M'arrotiHastinga. with whom at length ho duelled. Iinmeaiately 
after thin he cninu humo thoroughly di^uxted, and ik«liuilod hiiuiM'lf to n par- 
liamDntary life fur the peraftcution of the great governor, at whoea protraot«d 
trial he w:!" Olio of the most oonstaiit spuctaloni. Hia politics were Btron^y 
Whig, and he natroniiutd the French Rorolntion oren at tho cost of the noble 
Hurke's fri<?ini»hip, Amonp his letters i» a rery [imuaiiie deeeriptiou of an 
evening i)as9Dd at tho Parilion with II-U.H. the Bogent, whOM doie friend he 
wiLt; and also a very dainngin^ criticixm of Wellington'a movements in tho 
IVninnula — damaoiii? to tbn cntic. There nre two portrait* of Sir Philip 
Fninoie (bis K.O,B. ho obtained from tho prinoe, n poor comp&nwLtion for the 
gorenior-generalship, on whii'h hia heart was set), oite of thorn his fuU-lengtlt 
oartcaturr*: also facsimiloQ of the " JuniiLs " handwriting. Tho 'n-urk in pro- 
Tided with an alpliahctical indo.x and a genealogical etemma. A chronologioal 
table would hare been a Taluablij addition. 

We have iK^tiiod tho fuUuwiug typographical errors ; — At vol. i. p. 4I.'!, Iiue9, 
•' look " flhonld perhaps bo " lock :" at vol. ii. p. 41i). "proeti-ato" should b« 
"prostate;" and p, 113. "l>oc. 23" should bu " Due -11," aa at vol. i. p.T. 
In the index, " Dovrmahire, MarehioneM of," should he " Itawnahini." 

MtmoriQi* 0/ the Un: AiKlry^w Criclitvn, D.A., 0/ EdinbuTr/h anJ liandtt. 

Edited by the Rev. W. 0. Dlaikig, D.D. London : Jinnea Niabot & Co. 

Mb. Chichtox dw\ in hia thirltnth yi'nr, jiLit whi>n hi.t iinwcr:* wero' becoming 

^JDAtuiu and beginning to shine out n-ith clcur and atcuilv lu.Htro. llad be been 

)d, hia peciiliiir ^ifl« wnuhl iiudoulitodly hiivn miido bini t'.inioii* bcv'iml thu 

ids of lua ohurch and country. A youth appnt amid lh>' purity n'nil pioUM 

aiinplicity of a Scottish manse; an industrioAin, happy, ntui highly iiuuocMifu) 

college carriculnm ; a collngiato charge, in which markenl dilferonoes »f toii- 

dency only seemed to cement more cloeely two good men tilike (nncure and 

eameet in Ohriatinn work ; marringe, and indaction to an indi>pendont charge 

in Dundee, whore, contrary to all the prognosticutions of his fnv<ude, he Inbourw 

with Iho ntmorit uncivitfl— these aro tJio few facts of Mr. Crichton's outfir life, 

which was singuhii'ly quiet and uneventful, but his inner life wiut moro 

rttmarkablo. Thi^ however, wtis not on account of doabl4. (lilllcuUiee, fiery 

■trimgB. and cjue«liouiug«. liiai montui being developed itsuli' through an abidlog 

•erenity of spiritual atmosphcro. which, from first to lii«l, suirused. as with a 

' gentle hole of sumuier eunmt, his orory thought and word, impurtiag that 

I aoftened brightness which ofleu. with meditativo natures, expressoa along with 

Dhoorfiil. auDost buoyant loro of nature, a peculiar ahadc of melancholy. 

" Bring Katie, that I may »ay good'bye to her, and tlieti I'll »Up aicajf," were 



Notices of Books, 



293 



kOiong his l&at words, and they are t\']iical ; mud yet more (he Blrsng^ remark at 
u, 31, asUv qnotfd hy Tti. Brown. Itut the littlo "hit cf n irail." as ho play- 
Inlly called it, tci-.iwU-d with a pi;i)cil during ilhiosc, i«, perhaps luott of all w. 
Mr. Orichton was not a poet, out a Utile mor* inteiuity would har© znodo him 
OEM*. Xho uoaniew with which ho tronibliu^Iy touched tliv ouiifiutfs uf pootry 
was the secret of bis auocoas aa a proaclx^r. and tho sourco of hia peculiai- 
puwvr over men it fur struu^T, luoru llnnJy-kiul uaturi'x. Hit uuiiii cliarac- 
lonstii:^<i were, fineneiw of inwght in discriminating varied ahodes of thought, 
and warmth of iuosiuatiuu in pri-yuutUnj truth — clcui', vivid, concrete— yot 
nev^T without duo batanco of iqiiritunl .iugf^<>tinn. Add to all tliia 11 pociihnr 
HeneitircnuHa to tufty suugviitionB, and &a iiituUuct «o kucu auil pliable that it suf- 
frred noticing to ro forun again till it li:u! 1k-^)i i-ciDod ov^r and ov6r in it« maoy 
toldaand ateepodm itsown dyea. UfiiHed to rankw acknowledgments of benefir to 
his t^jlleaguo. Dr. IlniWti, yut Dr. Itrown i-otilil iiovwr tnuu an ylljing hs huving 
been derived from him (p. 3I»). Mr. Crichton wa« wnndprftilfy alive, also, to 
thomontnl moT<inoiitHandni.'«cI»<if hisilnv, n8m>i<ii in hiio-kwtcbof Fnxlcrick W. 
Hobert.ffin. and more ftHpwriaily intbelittln snatch of thft lantumon "The His- 
tiaical Christ " hf nj giveu on "EcwKomo," TT« thcr<_> almost antidpetes the 
ground Mr. GlaHiitnnn has taken up with no much thought, and hn fipeakfl with 
6iich point aud KupBwtivimese. that we cannot help feelinp tlie clitor would h&vo 
done woli hfid h" pivon his reader* tho whole of that Iftcliiro, Tho introductory 
memoir is Bkilfully. ploaeantly written : and, on the whole, thie is one of the 
b«st booka of tho kind wo Lavo roiid for a lonj^: time, and we hopo it will muot, 
as it deeerves, with a favoumblo reception. 

Ths History 0/ India, /mm the E'lrWi-st Prrind to tbt Cloie qf Lord JDrifhotuie'4 
AdminUlrativn, By Joiix Clauk Mausuuax. '-i vols. London: Longmaust 

The bulk of thin work relatoa to Iho century of Ajielo-Indian domiuiott, 
only ono-half of tl*e fir»r volumo rriferriug, by wny M introduction, to the 
" earliest" times, as Mr. Marshmau's <-hiel' object i-t to ^niish the atudeuts of 
Cftktitta UuTomty with a, ooutinuiitiou of Elpbiiibtunv'ti Iliudoo iiud Ua- 
homodan poriodK. Thoso rfJidimi who want k-s» thun u teamed investigation 
tupjwrted by nuthorities will lind this notolvus mu.uual excollcntly an^weriae 
thou purpose. It« author will not bo otfenctod by our Kuying that in tho Clivc ana 
HantingH period wo foel wo are not in tW tmck of that magic pun wliiuh create* 
snob brcathloas rospenso over tho field of Plaflaey, startles ui with tho oircum- 
veatioD of Omichuud and thu execution of Nuutv^mur. and in<ipirea so warm. an. 
intMMt in Ae brave Bohillas, tho !q>oliat«(t Begumfi, and tho impoachmcnt in 
Weatmiitftor Hall. Wo have, howovur, a pliiiii et'jrllng nnrrative from a eoo- 
siHa and maacuHno mind, nrrenting attention at the landmarks and tuming- 
|>Diat« of tho subjuot, and eulGviuutly detailud iu carry tho riMuior'b iiitoroat 
all tho way. We naturally infjuire how Yonnf^ India w here informed as to 
the orifpn of tliat ^eat furui^ domiimtiou ho lindn overshndowing him ; uud 
we aro glud to a^o tiiat Mr. Mumhujan tl<i(.'s not tell hiii ttU» in Ihn conMirioua 
atraiu that somo En^tisluiiett indulge thomBoIros in. who can only aee the 
blots, aa Ihough thia grmii onipirn, whir-li i» tb" wondwr of inndorn diivH and 
un untold bleaaing to millions, were cradled only in ambition, violence, unci 
frand. Mi. IfarMiraan jmlliiititji nothing that i)i immoral in the administration 
or the adminiHtratn'rH of India, but he in evor diflpoAftl to say what fairly may 
be said in favour of such as ^-iinnol' he wholly d^ifemled; ana as t'; tbxi C'i)hi> 
paoy'a sucewsiro territorial cxtenRiona, he lihowa how they w^ro in thti main 
the r««ults of fair and honest oeoossi^, and ueithor the roblx^r's n'lr Iho 
tyrant'e. Thi« is not only tho most wholesome instructioD for our Indinn siib- 
Jeota, but it is in itsolf, we are conviuood. tho most just riow to take. Wo 
mnAt not OTpoct to find more contompornry virtur in India (bon in England, 
and some of the noblest odmiiiistrativo ability and [>urity in modem times have 
been ftimJHhed bv thia oriental peninsnla, Jjorxl iJalhousie, who jirce^ded tha 
Btntiny, being a Jistingainhod Kporimon. What a miu-volluus talo it all is. and 
on what a spleudid thentro I 'rht> old Hoj^uls and all their Asiatic gmndour, how 
they Mizo tho imagiiuition ! .\nd taking thum iJl in all, what a line mt of men 
th* Oovamora and Oovenmr-tii-norft];* have provml ! What imperishable reoowtl 
the Anglo-Indian Mwonl baa won ! Bow etupendoui ban bi-en tho scale of it« 



I 




294 



The Contemporary Review. 



diMMtsis — luid it« reooTcrios too ! And tbo iiTiiet Oiriittian hnnirmi of IndiB*! 
apoaUM, 'UkinR back th^ wentonUR light to thu imUtituiliDous mst, » -vmrthytv^ 
b« DwmtionM viOi oU this. Bat wheronlKiiito in tbnte thron good Tolamos dti 
VQ Me jmtico doiu' uti this iwad Y Yot kh aullior of tbe name of Uaistiman 
nnut bo tho loMt nonoii luuMnuutnted with or muiitcr<»toil in tho Chii«tendoin 
that u now wrwuinK witb Ltdia. 

A Ceniuty of Sirmm^knm Li/r;or, A Chrottithof Lonal Ettuit^ /nn, 17-ILb) 1K41: 
Cominled and edited by JoHX Axi-kkd IjAkokoiu). Vol. 1. UirmiDgham: 
Osbomo; Loudon : Simpkin, Morslial), & Co. 18G8. 

AIk. I^iXut'OKi) ba«bad Uib hai>i>y idna orflxtractiug a local history from the 
fil« of au old-oeUblisluMl ptwincial pa^r. Not ihu kaet luoiiL of hiis bo^k will 
I» that of aotling aa «xampl«, v-hiub i« sur« tu b« followinl frtim lime to Liino 
Trherarer aimilor Glea may have bean praaerrod, whether of oao uewi^apar or 
of suvceaiaT* odm — th* lat[«r c«m> b«ng th9 luorv 1ik«ly onv, ainva few jounuUa 
can faooAt of the longnTity of ArU's liirminffham Oazrtte. 

The prweiit volutuu rxtonds {rvtn 1741 to 1791, and tta half-oeotuir no doubt 
oompriMB the raoioet portion of tho work , at ]ea.tt for its oou temporaries, einoe who 
knows how quadnt ft fimire we may outmIi-os cut in tho eyes of our d«eo»adaDt« 
throe- qnartAra of a ooutury honoo? And although tho main interest of tta 
00Qtent4 must be for the autbor'a fbUow-townsmeu, for whom eTei? name of 1 
•txoot aud iiidtittitioii aud houM, OTory turuoroo ahnoat, haa a moauiog, vet it 
is itono tbo leea full of Taluo foi' aU wuo can take a relish, in the fiuniliar fifo of 
iha Iijigli«h pooplo duTui^' the luttt ccntuiy. oiid a futnr« Macaulay ts aun^ to 
drMT largely on it for iilutitral)OD.s of a fiitufv LliHlory of Kaglundfor the period 
to vUoh it refoTH. A stranger to Binninghnm may, isdood, be upt to take 
«Be«ptum to the length of the work, and to ita many rspetitiona, and pvtJnpa 
the b«et modo in which its stores mij^bt be rendered avxilable for genorsl use 
would bo by means of a tkilfUl " gutting" articio in odd of tho standard 
Qnarterlie«. It is impoaoiMe to do more here than give a foretaste of the 
remills of aucb a process. 

AdTertisemBOts as to runaway wives, 1741 to 1761 :— 

No. 1, tho pr-iiitjenf huabaitd : — 

" Uaving ^Klrciiifled my wife, EUxabv^ Hlatn-, fof olojilng front me, for which I gwu 
1 am very lorr^-, she Ixiing rotumcd ogam, / da Ktft^\f jfromiw to pajf dwy ottc thattJutU, 
Irtuf htr/iir Iht futfrt" 

Ko. 3, Uio anxtoua faushand :^ 

. . . " If anr ixmoiu n-i]I give intaUigienoe to the uid Willinm liJoKNlith whom «he 
ty 1}e OMt with, within vevaa days' timo iift<T tb« diitu thoriMf, vhnll roc-oive a 9wmm 
N.B.— ^Af hM till 9h* tyt, and vns well dra>a»L" 

{Qinry, whether Mr. Meredith would have oflbrod two guiut<aLS for a binooolar 

No. 9, the detJant busUoud. running olf iuto rhyme : — 

'■ \Vbi>n«ii the will- of Ovdfroy WUJsinilh h)u> fAwvX from htr wid husband without 
any msaavr at rsaBon, sad took soma thJnj;> of TUiia with her : This Li to fonwu* 
aaj penon or parsons from trusting her, lor h« will pay iio debt aho ohall contract ; sad 
if any one will help birr to hiin again, Ihtfi ikatl it wiil rftoaninl, nnd a« tilUe rtjfmnM, 
unit ilMil hor* a ttrM uf jfrexnt fi>r ilmr fmbn,tl mv, Oudfr^ Wililualth." 

" Collectors" on tho highway : — 

"Djrmingham, Uay 6 ( ] 7-S I ) ■ On Tuesday lut, the ShiWHlmry (-^uaviui was stopped l»* 
twoMt thn Pimr Onmen and Ihti WvLih Hftrp hy m siogUi high vnnntin, who b^havM rery 
dvUly to the unaiwngers, told them that hi< was a trudesman in'dkbVH, and huped that 
they would contribnte to his sssifltaooi<. Un which each psssenger gare htusomethac, 
to the amount in tbo wholo to nbout fuur poundd, with which ne wu mighty wall 
•stisBed, hmt rttmn^ Mn>r iaffptatt la om dJ' fiat, ioyiViif Ar iMvwr loci *o pp n. He than 
told thetn th»4 vrr* .'u« «t}^^r mlltclMt i/n tht itxid, but kt uvuld ut M«m Wt «/ rfn^^* 
which hs BOCOTdingly did ; nnd bagged that thoy would not at theu next inn msntion 
tho robbery, nor appear agtitnst him if he ahould l>o (Akon up hereafter." 

Sole of a slave is England :— 

"MoTvaber It (1771]. To bu aold by auctiwi, on Saturday, tbv SOth day of 
Horomber mstant^ at tho hooso of Ure. Wiibb, in tim <!ity of l.ichtlijd, rmd known by 
tlM sign of tho Barbers' Arm*, l^twucn thti batus uf 3 aukl l> tn tlw evening of th» atid 



may 
tticsrrf. 



N&ticcs of Btaki, 



295 



day, unJ .mliJocL ta utwlia tbt will bft tfawi «>d iber« produoad (exnpt sold b}' i<i-ivat9 
contiact before tliv time], of wHch aotlot wtll 1>o gtren to Uio public by John' llvulcjr, 
of WbIcJ], auotiotuwr wiA — '-"""^ a iwrto boy Rom Afric«, auppowd to hn About Uta 
or «lervtt Touii of o^. Ua i« nmu-lttbly atrait, mil-pro portiooed, tpealu t^dconbly 
good EDgUvli, of ft mild duDonitian, fnpndfjr, ofBcioiu, nomtd, hi-^ltby, load of Uboar, 
■ind Tor oolaiir an escotlMit nno bisclt." 

Tootii-driivn charity : — ; 

" Docember 4 (1786). y^t u« (^ad to bear Ut. I'liuk, Ibe i-eqwelabla dmtiit, baa 
been M> iniicb mnployod in bu profaanon but w«ok . nncd bfa beii»vol«itC» will aoiD 
accou) [>IiHb hia purpoav, that of nving a poor fauifly jr<iiii ruin, in oonwqnonci'of s Uw- 
mut, Iho costfi of vbicfa atnonnt to upwards of il9, omJ icJirA Jfr. C/^ri Ani ftwrMitl^ 
wHdtrtakm Ai folttetfitm UU- NbfNiUl^ «f thate ith» apply to A im to katt thrir tnth drt^itn." 

ThoMQ who fiuicy tlut atrikoa and combtnatiooB aro oovolties, or tJut tboy may 
b« suppresafril by murv oombmation Isvi, will fuid abuutlauvo of ifvid«iic<:) bero 
to tho coQtrar>': <t.^.,that of a lock-oat fur tbo Bstabliabmeat of pieco-vork, and 
tiw auppreaaiou of IIuum« uf Cull, in Lb« tuitoriufz tmdo, 1777, rollowcd by an 
attvnpt at oo-opemtiTc producUou on tbo port of tbo tnon. Again, wbon we 
tocolloet that Birtnitii^Iiaiu is iiow tb» pliic« wbich oluixiu Xo atuid at the head 
of tlio Building Society movement, it ia intaroatlaf: to find propoMls for tb« 
furming of a BuUdiog isouety adrertisod in 1781. >ii>t low rcuarkable lif it to 
obaerro doliating <ioci«ties Qourialuiig as early aa 1774, Trhcro tho "poor 
modwoio or appreatioe-boy " miuglod freely in dlKoiuusioa, vitiioat eo mttca aa 
a " clean abirt and stock," with " young esntlAmaD of tho lav." 

To Mr. Laugford's toIiuuq ia prelixea a reduced photograph, of tho Cxst 
numbtir of the Biruuwjhu m O'lstitr, dat«d hfo&day, Korombor 16, 17-tl, a 
boautifal Kp«cimoD of newspapor typography, puttiue to ahoue all but tho wry 
best C'Xaniplcs of i.«utemporury jouruitliam. Indeed, it muit bo obaerred that 
the priutiug of Mr. LanKfonl s owu volume ia not altogether cr^ditahlo to a 
town which onci< coutaiowL IljiidurTiUe'a fiuootu proaaas, aiDoe miaprinbi nucb 
aa " a|»atoi-iUly," " dfltoieutd," should not haro aaoajted a oorrector of a^ crago 
BBpooity. &fr. Longford bim^-uU Itaii a cruvlly utunfe memoiy (or nuotationa, 
and disBgurea with twu bluudon a mie\o fuur-liDa scrap from Tutmvsoa'B 
"Tithouua." 

Jf. (k BamnU : a Uttnufir, Moymphient atut Aidobiogntpliiml. By M. OtTTKOT. 
tVanalated by the Author of " John Halifax." I..ondon : Macnulhia & Oo. 

H. DS BARAim was a flort of couuocting link l)otwcvD tbo aactont Fr«Dch 
monarchy luiil tho now prnpiTo, Imvttig Uken a moro or lesa prominent part in 
all iho gruat movcmoiita of ui'jro 1\lux half a ci-utury. Nor oiil i")[itic«i work 
alone Mouuy bi« miiul ; ho wa» alwayi biuy with bi» pea ; anil produced some 
works which, for ottnsdenticiusaesa, cleanuMV. aud ctk-gouco, will loug luaiutain 
aplacti ill !tti>r.iluru: ohh of thorn, thv " Tableau do la I.itt^mture l-roncaise 
BU Dix-huitit)mc SiMo," having beon made a olaSB book by Vr. Aruold, of 
HuKby. Tliouah a. stnuncb Catholic, Ik- vtm liberal, wise, luid modorato, Iho 
highest proof of whinh wtui his rioec lUid friendly uaaociBtiau with M. Guiaot 
through iin ordinary tifTtime. He bad many of tbo la\«t imd iiiomI: uMontial 
qualit]i>!i of tho hlstorinn. Ho consciausly kept in aboyancs what pru^K'tly 
Deloii<n to the I'hilosnphy of Iliafory, «nd thu injttiliciouK intnuluction nf wliich 
into history propor, ho held, wns thr< dii-iict cause of itii corruptifii and falitenciu 
(pp, 97, itH). It was bis idoa that faithfutnoas lu fiu.-t«, iu the 8|iiTit of tho 
period portray^(l. ought to bo tho hisborinn'B maitt aim, and, acting on thia 
principle, ho I'aado narrativt' uwuxly do the whole work, thus lUustriliog by 
otrefuu-xiimple, if ho <iid not first inttoduco, anew method of liistorical writitlg. 
Ue dearly »avr tho ctsMutiitl movvtuont of vital piiDciploa below tho rotstless 
wavo of appoariiiict-is — the gre&t fat-t which o&ciroloit all factd, m the fwi the 
earth -utiu uU ho did cuurioa a groat moral, tho minietr)' and iuterdepondeuce of 
part with [>:irt, Hiii s^tuailiiieM of miud, hi» hunoaty, his CAlm doiib*rfttO in- 
n{riit, luid hid ilii^Iiko of tupto trick by soparato effects, mado him strikingly 
inaividual among modurn Frvnchnuio, and thin memoir, written with aiieh tact 
aod oompsf^f^ss as to Ira a model even of 11 Prvnoh inomuir, by his I^ieud and 
teUahvnilrur, M. Guizot, and tnuielalod with the graceful fi-eedom which only 
eomoB of faithful nloonieas by Mrs. Craik, will bo aufiicio&t to koop hia memoiy 
greou niootig £ugli£hm9n. 



296 



The Contemporary Review. 



ra.— PHILOSOPHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC. 



Thrtilogy: an Inquiry into the i-'tindamfiital Princntf4 0/ BMffiout. 
it. and Pditical S^wa. By tlio^ov. \V. R. PlBlE, D.D., Profe»aor of 

Edinburgh : 



ffatural 

ilon 

Dirinity and Chiiroh Hifltory in the Univeraity of Aberdeon. 

Bluckwood ood SvDfi. 1867. 

lUM. truth from which Br. Piriei Bt*rt« in thU trmtifiv is, tjiat "Nalural 
BeUgJon miuit be the foundation of every form of fieveUtioii " (p, 66), and bis 
purpow, acoordiDgly, is to Uy the foundations of tliat natural religion more 
Eniuy, M it seem? to liim, uuko tho^ bare oror booD bud before. He be- 
lieves hb argvmieot to be, "from begmntng to end, both plain and logiciilly 
irromstible." 

The result of Dr. Fitie'e labours socnu to us oloar, aensible, and eouud- He 
bUowa chioflyin tho fo«t«t«ng of Batk-r, {>roto«t« agfoinst 80i>T>tic!i''ni. TnatArialism, 
utUitemnism, tho eelGsh uieory of morale ; protests not Use strongly aftUBst 
the notion that tbo words which doscribo Binne attributes, Anch aa "justice/' 
"inorcT." "goodness," can have any otlior mooniag, when so appUod, in rerealed 
than thay hftTo in natural religion, or in ordinary um. 

^e book before us may tbcrororo be rooomm'jnd&d as a guide to those wfaoae 
minds Are begioDing to be perplexed with the problems of their own tifo and of 
the world ; and the calm, utirliotorical spirit in which it is written preseota k 
re&eahiiig contrast to the f«TeriH)i, ipiumodic language in which auCQ subiocta 
ILTO oftvu oaudlGd. It IB only nj'ht to add that tfiero is comparatively little of 
original thought in Dr. Ptrif'a work ; that while some quotattons seem noed- 
lesuy long (four stiuisus from "Boo Juan," e.g., tu biiow tlmt Lord Byron 
beliaved in ghosts^, therti in hanlly enough ackniiwled^ntent of tho labours of 
those to wboca ho U induhtod, and that tho style somt^txmOH duflcoiidm almost to 
ponny-tt-liner's slipshod. Thua ha hii|>e8 ' ' to nast the faith of the rdii/ious vfoHd 
on foundations which cannot be ehaken." (p. ix.) He Bays of men and women 
who sin in ignorance, that " wo cuuuot tell what may be the future position of 
ench parlitt." (p. 137.) Ho adopts the pulpit gnuidiloqiioncL' of a ^IutoHm 
majettiaii, oven whoc hospoakH of mattora within ni^ own iioreoual cogoisancfi: 
" ir« have known not a few, and 0110 iu jiarticnlur in whoin u't vfTd deeply 
ioterestod." (p. 124.) Somo Btatements, too, seom to imply a detioiont appre- 
hen*ton of tin* min^iits of thougM artniml ii». \Vwnroto!ii, for inxtancti (p. 16), 
that " all itttacka ou tho dutaiia of Giristionitv, or raUier oti its choracteriiittCB 
(rather on important ohnngo of phraao, by-the-byv}i huve failed . ■ . and would 
jam (0 fre ^I'ven up." 

Camt and EJftd ; or, Tht Olahe wt Tnhtihit, By E. Maoklky Bro'^tis, F.0.8. 
London : Iteere & Co. 

Mil Bkowth's title scorns unfortunately ttulocted. We hare many cbaptws 
on effocta. BeeinQing with the cloudH. ho brings u« down to earth, and ti^ea 
us tlu-ough Xw pages op the ThauiOi^ Valley, and along the Weald, with much 
commonplaco goological doscription, but telta nothing which was not familiar 
blroBdy to the verissf tyro. Ho ditcouTMS on th« tides and oooan carrenU, and 
of tho fatter tells tia ;— 

" It can hnrdlj* be tMi that tJiey hit, attributable to sny other cauBO than tiiat of 
gnkvitatii>n, nor in it to lin i*iippoi«>d thnt th'sr f;nac>THl vonditifin ia much or at lUl 
affsctod by the ontlino or contour of thu vntt areiu of dry l&nd, except whero the wat«r 
txUts BS a strait, or ooonpies a narrow channel." 
But tiroujfh many pagos of diluted learned talk we have no poofa adduced. 

IVjm thw Gn'ftt Ormi-'n Hoiid ho leaps to tho ecliptic and the oyuator, and 
ehowa that toe precA&sion of tho equinoxes gradually cbangeB the rolntive inclina- 
tious of thw ecliptic and equatorial pianos ; but, after all, lea>-08 uj* quite in tho 
dark as to the ptfoct.s of these caus'^s. We nre told (p. HR) that two groat 
inSuODDOt, gravitation and cheouatry, aro ever at work, and thenoo we are 
lod — whether ns an offoot irom a caui>i>, we cannot say — into a diaqniftition on 
the political growth of England ; oIUt which tho author concludes with some 
rcmarka, writwn in a good spirit, on tho Or«at First Causo. 

On the whole, we tmvo seldom met with a book more iQco&nequential, nor 
with ono which eo little ozpioined the eauH of its publication. 



» 



Thi Buman WiU: it» Fiiwtiofu «»* F/rfdom. By T. Hronm. Lontloa: 
Hemilton. Adams. A Co. Ifl6(. 
Horace mtii. *' Difficile eat proprio conununio. diccrp," which mme euppOM to 
mc«a that it i« very difiloult to treat of s subject ou which a. gr^ deal has been 
alr«tdy aaid. Wo did think that the <juoetion of ).ho Trill was HotUed so far as It 
cttti besottlod : that all had cqiuq to ]tir<liop DutIor'« conclutnon, vhioh ia, that tba 
will ia practjcally frpc, and thfiioforf any doctrino c.f nocoseily is only a thaory 
inaiutuiuwl by ubtttiact mutuphyiii^'ituifl as ii sul-jocl for meiital gjlinuastic*. 
Mr. UuftheB haa thought tho qtieslion worthy of a good-aiwd Tohimo, in which 
bo defondti tho fm^dum, of thv will (ijfuiust all u<.^C0H8ilariiui<4 and prod<.'t«huariani, 
such aa Habhes, Kdwards, PriesUay, and Toplady. It is a th<>uf;htful. well- 
reasoiiod treatise. Tbo author bi^gias with a UKoful, though honioly divieioii of 
exi«tw»cu into being* and tfaiugti. mil fuiliiiK t<> roiiiailt tlmt tha diittinctioQ it 
often violated and deatroyed by iho fitrnier being n^ducod to the condition of the 
latter. He r»Piit>H tho argiiirifiitH for phtlDnophicul iioc«uiity, uiid procfitLU to a 
further exaTninntion of tham m thny nasunio a religious form. Tho doctrines of 
Calriu, *» sat forth iu tho WoatmiitHtvr Coufwwioii, and di^fondod liy itrgunMiuts 
from the Dirina rjmnipotflnco and Forefcnowlodge, are oil rejected. Mr. ITiighea 
maintains thnt Che liberty of tho will i« dmnandod by robVi'in ; yoa, li<>it nt ita 
foundation. All rOTolation aasumes that man is reaponsinlo. and thfirofora he 
must bo free. 

!rS*.<na/((yifi</i?fin;;,ifc. By JntsBni Wood. I^ndon: Fpodi-rickParrah. 1867. 

What Mr. lI«rbortNp«ncer culls "the Unknowable," Mr. Wood disooutsoe of m 
that whicli is well known. His aabject in fnjinitr Urini;. Wo do not for a inom«nt 
profoas to &^»f.- witli all that Mr. Wood tays, but wn do uiaintnin that to exorciao 
tbo liiiuJou snub ii subject is aa legitimate aa to forma pbiloeophy of the iciMioaa. 
IT the SvAa ut (l')irit>timaity bo truo, or, to take lower fround, if, to use Mr. 
6|>6ncer's words, " religion expresses nome ftt«rDHl fact," then in either case these 
bete may be u fairly reftsonod ntioii as Ihu facls of thu phoDOinenul world. 
Mr. Wood's book is of tba myiitical kiud, uiid is to be claased with the writings 
of St. Biunystua tho Areopagite, Jac^b Iloafame, and Kmiaanuo! Swvildnborx- 
ilv oiplatiis tho Trinity, the creation, sin, tba iiicuruatiuu, hiiavon, und bsU. 
To do this he auku ntily uiie |)ostulata, which, from nil our knowledgii of nature, 
WQ Would eay ought to h^ granted him, — that all boiug throughout all wurlda 
ia analogous ; thul 

•' Eartli 
Id Ixir tho nliml'tw or htavQQ, luiil thinffa tlioieti) 
IJifli U. Lfthci like uimIx Ukui on earth i* thoiighl." 

All being is kindrod, tho beiuK of the lutliiito' and tbo beiug of the finite- 
God and nmu — Uie I'lwitor anil the created: all ia one Infinite Temple. The 
Oodbvad is individualized into Father, Son, and Holy <Jho«t, or Thought, 
Substance, and the immutable olttinviLt of Ijaw. These three elements constitute 
all beiug, from a eubtlci material atom up to tht> Ultimatu Unit, diffenng ouly 
in meaaura an<l dugnxi. Tln.i ]''nther and lluty iihost are tin- inscrutable nowars. 
The 3oa is manifoetod, niid in his incarnation Ue n-'prcSGUts tho Qodhcaa. The 
irord"porMin" is never appli'-d either to tbo QiKlhcad or to the ■iidividitaln of tho 
Triune. Mr. Wood Hoeinii alwayn to aiuuiue that the Liviuo Being is aboTo 
pereonality; yea, that our tnioesBeDrp and boingi" notour penwriulity. Creation 
la the contiiiuona and vital act of renewing, reKlxiring, and preaerviii^ that 
which is already in e.\i84eiice. Ueaven, holinese, and ul> rofer to the state of 
exiatenee when at the climux or thn-iio of tho cycle of bsing through which 
all existence peaeoB; while hell, sin, and death, their correlates, are ibe cul- 
minating base of the cycle. Bedeniptiou by tho iO'Camation of tho flodhc-ad 
was the fulGlmeut of tho utodiatorial lav which nrevaila through all kiii;;dome 
of lifo and being. John Hunter demonstrated that a vital organic circulation 
existed witbia each i*otitient form. Au anulogoos circulation is supposed to 
pen*«de tho vital economy of tba tomute of luliuito Doing. The heart and its 
functions may bo takou an thii lypo of univvrijal exiateoco. The right ventricle 
with the venous blood i» " bull and the bottonileaa pit ; " the left ventricle, tho 
" fountain of life proper;" tbo tricuspid vnlvc, Lho «xit-gaLo of heaven; and 
the eeuu-ltmar, that cf hell. Mr. Wood, like all myatiotu writers, says many 




298 



T/zc Contemporary Review. 



nod things along vith much that, to urdioory people, aaoBU fimoiful. BhouU 
Eo vrilti iiiiy iiKirii biiukii. iro br)^ of hiiu tii luako nu Aoatoiicefl much iihort«r. 
801BB of thsm are more than half s |ni^ in length, and are really tiring both 
to th«< braath and the Imin. 

The S«tmd TaU« of fAc Ten CammmtlmtuU. By BaYID Bonn.4XD. Ixmdou : 

Longmans. 18G7. 

Tuis in a sequel to Kx. Bowlaud'is former tninUK', " The Lavs of Kature. the 
foundation of Mnmla." Thn arguinnnt in herd carried tarrhcr, natural nght* 
'being aoaaidered aa the foundalion of tha moral uiid wt-'iol systotn. and the 
oonunandmant* tu coiiicicloiKM vith llu> lawa ni nuture. It ia mn old <{uestion 
on whieh mudi haa been written, vhother morality haa a foandattoa iii Ui» 
aatora of thingv. 01 if it is only oouTontional- Thoro arc great uamott on both 
ndea. Ur. BowUnd. irho haa thought out the Buhject narefully for himself, 
•droeatea the cauao of eternal and immutublc morality. He quotes and refutes 
tho uLOitArinn orgumootci of [*aloy, Bentham, John Anittin. and John Stuart Uill. 
In re}dy to Austin, Ur. Sowland says truly, that "Aristotle mny be pro- 
doced as nn illuatriou^ oxnmplo that th« portion of mankind cxclu<tod mtm 
nrelatiou obtained, without the help uf revelation, knowledge of law identical 
with revealed law. liut noither Anstotio uor Cicero diacovered by the light at 
nature tho favouriio ducUiue of Utility, as ihua propounded by Austin, " that 
theA ia harmlasa, and erou useful, wheu oonndered by itself." Mr. Bowlaud'a 
book ia well wiittoo, aud in our judgment his argtUBeata oro generally mund. 

Liaania </ Jattralia and New ZealawK By Dr. J. E. O-KAY. 4lu. I<ondon: 

tluahtch. 

Db. Qbat hft« Tendpifed good scrriwi to noturnliittit by bringing b«ifot« um. in 
a oonvenic'Dt and concise form. » new of oac proup of thoreptiliuD fauna of tho 
aouthom continont. U> liavo hwo a tnl>u1at«fl i«}-noj)si« <if l^a sTv?dos of 
limrtls. of which oi^ht are peeuliar to New Zealand, two have bofu inlroiluuod 
into Aiintrulia by r^hips, 0110 only i« uommon to North Anstraliu and Uui'iieo, 
and IIH ore peculiar to Australia and tho islands adjacvrnt. Thr> Tulume forma 
H un^-fkil !)«ouel, so far aq it goe«, to l>r. UOnthiTV mn^imfiiTont folio ou tho 
Itfiptilea of British India ; but wo regret that I'r. Gray did not oicpend a few 
more pages of dMcriplire lettor-proctf in8t«ad of rv&irring the Etudiinl to works 
wholty inarceasibli> to any one out of Ijondon and thn ItntUh Mui^^um. Whon 
wo wish to know, e.fy., what i» I>i{'h\}Miijl\i9 furcosnt, it is vorj- like a mockery 
of th" Kturli»li wtudeiit to r«*for hiiu to " Moniits : B'Trlin, 1W>1J, p. ^29," Wo 
wish l>t. Qrey hail followed Dr. Oiluther'tt good i-.<t»utplp. iitid trvi-ti u iliagnosia 
of each species. ForIv-f"iir siu^civs iirti illuHirntttI by lilhoi^iiph)-. Wlien w» 
ny that the artitit Ir Mr. Ford, wn WfiaA add not a woi-d fttrtliRr. Witb diines* 
aecurncy of dt>tHil, hr- hitm'ily combiniw the vigour nn*l lifn of tnm ;irf. Wo 
tmat I>r. Omy may bo iimuccd tu oontinuo tho wrioa, and eoinplcto the Reptiln 
of Auatrnlia in a suiiiJar form. 



rV.— CLASSICAL. 

TkrCvtiiiMr W.-rfaff fli^nrr. Editwl by the Rt-v. J. li. YoxoE. M.A., Aasistant- 

Master at Kton CoUege, and lata Follow of King's. London ; Longmaua. 

18«7. 

Ktox ha« hitherto dono leea than her •pta^ in producing good editions of the 

elassicR, and this i^ a matter for surprise when the taste ana soholarshiu of her 

etaff of masters is taken into account. Tho names of Ilawtroy, Ooodibru, Okea, 

and the university repute of many of their colleagues, mitrut bare gunrauteoA 

•omothing lean barren than tho ordiniir)* school-books of tho Bton prew. Bat 

lir. J. E. Yoi]jj:e's uew edition of Uomco makiOa omuuda for paitt iimotivity, and, 

in its intomal a« well as oxlorual cxc«Uence. bespaoJu for nia Alina Mutor au 

acoouioQ of literary repute baaod upon f»metliingmoro real aud uubstautial than 

mere traditiouai-y scholarship. It is indeed a work that \'Aau may be pruud of, 

and that the achobui of this ooaotvy gonorBlly may hold up whon ptuTokiDgly 



No/icfj of Books, 



399^ 



:t hsvo boou, what gwA «ditioD of HorvooSoglAnd 

__ _ . . »tter of congratulAtioa that it comas &om. a quarter 

Iwsy* •lyoytyl tbu credit ot' «pocikl Anidnnai for LaUu pom« aod 
poetry. We shall reJoic« grcetly if, in a orief Dotice, ve aoooeed in drawing 
attwktigo to a r«uUy vuIuuUo uud hoawb labour of luvu, as uulikq uatDo of tbo 
editioiM of claaaica, whicli be»x tlw uanie of another &Cr. Vod^ aa light i» to- 
darfcnoBB. 

Thia uew ILoraca ii4 more than a nchotd-book, ht-iug a haud-tome anil olsgant 
ooUto: uudyat it ie quite adapted for the uao of sixth or tifUi fbnalwj's.bocauso 
the ootaa arepiUiy mid xucciiict, aud "Ut>iilat«" nwulUof paal lacabratioii* 
of aehoIarB. xWre is ooihiug ladiing, which iateUixeut reaeanh cvuld mipply, 
(or Um iMO(i« of U--uni«r(» ; and ywt lIm; book haa a drK^nj^-room air about it, 
and in a great part of ita anparatua aims diatiiiotly at attiacting the man of the 
world, vm hM bw.-k vita pleavoro upon the kindred pa^w of Hoiaoa in bis 
leisoro hoars. For this clau the gT«at liixuiy of an exoeptuuiaUy largo sapnly 
of apt English and Latia and Greek pandloht for every passa^ of Uoruce tOM 
admits of thfim will b« an appreeiaolo gaiu. The ndmireni of William Pitt, 
tonuQg to Iloiace for TeriOoation of the quotation, *' I^udo maaentem; si 
oelcroH <iiiAtit," u^c. (C. m. xxix. 6^ — 56), which thr youthful HUt«sman nud 
Qpou a fiuooua occasion, will find anotJlisr parallel for the eame {amous Unea, 
woicb corioualy makoa ntost harvest of tho very words [" virtuto ma involvo ") 
which f^tt EQode«tly omittod. Woleoy. in SlubqKMra'a Hrury Vlll. (act iii. 
sc. 'i.), speaks thua, as Mr. Yonge'e note remiada u«: — 

" «y rebo 

And my iat«giity to Ucnvi% ii nl! 
I now dan! uU) my own ; " 

ani] this IS but one out of conntleBS parallels from Shakspeare which are brought 
to boar on Horace in those paB«- A particuliirly ui>poeiCe one ia given in a iwte 
on "Hbpra bill's" (Kpod. xi. Hi}, ti)!., KittQ Tjntr^ li. -I — 

'■Touch me willi "/Mr •mgit. 
And lot not women's w<Apotu, ws.ti'r-dtDps, 
Sttin my nMn'i' chselis." 

Bnt it ia not only Shakupoaro who is brought to iUustrato tho Venuaion's mean- 
ing : uu Hugliith' pout uf lueht fruni Spoiiwr to Kvble i« overlooked. The boat- 
aoDg iu the " Lady of the Lake " ia called np for compariaon with tho simile in 
C. IK. 17. -57, beginning— 

" Dtuiii ui ilrx toniHi bipcnniliui; '* 

and from Young's "Night I'honghte" (Xigfat vi.) is drawn a parallel for the 
beantiful luiee of Uoraoe, C. iv. rii. T, &c., beginning, " IramortalJa ue iperea, 
monct annurt," which is astoniohingly eloaet and di^craiMuit only where the tone 
of the Christian poet bmathes a hope the Heathen knew not o(. It is pleaaant 
also to find Mr. YoBgo. in his parallolimns of Fiomco, layiiif; another 
tdiolor and Eogliah poet, John Keble, under oontributiou. The passage ima 
the " Chriatian Yeftr ''— 

" Knch calm old ago M ronccKarDpum 
Aful H^f'OOinnuiiidzniF lusu^ cnjimv," 

aptlycomportylwith tholineof the"OanaenSn)oalare," "Di 8oni>«tiiti plocidam 
quiotem, is only one out of aevenil references to the late vicar of Iluraley. Tliia 
parallolistio featuro. indeed, whcthor wn conBirfer ftonipiirisonB of Tforaoe with 
nls own country's berds, oonlemporoiy and of later date, or with those of oar 
own land, will bo generally accepted At tho speoiiUty of this oditioii. Tbf!< bfird 
who saog of II<.'nry*8 holy shade, and was one of it* most loving "alumni." 
would rejoice could be kiiow bow oft in thoea annofutions his daseio stanzas 
aro broui;ht to illustrate thovo of the Ronuui Pindar. But it woold bo quite 
witing to suppose that this sort of illustration at all snpeiaedea the graver a.nd 
severer Xath of strict and exact tDtorprotation, thu discrimination of various 
reading*, and the nioor poiiita (jf grammar and ciitical adiolareihip. Without 
giving onr adhesion toUr.Tcmgu'a ultiujate mbstitutofor the pal|»bly ouirupt 
" Altncis extra Umen Apulifo," C. ni. iv. lU, viK. — 

" Nolricii Mttra Umina riliar," 
to tho ocoeptaiice of which his own odmiasions are a fotal bu, it mtmt (o ue 



300 



The Contemporary Review, 



extremely probable that " Alli-icis cxtni limiuii villuloi" ("bfiyoDdthepreoiitots 

of my iiiitive faomeiitiMiil "J , nmy have been Horace's raadin^, lost b> tu for • 

eeasoQ thruugli the maduleit of ubbreviatoiv ftnd trauHcribera. And in Cm. 

xxiT. 4, the milxttihitioii of "Terrunum omiio taia fit nvare publicum" for 

" TyrrbeoQin," &o.. duo as it h in the first iiiBtiuice tu Luchmutu, ii<. to uur 

thinkinfi:, uniLitswomMy onfon-M bv tho iif^aliTA and jiotiitivQ ar^tmentiK^ Mr. 

Ton^ in pa^ 82 of Kin notes. 'fbiMe arc &amploH of his <imeutIaUuotil viS\». 

I knd it ift CT«i:Utablo to bim that \\:' \t\ry Mildom vniLliinui to iinnaat aii ri^tabliithod 

lOr weU-recommondiKl text. Indoed. ne ia ho connen'atire in editini; as tu be at 

lis best in defendint; time-honoured rEWiIin^ and tiinB-hotmuniil intiTjrnita- 

tiosa — a task which ho discharges with eiitial love uiid itkilL Aud couwr^-aliflni 

' urein i« real gain to aU parties. Imues are conftiK«id and notos are stHtrwl nod 

iddod by the di«OT*ric» of pednntic coinmonlMor*. that -■•ftme urord may be 

(Tci'Dod by one or ouother verb iit the xotnc sentence, luid that skill may 

shown ill adrticatiiig tho claims «if the li>an likely of tho two. In C Ell. 

iii. 31— 

" Anmin im^pr-rttim, H ta^. ineliiiil sitntn 
C'mn t«m ivlst. tipurliHi't' fbrtioi- 
(lnHDi ro):(ii-G hiiniKnoa ia imtui 
UmDi< KicTum rupiunto duxttA," 

the simpler faabion is to make " bumanns iii uioia" depend, aB is natural, on 
" «>Rero ; '' but OrelH and "Dillonburper disoorer a greuler fitness in connecting 
the wonin with '" rnpionto." and Gtidin^f iin :iiitithpiti« betwwn "htimaiios in 
uaua" and "Kicrura." Mi. Yongc, in siij'jiort of the old way, arks for any 
aiilbontj- in cliWHiotl ■writi.'n' f-jr \ntJiij; " huJiianui?," the op|to>site of " divinus. ' 
in th« setiHo of " pmfanUR ; " and bit also aptly pointA nnt tntit tho vfrae, " ( hnne 
sacrum rapivuto dextra," is simply a poetic pbruMi for "sacrilegfi manu." 
Another Htanza fif a Liter ode ((.'. lit. xxiii. 1"— Util, which liiilonburj^r woukl 
expunge if lie darod, and of which Moiueke de&ee tlie world of scholara to make 
sense or liatinity, tib.— 

*>Immtuiis nrflin td tutifrit nmnuj, 
NiHi flnmpliiam 1>l».niliiir boidin 
Mollivit nvi-i-»oi riijiulMi 
I-'anx* pio ct Baliontu inictk." 

tis SO explained by Mr. Yonge aiv to do no discredit to his championship, " Ini- 
rtDuaia. he says, is i.'^. "immnnis nox&.'* or " ni^cosfitalc otferendi :" andattet 
" blnudior |Ko»titt " ■' futiira " is to be uiidei-tood. 'I'hd Beiu*e evolved by Mr. 
Yonpe wonld then bo much as follows : " If ck-an hand toui'h the altar. |it is] 
not mort< likely to (.fuu its potitiou with cosUr victim [than ifj it propitiatM 
averted Penates with holy cjik« and cracklijij; salt." In a word. " Irrom ptm 
haii'ls the humbk-st off-.^riug in u» weLi'ome u» tlie eoitt li<itt." 

We can barely call altentiuii. in our narrow liujits, to Mr. Yongo'a mainte- 
nanco ('.'. in. xi. US) of the old reading, "Muiiiaul auguoi* caput rj**« n(qvt" 
against lienlley's coDJoclnral " oxeatqno ; " of "medio alveo' Jiii. sxix. 34), 
u(taio«t Orclli's '• mvdio a-quore ; " and of " pulchriurovouit "(iv. iv. 65), agaiost 
the samo commetitiLtor'a questionable omnndation , "exiot." An examination 
of Ur. YougT.<'B LLrgumenta in defence of the establiiihed rvadiug in thoKi and in 
moot passages in diftpulf, wliether in the Odiut, Kutirtia, or KpiKtles, i^ill bo cer- 
tain to re«mt iu as high vx cetimate of his ci-itical acumen as of hia ruading and 
rewiarch. The>« are a few inisprinbf i^i and down the %-«lunie, ■which, when 
they occur, a little mar the luxury of a nch creamy paper and a beautiful tj-pe. 
On the whole, the " I^ton ltoracu"ie so muvlk ora»uoce8s, that we shall Uve 
in hopes of nn " Eton Virgil." 



£fuxh Ardcti. 



I'oema Ttfuny^oninnum. liutin^ Rudtlitum. 

Moxon et -Sric. A.I). SUnWIJtviI. 



Loadint: Edr. 



pROPBHaoB Rklwtk'h nrndnnt, cau.<)ed by the ra.th riding of an undergraduate, 

^TiUsot have been forgotten by our renders ; and his long illQeei!> in oooe«qaonoo. 

['COtnlnited with his df^rved pojmlAritv. will bf-i4)cak the favour of thoae who 

[oan enjoy English poem" when I'endered into Luliii, for th'i vcwioa of " Knodi 

Ardon " ^^^th wliioh. as b'> lolls his " lector bcncaolus " in prefatory Iiexametem. 

he begmled the length of nigbt^ betwixt his fall and hL« recovery. In tnitb, 

the trunaltition needs some such extrin»ic favom- to be shown it, for— wlu-thw 



Notices of Books, 



301 



oviog bo its Trriher ti&ving been lent fuuiliar of Ut? years with the Latia pocta 
tlutQ Uiu Tifttiii fiLthnrit, or to hi« illsosd hariiig duindiTiod hint to tho tAsk 
of retoui.lun;j wliat h« ha<l writ — Uiei-o i« ttii utiuv<MiiK"^ abuut tliv i.>xocuUou of 
it which tftkoei otf from tho ploamre of ita ]KTiiBal. In the ihty^ wheu ho vian 
th« ''!innc(illor'« ciiksedcal modni, tho «ooii prufuBnor ^'ouldhuvt.' bluttod luiuiy 
littlo faults anil dtafigiircmcnt* which ho now retains upon his jmliUahed 

Eii(p.>. Thero i? fioul work. >tuldvu uro, iii hu vorsioii, if it it leiid Uiruu^ih, 
ut the fiistidiom will be apt to stiimblo on little dcfccto, which nmv Imply 
diniuc'Iiiii.' Ihum to go furtiiur. Aa oarlj' (i« tho n.-cuod pa^. cy., wj ^d tlu.- 
lino — 

" A narrow care nut hi bnumth tho cKff," 

tratuilated — 

" C'«nds ulii anyiutum pffutiyt tut rupihu* nstna." 

where u kochI fjaLini-it would avoid mii'li a coiiotniction a.« uft ha-TB fttliOsOdi 
becnoso " })onc>trn " i>4 to bo foiiTid with " «iub," and iin aa;nKiti\*e, aaisMMflA 
for TOrbi* of miitidTi, Ijiit iicit willi ;m Mlileitivx. At r. Lli;{ " n Mtkly child " H 
rondcrDil " infans m/ilo dohilir"," Although avcry ons knnwa that *• male " addod 
to (111 iidji-utivA' Ki'niTicIly Jti)iiiir|.i n pnviiUv« fonn, us hi tlm cuites of " nmlv 
Banus," " mule-ndufl." We donht wlinthor th.i opilhet ■' proBpwtiln " in the 
half lint,' (2U7) "niputu pro*pectil9 vitniiii," " gi-l you. u soumitn's glawf," has 
authority «>■ iinaln;^- 1 and wn i-aimnt find that '• di^ORS " liaed of a " ring " ift 
erer found in the fetnininp, u in tho Uno — 

" ManiiqTu> 
l^oia ab clnlA discum ribrubnt tibiiroam."— (74H.) 

Th«r9 itxii aUci ntnictural titiilt^, iiiiaing out of too fi-oquotit oHstooM, and rhyUi* 
mieal lilwirtiAs which woiild havn drawn down thtt wrath nf OrbJlins in our 
MCliOt'jl diiv* : and i( Is too much the pror<.>»or'M habit toond hiHlinei* with a 
quadrin-llnbln, aa he doefl in p. 1.S, whori; " 1ahiirrTcit"nnd " Ube^tat" end two 
oonsecu'ti^'e Tfln»es. IV^ this cutaloguo of defoutti miist be added an occasional 
t«Dd«Dcy to " bathoA," an injuslico bdng thi-ivlpy done to tho thoioaghly «in- 
tainod anil rrron-flowing origiDoI. Tiiko thu following instances*, — 

" V«t the wife— 
When be was goio— the childraa — nhat to do f " 

"Red qnid tmnrk do conjopft flctf 
Do pniniN Y sine palre — marito — quid bciL-ndom ?— (125 — 6.) 

** Sow the third duld was nrkly-boni, and rvcw 
Yfrt iiickliirr, thongh th« nioUicr rrorod for it 
With all a moth^s caw." 

"Teitias ill* in&njL «x ortn tlobilia, Aat 
In jipii*t qiianqtum mutcraA sedula ctir3 
Omiim ijita jtrri jictwnmi .iftnia/t€it." — (2J^3 — 1.) 

One ia lud to hiok bnck to the on^nal to flatufy onoAolf whothot or not IherotB 
anTthing in it about " goinj,' to tho bad," or '■ In; would liavo livcil much lonaer 
if DO could." But h:»ving disichar^d oar aonBdcnco of ila burdon of ptiUt- 
finding, w" glailly turn ^^ compeUBatory iuorit«. Soiuti of ibo profoasor'a lighter 
touches are excK-dingly hnp])y. Ho han atlmirably reproduced tho pictuiti of 
tho children, at tho opening — 

** Amid aniiora of mety fluko ami bonta updiawn, 

BiiiMing their castlos of diMOlY>ii([ wuid. 

To wnU'h Ihtitn ovrrfloir'd." 

" Qiii^ lintrtB InUT iiilidtictos scbIi™ jfirnliat 
Ancbora, inunilMnt cjuiti'llii mulantia arenw, 
Spo ivdtuntia imiow."— (Vv. 20 — I.) 

I that of the hall beyond tho down— 

" Far as th? nortal-waidinti Uon-whotri, 
Aodpgavock yew-troeof th« lonely nall,_ 
Whon Friday fan waa Enoch'* miuiatvriEii;." 

" Tnuu jufta, int catulo tttat cnatodita Iwinia 
Aula vtaus, tnx: piiToni-m {initantis in nmbi^, 
Victun i«juaia uul priubuit ill« diebua." — ;9S— S.) 



302 



Th Contemporary Review, 



And hn hiU off venr mcfeuliiUv Hm pftradoic o{ the Loarcatc, in iloscribinp 
the wild oature of tm Ipqmu iu £uoob'« dowti-uLaud ; 
" Kor, wntti for ptty, wiu it luud tn 1«1ea 
TV )»I|>1«M llf«,'«0 wiiitttuti it wu i»mr." 

" El, ainont pirlAB, aninudiit plnnnut pnrxlam 
PcrfriritciTi, fi'ritnU- ipm nrnmniiHa. drdi»lMlnt."—(5^ 9—60.) 

Here and there wo aro much iuon> rumlndol of Honico's rtatiroA tluLn of Yiiigtl^ 
throu^lbout th») ^mteaaar'ti sermon, and jirchably, if the tnith won) knvwa. 
tliiit "pott of middloffl^o'' clings donor tohi« toomotj- than tho giSTcr and 
atatelior viiic ^Titor. Di ilov und turu of wntoaccs, aud in. phnutoolo^, 
(oowtimea, e.ij. — 

" But Philip wna her t^iildivo'a an-iii-nU," 
"Com yarnn uutvm puoclnin lulit omuu Philipptu " — (33S), 
this may be doti^ctwl ; :uid th"ii(Eli w<i kIiouM loavu pi'ftferred Virgil iu a paUem. 
in traoalAtiDg a tale like "Knnch Ardon," if tho style bare wen profamedly 
Uoratian, there wonid bo ju»Lificatioa for stnictiiml iind phmwolooical pei-u- 
liantiM. We havo no roam for longm- (}iiotation, but may rcmr to t]i« 
dvHription of Philip's woain;!, on tho nuttine excui-xioa, to the account of 
the murmiMB of the gocnps (p. 'in), and to uif* vhalo psdBa« ncpocting the < 
dssBrt i»le, as in the nwia stilftillv rendered. This tru^ation will not 
bear compariMtn with thr; " K'.'fit»ii llypcnon" of Mr. C. Moriralo; but wq 
duill tool and enjoy "Enoch Arden " the more keenly for having read it in 
Professor tielwn's Ijotin. 



T.— TItAVEL. 

TlgetPdyi in P'llntiju. Ity Jaueb Fmx.U.B.A.S. rxmdon: J.Nisb«t ACo. 1868, 

Mn. Fi^'x'it volome beant out hi« titln. Ho ha* tttricdy oonftnud hinuelf tn 
the fitfiuiayi in Paleottne. And what a. Qeld are tb««e ! whitt opportuuitie!! ho 
hod for exploring them '. A rwid«nc« of j«^i"pntwn yean* in tio eountrj- in 
the hiahen official nofdtinn, with n thornn^ih kno-wledg<e of thn vcrnoonlar, 
miffbtnaTe ptodueoa Mm« more dt^finitci intbrmntion th&n is nfTordod \iy those 
disjoiulod, wo htid nlmoKt raid iitooboront, jotting*. No familiarity mth 
Arubic will excnso soch slipHbod writing; iw this ; — " At length we baited at a 
email spring uoziug fn.iui the euti of th« (i«ld. I'ho place wum caUvi //Avltr 
Zahx4, a pretty placo, and CTH-kruis on tha trees round na; only the locusts won 
troubloKOino." And such Uittorod paragniphu distiuurv vvi-r)- pagu. Mr. I'iun, 
norerthelefld, has much thiit is interoatiti^ to tell. The Vrewarn t^ok hiui 
acruw Jordiui, ibrou^ tho pUius of PluliHtiu uodi^hurnn. In>m JoruMlem tu 
Pelra, and back by liiti Anilii<li, iilnn^ thu slioria of tb>' Itwid S*b. I'mni Noiith to 
north, aud aL-roes thf uinwjilored n?c«sBe« of central Galileo. Hb remarka 
oo tho great stature of the m«ii •>( thit I'hiliitliaii plain mi-c worthy of note. We 
hare ourearfTDs b<.>en Htntok by the onloeml etatura of enmo of the inhabitants of 
Bett-JibAn, ■* thfl Hc«i«« of the Mighty," pnibaWy on th« aite of tho nnd^nt 
<?ath. Ho iH the first trareUpr ^i^tn )im luf^ntioncd hating viatocl Kobah, 
the pT?;it. cniwding c**!!*^ of ]klv«.ir, yet ha Ktres na no clearer idea of it 
than Thiht it i^ "a lar^ and noble iveotioii in a atrong natural posittim." 
We fihould bnTo prufr.Troil knowing eonwtfaiug more of uie unknomi rceion 
between Aiii Mellh £th« Afotuifnh of Simeon) and th** Wudy Arabah, Sum 
that "tho landscape was not Bpoil^l by Iho smoko of IJuropeau fhctories," 
-OT that " stam nroso, but «Doh t4Ai4 ! not Uko the spon^lca of the Kngliah 
poet's conception, thodo patjnes of 'bii|;ht gold' — thou^ tliat idea is boau- 
Ciful — bttt line could aco that they wore round orhs, that flaahed streama of 
diamond light from out their bigness." Tboro is, howtTDr, Ktmo infennntion 
to b* gkiiiitii on tho topography of the byowuva. and oocoiuuuully uuod 
Bodouin fftorioB, as that of the ponolty for dog-killing, or of tba SlieiUi of 
Vaboeh. at p. 161. With a Bketch-niap, the bycways would buTo be«ii moru 
cueily threaded by tho n>adcr. As it Iti, firw ex'copting thoee familiar with tho 
land can follow tbeni. 



&tr. Fiiui lias raro BULtotials. Let lum uw thom more hilly, ami apply the 
iiintt I'lUrr Xo hiB notM, after rendering them into Gn^liah, and ho may yet 
Uirtfw much light uii tho biddou nooks of tho Holy Lciutl, nook* aod bytiwaya 
iirhrn^ yi^t linger, uaknowing and onknovni, the rcnuminLa of Oanoanito, Amoritd 
and Philietiuo. 

Wi(A the FrfMh in Mexko. Dy J. F. Kltos, lato of the 9sth Regimont, and 
A.D.C, to OvQcrol Sir Hugh BoM (Lunl Stntlmairu). Loailuo : Chapman 
atul HaU. IKB7. 

Mr. Sltdn hat) mmpildd n y«rj naiUiHo boolc, upon a stibjoct which hu 
Bttainod s dilfcrent and jnalaocholy inboroat ^doce the date at which hu irroW, 
frraa Uio pil|^ of Iuk diary, corcAilly ^^tpt during hla stay in Mexico, pnor to 
tho dopnrture of the l:*reiM)li troops. Tunc, aod tho latal temunutinu of Uu> 
enterpi-isc imdoi-tukon by tho Atdiduke Maximiljim of Auirtrin, havo d«)irireil 
thu puliliciil and militaiy spociUatiouK in wtiicU Ht. Elian iadulgtut of voluo, 
thouKh not of interest. In tbo preitenou of tho /{ixt arcii>iiu/i of the Maxicaa 
npublio, it in uot nnprofitabh* to intudy th<i utTurtf*, tho gi-dDoai ol ho|H.<, auil the 
MlT-deiL'^plion of ita uQeiniuii. The i-'ieiieh point of viuw ia eajkeci^ily ttitoreHtiua. 
sad is %'flry dearly and foriibly yui \>y Mr. Kllou, who wan pniiitnt during t£ia 
whole piocoM of IliH evticoation. Ilia deaci-iption of the country, in itx physical 
knd moial aspovtii. is olear; but bo baa not, wit <Umw ho lay claim to, literary 
ahilily. Thb coiit-hmtoiix at which h« ajTiv<!<l l^'fnm he left Mexico fur Havana, 
and mtimately tbi- ^[iMeis<rippi, nr^ proTod by Kubsequont oveute to have been 
anuud : time will ><how wh«ilu<ir hi" ciMiclniiiii;,' ubtwirvittiiiii*. written after he 
had leamod tho fate of tho ompiro and of Maximilian, oro ho liktrrrise. In ctim- 
nwa with all writi'i^ un lliix unhappy lopu-, h^ iw*'ui» to have formed no decided 
jndgment on the cJiarart'^r and alHntia.-i of JaareK — to barn left ^em, indeed, 
out of uccvuut- Tbiit wo holiuve to hu a uiiittako of Ruoh magnitodu as to make 
hit Hpi>cnIations upon the !<hort duration of the republic, and ita nltimato ia- 
eritablo abeurptiou by the Utiiied i^tatw, tar fmin coni-incinK- We helieTO 
Juarex tn bo as tnneh tmdemt4?d as a ruler as MaxioiilJan van oTerratcd, bttt 
tiiOA will tell; and in tho toeontiine Mr. Eltou'« honk itoiiorrc<!i, and nn doabt 
will receive, considerable attention. 

Ttu dtory of tkt Captitr^ jt yirralire o/ tKe FvatU r-j Mr. Unti^m'i JfiwiViii to 
Ain/uijiia, By T>r. Bl.AMtr, one of tho Ciipliros. To which in suhjoinod 
■ tnntlatioti of M. le Jean's Articlos on Ahynsinia and ita Monarch, froia 
the " ItevQa des Tleax Moudes." Loudon : Longmamt A Co. 

That the Abysttuian Expedition should be rjjihiU in every conceivable way 
— ^(ilitical, commercial, ana literary — is only natural and to he vxpected ; but 
it IS abtn only natural to gut a litlJn tiroil nf fhn i>shihitii>n of hunau ingeuuiW 
in this direction. "The Htnry of Lhs Captivea," for all its taking title, and 
«lespite the attrautiv*^ di'wti'iptioii of the diiiicultiM under which Dr. Itlano's 
report was writtea, ditlicuities which render it almost as remarkable a docu- 
ment as that which I'dmtmd Dnntes inherited from the Abb^ Fiuia. is not con- 
▼iaeiag as to its authenticity, and does not contain an\-thintf which wa have 
not Toao under more than one form already. The loi'ditant personal namitive 
is extremely hold and dull, and tho n'maining mstter has appeared in tho 
Flowden despatches and in Mi. J^uftou's lata work; notably, oa to the latter, 
the descriptions of discasott prevalont in AbyetiniA, especially the myst4.Tioii8 
and horriDle "Iwuda," and a pa^ and a half oatenlatiously claimed as tho 
" phytical eeoemphy " of Abyaainia. The tran»lnhon from the " Rome des 
Beox Mendas ' of M. le Jcan'a artidw, with which the litUo volume is paddcid 
oat, is simply book-making. m> plain and honest as to be laughable rather than 
irritating. , . . . 



VI.— POETRY, FICrnON. AXP ESSAY. 

Iforth Coatt, atttl othrr TWtm. By Robkrt Buchaxan. With IHustratiotis 
engraved by the Brothers ttALazt. Loudon : Kotitlodgn. ISiIS. 
Wk own lo Dot buin^L'Oi^y in mind ahoat theao ^rgoniin .-vCiLrahKan books, 
which are making the twitpLos uf the tiowi tloio with gold, and e^txn, skoi 



304 



.ontfmporary Review. 



OTiiasoii in our daya. It may bo nioroao and ill-boding to foej aa if oni lig:htr>r 
litoratore wuro pruning uwny in a I^eoouibor Kuumit ; or it might bo iuvidioiie to 
compare it to t. nymph who, for irant of charma c«rtaia to toll, id obliged to 
flKuntio bud oolotin, &a<l challuii^- us with. "Louk at luvl" 

But, whatercr wo may fool about all this iridoscencio tor bonka in gmioral, of 
oao thiug ir;> oru quito certuiu : thut it, is nuL a happy itlou tu Bond out a uov 
work (kt litaxt if ttuil work ho anything aboro a fdiry talo) in .tucb » garb. A 
yaun^ child in trimiiun, anUu, iluiI iliamuudii in nut luori) nbmiril nor unbe- 
comin);. At loa-tl., lot tia koojuiji the fiction of a ahiinkiiig motltwty otj thu p*rt 
of an author on Lho duy of hia aihvt. Tho iK'prHjcaTiur tone iu which mun used 
to atlilr<}«4 tboir "giTiitlo readivit'' wax, if M>iii»n-hiit nf a furco, y<-t not out of 
place on imch an ooca^ioti. At all erontB, it wa» bettor Ihiin thin blueing out 
apoa us. aa Ot'orgo Hvrlxirt KLyM, in huM "Hiigry anil hi>rv-" Such giirb 
ought to bo won before it ia worn. 

With this «innjwhiit (ifToniiiNl r«>t|iiig wo look inoidu- Wo find poems,— of 
tlUMA anon. Bnt wo find something olso. Now, hci-o wo havo an a jirioH 
remark to moko. Wu hold thv mind « puolic jiicturoo to bo Torv sncwd thiut?s. 
Tlioy arisonnbiddon thPTOomont swor-t fforda fti''^ h«\ir«l or rfwl. Most porti- 
nociously U the fancy wi?dd<.-<I to thvin, ll'jotor and Aiidromacho part, The 
warrior flUnd?) on the left sidti ; tho wifo holiU tho baho to him tVom tho right. 
So, in an instant, springs up the ^oup to my rainil's eye ; to another men's, it 
may bo vi't vrr»^. But. bft it wbn^h it "iny. from tho first momoot whon tho 
schoolboy oonned the passoRe all through life, there the group remnine, indelible, 
unchongeoblo : ho who interforM with it is an oiiomy to my liberty of thought. 
I would light for the position of tho peraonti, for thi^ir bookgrouud, for ttieir 
tmrroundings. What right have thc^AO dualors in ]>i*Lntora' ink to forestall my 
mental iiuagos, uid to forestall them in this p&rticulurly gloomy and odious 
maiinor '' Somo of Ihcso illustration *« roally pu;^zIo tho oj-o to diacovor, tlirou^jh 
tho croHsod and crossed Muck liiie^, what tho artist intoudcil t>> i^mbodv ai> lus 
idea. Some, we own, aro freer from blume : but tJio new and uuiloMirable pmc- 
tibo of decking now poesaH with them hoe pt^ un out of humour. wi> i^uppom, 
with tho whole thing. If we must kj^I'v, air. T. Duki^^lV iLIuiilrations aio 
tA us fiu among the boat of their kind, a« Mr. Wr>lt**fi ai-o of theirs (iritnosa 
the boaatiful bit of roody water on p. 189, und tho rocks uiid Jolt, p. il3). Mr. 
PJDwell'a penpectiTO is as marroDoua oa over. In both the cngmvings on pp. 
91, 99, tho floor of tho room is as nearly as poRsiblo vortical. 

Robert Buchanan ho-s cot, by this volume's poum.-*, odibid to bin doMtrvedly 
high roputation. " Mog Bluno" ia, on tho wholo. tlio boat thing in tha book ; 
and "Htgiinl of Saxony" has aoveral pOAiiagefl of real Iwauty. Somo of tho 
poeiit!^ wo are eorry Ur, Burhauau hoa prLatod. " The ^jaint'a Stery " ts simply 
odious. 

Thore ore some aSoctationa which surely one of Ur. Buohaaan'fl nowGrs can 
do without; auch are "thti ouriouH-oyo'd man." ji, HO; " tendorhe," p. 84; 
"(^uietlie," p. 33; "certainlio." p. 3ii ; and " bitlDrlLe," p. 37 ; the deBcriptaon 
of a maiden a^ "kiNs- worthy to the tiiiK'^r-liiiii," p. 86. 

On tho wholo. wo am disoppoiutod with tlua now volume : — with tho framing, 
and with that which is framod iu tt. 

Univtriat flymn. By PttOlP JufEB Bailey. Author of " FoatuB," Londou : 

Bell and Ihddy. 

ToB title &Ir. Baitfty haa given to thiH poom is a little of a mianomer. It i^ 
a aoltenodt but atili a systematized, statomont or ODnfosaion of "Feetaa* " 
beliefs r&thor than a hymn in any proper aonae of the word. The lyrical firo 
U Qowhsre so intense aa to fUse parti culoroonceptioiiB or angular BCmi-acientific 
points of thought into that whi to • boat glow that finds fit refloctora, intensi^rin^ 
it by their very coldncsft, io tho commoQ and uuivor^al fuoltn^ and instinct* of 
men. It is at bottom a somowhat tangled network of theory. Notwithstand- 
ing ch» large soopo and purpoae of the {Kiem, Uie «'idu circle of religious thought 
ana sentiment doscribfd, and the astonishing power of phniae anil picture, oil 
J9 defeated by tho end to which it loatK " Feetus," iu epite of ita dramatic 
disguise, was redooed to a mere abstract theory of the imiverM by the half- 
•meehoniral nniverealism which lay at its root, and it waa only esTod fhini 
abaolu to tatalii^m at tho close by tho trick of a mutapbysical trawtfurmatioQ-aceno. 



Notices of Booh, 



Z^S 



>lAr> Banftv ^^BhttSBMtW " t^^ meroeit moutbpiece for hie ova apiwoBBf 

wA the ntht<r (Qn^HNtt th« |>u'.'in were only oH'mU f»r him. Write* of ttO 
TwJ i3miaiUic gt^iiiiw, wlio yel «K«Ly thut form of cinnjtowUou, paj* Uih pHiinlty 
of oYer-veiiluri^>«>tneii«»» in wrerj- work th«y aA^ru-AiilH pr<«lin-«. The ' ' Uni- 
TomU Hymn" i-s inYnif expticit of what, to the critical «j-o, lay implicitly 
in "l<*e»ituA'' itself. Itn niin in to prvach und iiaprasn uiiiv*>i'wtli(nn ; thj!i I4* 
the only Monau in vhirh it in n ** Uui%-orf«»I Hymn." Now, if it ii« not allow- 
able U> ua to argue the matler witli Mi-. Uailoy ui utrictly logiciil term*, it is a« 
little tiUowablu tor biin t<i cloibi^ in foiiun of po«try idviM, «trictly iw .^oh, 
wliioli cannot but oxcite argiimoiu ttad koca iaU-uei-'taul pi(>l«»t. Ann w<q speak 
here, not in tho intereatx of dogmatic truth. Imt in the inu^ro^ta of art. wtiieh 
has iU kwa. m rigorous and iaflcuble us nuy r>ther k.iiigili.<in of Ood ; und we 
slioiild bavo boeu L^alled on to iirgo the Huuio ihius suiipuBiut; Mr. Buildy* th«i>- 
logiciU vicw<t bud cliaucad Ui bu Ibo voi^ opp(>»it«. 'ihv iinr.igrapLs begintiing 
uu pp. SI, 41, aud JiO, aro omplu proofs of nbat we hit-ve aaid. 

Ah Oi'i Slim/, and Mrr /Wnu. By Elizabeth D. Cross. London : Loogmatig. 

lKt>8. 
Dnery Lane L^rirs, aiul athrr I'ofm*. By JoBK BEDfotiB LlOfu. Loodon: 

I'ublishod ny tbe Author. 5ij, Dmiy £um, And eold by all bookMLl«n. 

Few stranger uontroBte am ba imapaed than batwfiou those two voluincM. 
The uiKt ia wrilteti by a womiui, the otb«r by a man ; thu one by a person of 
highly-cultiviittid intotWt mid fofling, with lai-ge <.>xponeD&o of furei^ i»tuitrie«, 
tlio ulher by a Luudou working-miin imd mu^tiT-lnukiHttmn, uiixeil tij) in the 
sodaland political inifV6m<'iil(i of the flay: the one by a writt-r rin«Te»ied of 
a delicate poetiojil nwnvii, Ibu utht^r by « cb-vvr and wil*'n iw)w*>rlul verifier. 
The one point which thpy liaT.-- in common— painful thoaRK tho nnnmmcetnent 
may l)«> tu the authure— i« wnnt of nri finality. It in iuipusaiblK to coiio'ive 
what >fra. Cro88, aaapn<'t^ wr.uld have [>%n witliout Tennyfion, thoagh other 
powtd of \ho day hayo also left their iiapr«ss (WOiitiottuUy upon her wnw. It in 
not that nhes conacian^W imittiliT-i a noaol, bat that sho invohintarily Mhalori an 
inllneiiM with which she is churged. It 18 safe to aay that but for •• Tithoniu," 
" tEaone," and perhaps " Oriaim." her Ter>- tharmiug " Cynthia " wmldnot bavo 
•xut«d ; aoT her toticung ' ' Old Story " without tho ' ' flraiidmotJier ; " m>r her 
■'Lo%-e and Pity" withoat"lA>ToaudDe«th; "nor her "RiTer/'thouKh generated 
only by contrnHt. without tho " Brook : " uor her " May " without " i ome into 
the garden, Mauii," Jkc, Ac, — the iesetnblnnce in fMtinw Qaaes btiing bo palpaUo 
that one wond(■r^^ it should haro eacapcd tho writ[\r heifiolf. And it is unioiiu- 
nate tliut wheiv she mod trusts tu bet' owu pinieiiij, ahe oither dimes luEubaring 
to the p-ound (iw in her " I'olaiid "), or eUc ixhibit* fauHs of rrtylo which &re 
•bnoHt whuily abNeut trum hei- lesa original pieo«», a^ if ahe felt iicared at her 
boldnesa in soaring out of sight of her usual landmark!!. Tnkc, for inntance. 
the loUi^wiug piecu, uutitied "Too Lato," — the one in the whole volume which 
porhaijs olfora tho best hupo that tho writer may eucoot'd in disengaging from 
outor iniluviitiot) a distiuet [Kielicul poteuimlity uf her owu ; — 

" We have beheld thr tUnm mA &re 
'i'hat mrrn oall Pali.', 
And WD havtf known tht> Und and fiiir 



That coniRS tm> InUi 
" Ifavc wi! not Kopri the aunny iky 
Aftar the rain t 
And the pale Uly by the atonn Inid low 
Kite not "gain r 

" The d«<ir liicht sudden shining from the 
ahon 

For th<nn Ihitt roam ; 
Too late — tha i^uix] ndii) ntnkn and idnk 
In sight of homo r 

"Thoperf^rt wothafli'r)oogyfRnor[iain, 
Th« ci] 101.-111111 filow— 
Th* gnwt hi'dft iH^fcen, wuitint; foi llw 
pnuMv 
Tluit came ton slow r 

^•01-. VII. 



" 'llio eu^i of ooatly wine preawd to pale 
lip« 
Fiu'iiUng/or /•«/*, 
Toe late— an ca^cr hand atrctchixlqmck 
to lahr 
In ilrjilh ThII hu^k ? 



• 'i'fae little word of trtith ao long delnyrd 
.'^iiKLcan at lust, 
Bat with no [luwur to heal the cruel 
wonnd 
Fuiweuin;; the past? 

' 7^ trnif mifht cttm—daiPM ht^—hvt en 
closed eyes 
Too tii"^ U> wait — 
The loru thut i^ould have saved front 
v-oroe than death 
Came, but too Into ? " 



3o6 



Tfie Contemporary Review. 



Tho ttcnliinvnt of thin Httlfl pmm ia exqni^ito, and thwe uvwlod but artietio 
WorkmiUiFhip to make it a gem. Itiit tli»r»i \* sc-ir'Cily orirt ^ttaoza which ia frw 
fkum uvkvanl ot ^linahod grammar (oving i-hiefly to tbe iiitr>lerHble ktt«mj)t to 
nukeoneuDr'-'pcatoiiTerbpromiKUiiiiJ'Ij' goveru With iiifiiiiliTo* and ^iartimp{cf<, 
pMt ctr prcdent). till, in tho last. Man^n, thr? mGaTiiii^beonmea quite uiunt«lU|nblQ 
to ordioaiT rvMiders. Not les^ |>roTokiiig in tlw line, " Fuinlinfj/or /o>-i"— <ir 
wliatP — wnidi niu-« nn othomrieo lioMitiiiil stanKa. 

lilr. l^no has mostly stadied much lower models, and Iibs not bad mneh diS* 
oolty in ei^uolling them. His rolnmo [vbich hiw tho aorions dnf^ct of bein^ 
too lonx by filUy two-tiiirdB — Mrs. (."ixwa might well h»ve Bpared ono-lhird ni 
hen] contiins many « pago which would quitP matefa with thotw of Markny, or 
Swain, urElizii t^'ook. 8omv of his xonfp*. mdeeil^-*.y.,the"SoaDiI'iof Ijubrmr'" 
— nmA only to be mamed to Rood monc to dwell for aoreml giwwM-.iti(>i»n in tho 
OMB of our pooplp. UiLfurtuuat«ly, Ihore u too often a want of truth in hin 
poetry. His " Wild K!ow«i«," for iastanw, is a very pleasant bit of TOrne. 
remindiag ooe indued of Poo, but not disagrooulily :— 

" A.i <v« miiblod IhrouKh tlio meadowa 
•'■n a saiuiy Salibatb norn, 
'i'ho fharrh, twUs rin^ng ttifnily, M nenily : 
With n no*i>)^y wliila will; aii«]o»--*n-c«t 
And Mcwoms Avm the thorn ; 
Vfa l&Dgb«il and chatlfJ chwrily, ehwrily. 
TwM A iwsigiiy r,t wild llonra, 
I remember it i)\iitv woll, 
With itt lUioiiw fiviin lh« upUnita, 
Aud iu ciuquLfuil fi>jm thi' doll, 
With iu yarroir, liag, atul lark8|iiir, 
And tbc £ttlu |ninmrncl, 
Gathi-ml wlulu Iho IkU* ni^ inerHly, m> uarrily, im> manily ! 
(iutliun.'J w'liiltj tlio l(ll» nuae moirily ' 
(ki merry, iiiiTrily I '* it 

But any ono who has Hv* leaat Itnowlpdgo of the ronntry will feel at onoo that 
thiH it) all purolT artitioial, tbul tbv writur novor did "romeaibvr i^oito well" 
«uch an impoamblenoMgiiy, in which tho larkspur fi^^uroa amouj^wild flnwors. 
and tho tlioru of eprin^ with the :iutumii niL^dow-swi-ot, ymrow, and ling, 
flow it in not l>y any mrana nivH-.i»«arv Ibnt a " l>mn>' Lnno Lyrio" Rhoiild l>« 
QoimrBBDt with i.'ountn,' matters ; but it ta not right that it Bhould nmfcs pre- 
taucn o(f b'tiii|^ MO. 

A sdeotion ttom Ur. Ijono'a Tolumf> might rotnin a pormanont intoreei, and 
maiittnin, *o to upealc, a bMnkgroiind exiHtciinn in th<? litiimt.urnof tbo ninatoentb 
century, among tlio choicer npooimfn^i of itn working'-men's Tene. 

Qmcodtan: a Pasktaf. By iivxs S.u^Q?r. Kdiuburgh: EdmonHfon and 

Doug'laa. 

A siUFLS podm, writtou with not a titflo skill and grace, in theScottis)) 
dialect. There are here few of the atlectati'iits with whicL Lbia form of poetry 
hta oome latlorly to bo lUMoiatod. It is clear, Bxmplo. un^mitTainod from Chit 
to laat ; and tiiough tho muae dooa not ptin bar vi'mga fur lofky flights, ahtt 
louka witl) Bhatp oyo on many lowly thinga. and " koekH' ktiouly m on human 
naturi'. which, after aUi is much tho ttamo iu ciuitlti and cottaf^. Those who 
can Kurmouut tbn ditficulty of 1)io dialect — wliiob tl>w writur btw aagliciMd M 
fcr as ma allowablu — will rend this pixiui with ploaeute. 

A Btre'i Wbrl: By Jits- I>rm;B Habdy, Authorof "ACasiial Acqnaintonco," 
ftc, &o. Three Vola. Loudou: Uurnt mul Hlai-Jcatt. 1HJi8. 

Tim isagiood, readable noTcl: but it is something more. The Btoryhas 
been tbou|;bt out with core, and tho moral oouliiists aru ofTvctirolv pitweutsd. 
The pcfoplo in Tvirkman'« BuiUlinga uro (ikotchod at Recutul-baml. or, at all 
eveut^, witli imp«rtoot vision and awkwoid humour ; but. forthe most i^iirt, the 
ebaraclen and CiiUTerMtion-piocon nro 1*081 onouf^h ; and nuor Joe (with botli 
his amuoff)uidhisold mothtiTuro veiT lifo'likc M^jor Cundas, ue "hero," 



Notices of Books. 307 

18 » wcll-toiichwl fijjQre^thcire is even w>ine subtlety in tho porttait. In fact, 
if thia tiorel is not capnblo of giving tbnnghtfnl roadon entire eatifi&ctiua, it 
la not for tack of gouu workman •ihi]>. Let ue look wX tbe story. 

Damlafl, tijo "noro," a bravo soldier, ftill oif gmioty n&d good-naturo, but 
Aitificiitl, aud with « d«ep root of selfl^ueea in him, i» io love wi^ii [>>iia 
(hrlton, and, as loTO-mattm* ^ in Bocioty. tils "lore" is doop ontl pennanoflt. 
It BO befalls, howoTer, that, wilb the usual admixttiro of direct intention and 
moro KaDU'Aminnl W(<aknoss. he drifcs intoqnnEJ-conju;^! nlntionn with Adrietme 
dfi Fontaine. Told than baldlv. the fact »w]iu uniiatural, but it is preevobed 
naturally enough (and delicately cnoneh} in Mrs. Hardy's pages. Befero long, 
aa his iiLaniag9 with Lona dnvs nich. the " hero" tirett of Adrienne: and, 
treating the matter in the naofll veiti of "light oomt*, light go," ho breaks irith 
her — rather coarMlv for ttuch u gouttuuutii — epoolu to bin doctor, bands bet o^'or 
ttrtmdum arltm, ana leaves her t<i do a.^ she cau vith five potmda a month. ^ Btit 
tbo whalo atoiy is diwuvend and tultl to I^iniL, and thon. vith the sanctioo of 
bar poretita, ahe rafoMs to moiry him. In tlm mean trhilv, boireT«r, Adtienxie 
has beoorae a motbor, and Mrs. Carlton, irho represents the indicant Tirtue of 
the narratiT», ha« charge of the ntuation no far ait ihr in «on<«rned. But tho 
baby pri'seutii a diffiuulty. Of course wa know what happens. Chapter XII. of 
thit thml voluino in frankly bwulud, " A Difficulty BvOiovod." At firatwo fancied 
there was a tomh of Barra.'iin in tJiiR, a* thtre is in tbetitlo; bnt no ; " Odd, in 
hid merry," is 'iviilently expectol to " biish tho liltlo one to rwt." If the Lord 





mercy having 

DuxUted itmlf to the exigencies of respectability, Mrs. Curltou " uttent a aieh 
of relief and tliank-sginng" vbon the nnanthorizod little immortal is to De 
nndeitakered off. 

Now that tho " one grftat impediment has been mercifully taken away," 
Htb. Carlton, ^-ho is really a good woman according to her ieeble lights and 
hOT ^n natnuJ inatiQCts. sees her patk a little bettor. Tho Doxt stop, 
uiwigcd betWLOti Lena and tho Major, is fbr the Major to marry Adrienno. 
».f.j t£e_ woman who deeply lo?oe him urg«« upon tJia man who Iovop her as well 
OB it ia in his nature to ioto iinything, to go and monr a woman whom he has, 
indeed, wronged, but wbom lie doss not oud QO\'«ir wiU lovo. As Adrionne has 
already expreaeed her ojAnian that "when we love de«ply «e for^t solf- 
iMpect," we anj not i^uiprleod whou, iiuriug eabmiltod to bo uooh indignity 
ftem the man whn bad ahirked her bedside in her hf.ur of travail and never 
looked upon ht4 own ebild, aho aocopta the additional indiguily of his " hand 
and name," This is reparation. IJuudaa ia " ijui- own, our hero, oor noble 
Archi'i ouoo inorv," Accordingly, ho " sti'idi« with u Oiin proud stop tovank the 
altar." But the Divine m<ircy is ajcain equal tx> tho occasion, and Adri«nno 
ditia eudduuly iu church at tho end of the uiarruige-i:on'ice. Onlj- not till " the 
ecTrw'iig u <iiv,r," and tho Mpaiution mode. Thnsv ^eara ufterwards wo 
find Dundas married to Lena, and the reader aocxipte this cnndiudou tn tbo 
fltorjr beeausu thviv ht tiu numun why two lives sliuuld be wasted, thongh two 
have been sauriiiccd. 

It is uttftrly impuMiblutoconxtmct anarratireof Ihixorderwhich shall satisfy 
tho moral eense of thinking people. With all tho odvaotAm that tho oovolist 

SUSMtHSM of cLousitiK easy coses, nud killing otfjusi when helikes, bo must and 
DCS &il iu 5ati.<<[yiiig at once our hearts, our cnnftcienooB. OTir judgments: 
tboio dt-u;'n«t iuetuict«, aboTo all, in wbldi Uea the row material of duty in all 
that concerns the riilations of men and women. Vt'v accept such novels as 
signs of the times; but wo vant, upon Lhcee matters, first a renovotiou uf the 
manly and womanly in»tinetit which arc- now half civilized away; secondly, 
coherent thinking ; and then a deep and absolut«ly fiiiUifitl ptobuig cf aodid 
wondsr if they ore to be touched at' oil. 

Oraa^$ FvTime. Three Vols. London: Strabau & Co. 1807. 
"OluOB'fl Fortune" is a pleasing examnle of a kind of book which is getting 
Bcarco even in theeu uoTol-writing. noveVreading day& It really is a go«d 
nttvtl, truthfully ooskceiTed and caretullv written ; an honeat story of love, mi** 

x2 



3o8 



The Contemporary Revtew, 



fortuno. and Tari*d soodnoM ; tbo latter thrown int« relier by wrone-doing nlB- 
cioDt for the aathor s |iurpo9e, hot DOTOr cacablo of l>r<!otniDg ontaialro to the 
nuMit McuitiTO rMuIu. Xho gnat merit of too author'a masaer appaan to at 
to Iw it« naturalnetf and frt^om from exaggeration ; but it hAs other gMnl 
qiulititv too ; lucidity always, atid considoiable t«iidemfls» u]joti occunuu. 
The ooiiiPr.'«atiaud have much merit, and the only glaring &ult in the buok ia 
the awkvurdlj-iutroduccd alarm about Lbo personal safety of Culuuol Wwlder- 
b»m in the thirteenth chapter of the loAt Tolnme. The author, evidently a 
lady, will, WD hope, write bouu duy a luorv powerful iiov«l tbiui " Oraoa's 
Fortune," without loAinj; jiti^ of tht- ladylike reticence aud taoderatioD of bar 
laanner : aud. ahcvo all, retaining its admiiablu flueut aatuiulneea. 

The chHTa«'ten> un) not strongly, but they are cJearl^ drawn, and tba auaptnas 
of the main current cf the naiTalJTo— depending aa it doea upoa Grace'a oacri- 
fico of livr fortune fur her riiOmr'H nske, uiid u]>on h«r itiib8«()uiint raaolTtto 
break olf her angsgement tn 'VS^edderbum — te sumuieut. It \a not harrowing, 
but it ia enough : wv huvo hnd tuu mucJi loud Di«lo-dr;inia in our uovols, and a 
little high comedy ia refreshing. Arnold we should, perhaps, guess to be a 
portrait— not a copy, but uu idouUzntiou fouudvd upon thu author's knowledge 
of aome T«al person. 

" Oraoe'a Fortune " contains uo proaahing, no proatng, und no direot moral ; 
bnt the moral enggtetion of the story is very hign. Probably the inajority of 
IL'^ughtful readers will find the ueiitral eituatiou toe weak for the strain which 
ia fut upon it, and will Ihitik Woddorbiim's doubts whether Qraoe loved bim 

anite well enough had homv fuundation, in ispite of the too obvious bearing of 
10" nlunn" tn which wi* hnverfift ired in testing thestreDgtb of hor dtlaohmont. 
A more pathetic situation thau that of love which feels oouud to refuae the 
belnve>l what (he bclov*^! <-xpi>'tn, and what the love itiwlf i» aching to give, 
cannqt be imugined ; but that Grace wua justiited in taking the precis courao 
flhe did in fact adopt, iri a point upon vhioh opiaionB witl largely differ. If Iota 
be merely a more tender aud deeclT-seated iaclinatiou thau any other, hriuging 
vith it jTATor reaponsibilitiiM ana largor prospects, an act like that of Grace in 
dinniisiog W«dd»rbam nuty be nght But— 

« !■ thia the mighty ooean ? Ts thie all ? " 

Perhaps tt iii alt in high nomrdy : at all cventa t}ie question in too large for 
our Utile canvaa here, and in any case we hope to hear again of the acoom- 
pliehed author of " Qroce'a Fortuno." 

iiwrr LUtU PatpU. liy IIakrikt BBEOnEtt Stowe. Author of " Uncle Tom's 
Oabiu," &o. &c. London : Sampaou Low, Sou, aud MiLrstuu ; uud liell aud 
Daldy. 186". 

' Lazy, diHnnrftiTO. "piebald misMillany" roRdcrs are pretty certain to havs 

picked up the knowledge that Mrs. Stowe is very happy in her short storip* and 

iketcbes ; for sho baa writton f>reat numbers of thorn, and every now and then 

I Qh7 orou the path of such readers. This little volumo is a collection of 

^thilanm'a pnpors, which scorn, in tho first instance, to have boon contributed to 

iiia;;azine6 ; and deliifhltul papers thoy are: all of thorn about (uiLmals— the 

" Hon that Kiitchod Ducks.' too " Nutcrackers of Nutcracker Lodge," " Hum, 

tile Son of l)uz " (a pot hiimniiug-bird), xkwi tho like. Lliildrou wdJ not catch 

ialf the humour with which these pretty little stories are brightened ; but there 

lis more thau ouough to please ihcm, uud wu can »iucL>roly reoommoud tho book^ 

[It was worth gettiugup in a pi-etlierway, and alau with a little editorial trouble. 

I The papem appear to havo houn allowed to remain juat as thoy wore first print&d 

f— f.ff., n. 1(K), "In the lii?t imuibi-r 1 told my littln frirU'la shout my good Aunt 

father. ' Ou pagou 03 and ItK) there srp rvpetitiona of phrase «uch aa must l>fl 

excused in magawne writing, but thi-y are tiot ttgreaabln in a book, and a hltlo 

aorutiiiy would probably diecovor other casas in which the workmanship ueeda 

retouching. There aro, fc^^ MianqiKt, changi.m from the find person itingiilar to 

the (irst person plural. The narrator is aometimea"!" and aometrmea "we" 

in the same ator^-. We hIiouM have liked to «e« the book editi'd, and iMued in 

a hiLudsome form, with a better title ; but publifuhors aeem scarcely alire to the 

great merit there often it in Mra. Stowe'e briefer uud less ambitious pieces. 



Noitces of Books. 



309 



vgho'i Life and AdxKttturtt. Wy Hot.ME IjEK. 

H'jho ondLitHf Contfiit. By Uolme Leb. Louduu : F. Wiiroe & (Jo. 

AiXKUOBT is perhaps tho moKt difHcuU of uU forme at fiction. Tbo tuuipta- 
taon to i>ti-tktQ points for iho salco of complotimcM is groat, and toT}' oflton tho 
necewit)' of hinnanizmg, througli cynsoioiisly pr*»ijing upwai-d Biid forftarj 11 
moml lo.*ion, hna tho effect of so cutting; nnturo in twain, that noiUior man nor 
child could pretKrv4 interest throu);)i tliv long deUtil iti which all tHwiii^ ri>rcod 
MiTO tho inner tmrpoee. Sow IIolroQ hao's oxfiniatcly easy, grocofiil mutt per 
of -writing, ancl bi;r miauto k.iiywK'iljp:' of iiiitui-id hii*lory. Mivus h'-i- fiMiu to'j 
ohviously fiillinj- into thia fault. Yft Tuflfujgbo, tho offapi-ing of MiilboiT>' and 
Lupiiio, wiJl not tUiiui lutunwt from tbe i;hUdrausomuchiuuvuathuuM pil^friiu 
of llmijiia, baciLUBo hi'ie wa havu two lines of iiitur&st i-uuniiig )>untllul, lunl 
ditpating tho diiiin uf vndi otliar on our auticD, The hookii uru a ^rt of 
cro«ses between tho " \Vat<>r Hubif** " and " DuuUngw wilh tlie I'airitH*." On 
the wbolo. m profor " Tullougho's Lifu ;" thoni is kaa ntnuuiu^ iu it, and flomit 
of the foucbfii ara very davttr. Tbti bunlu axv b^tautifully illustrjiti^, and 
should in«)t with fiivour. 

*' Tht Hareat of a QuiH Ei/t." tiiimre Tltoughta for ltn«y Ijirpe. Br the Aathor 
of "My Study OhaJr," "Mimngii," *c. London : Tlu» R^bgiyu* Trart 
Society. 

Tat titlo of thie book ia borrow&d from WojdaworLh. and is used by him to 
describe th« " random truths*' which a contam['lative man, who u tt the Mme 
time &u observci- of nataro, Cftn iiupurt, ^thei«d among tho " ooiaiiuin things 
that round utt lie." 

And tho authoi- has sbowB no prosumptioii in adupLiug the vonla im his titlo. 
IIo huB foUy ju»tified tho loan out of our philosophic [wet. for s more pleaaing 
aud attractiTO lut of cont«uiplfttion8 wu havio itulduin »«uii. Thuy Mpptmrod. tho 
author telU ub, iu the paf^ea of the f-ciuiic Jfuur aud oflho Huitd'iy <il //uiwf, and 
vore written duriiig the inUTvuLH of pai'itJt wurk. Thov aro anuiigod aoconliu^ 
to tho coai>to of the uatuial y«ar : and u-o not ri'titriutod to niiy ouu Uno of 
thought, roaming over nature and man, culling from \iv'>*6 and poetry aimilitude 
aud dluxtmtion : aud all in Lbt.' healthy utiuusphere of a thoroughly tonder und 
Christian hf^art. 

Nor are uthiT and matvriiil illuBtralious wauUng, and tboee of a very pluasiug 
kind. The wowtoubi in this, a» in rnoHt otlierti of the Tract Society 'a choicer 
publications, are alinoat uniformly good. Some of theHo riso iutu excoUtmoD. 
and aix) <|ui1« littlo gems in their way. If exampl(M ate wanted, wa would 
iuHtonce the Alpiuo bit. p, 210 ; the ralli'iiLion of the inouataius, p. 219; the 
huating-pivw, p. 21H. 

As a &vouraule specimen of the author'a descriptiTe style we would cite : — 

" Lr-L mft «tt cluim unitrir thin network of tycn-mont and chf aUiut boughs, wh'le tlin 
hint palfihe* of tiuk' sunlight ni»vu nbout mu uri lliu rank and droiv^bcd, yut iint t owing 
0IW : let aw nt down nnder the baro bougbH, whilt* th« brown, w«t, innrrmi Iwivei 
faudill* by tho ride nf thv nidon sent, and uod'.T the barred planic Dint ■tirrm m mv 
fooUtool. I daro My my old and nn&iling Mend will M^n ccine and perch naar me, hu» 
lorcr.aad malchthe oad cheery Rleama of ■untight with Mil cheery- Klc>aRisof song. Bird 
of the mild dark loving ayi>, nnd quick quint motion, and warm vnrimn-rod br«a»t; bird 
of Hut aoft auog, — pcuHlon nubduc^ now to tcitJi-nii'M, hupo thai ban lunk to patJpnce, 
eagBmcea thatlH merged in trauxiuiUily,— faithful bird, whoso erory tonu and mottoo. 
fitmilJAr anil bvetl, Mema to fit tho winter heart aa w«ll aa thn njiring fiincy, — thost- 
forvHut, pfLadoniita aongitani of tho scjtritig. that now are flown, tlivy which diuwuud Ui 
my car thy ijuivt vmg of peace : no, not even lu tho dnya when the oigbtingale'a 
thrilling QttArance mado tho world aa it word foil of the on substantia] boautr of a 
drmm. And ao now I frr-1 a »nrt of right to the vii\m and Mnifort of thy trnniptil, tin* 
&iliiig attbrmnca, whiii Lhu uvuiiMtci-nl drauii luu p:i3.ii<i] away, and the diii<?ii<:luint4:il 
worlif stands naked. 'ITius, while you are youue< my fHonii! and all Uio bough* 
are clothed, and all the birdjt are rin^ng, ani yuur heart makes aiuwar to thu 
larelini^dfl nnii thi- miisio,— donot diAd.110, then, M litt^n tn and bo hoed thatquietar 
voacn wliicb lella, iu an undertone, verr beautiful if attendc^il l.>, of tho lori? of ihA- 
Your honrt, if yo« kni?w H, cannot roally afford to tli^p-inw with it whnn «U th* woodj 
are loud, and all the trees are green. And if you ilid facar and iumd and love it then, 
ah, how exquirite, how refraohing, how mare than chomng the faithful oouis appaac. 



jIO '^he Contemporary Revfew. 

M TOO nit roodiUlTDg ondor « palo vinttt itkjr, aad looldng ut liXaA, \e»Siem bongha, 
nnd Uw Kmgstor dmww oe&rer to joa thnti, finomij you aloni) ! " — (Pp. 2ST*8.) 

We arc niro Uio author, Trboorer he b«-, ^rill not lake it otharnrise tbaa as 

hig h pmian, vben WO so-j. that his meditatioiiB put lu coDtiauidly iii inind oF 

the vritiiigs of tho Into Rohert Wilnon y.nais : and odd that hiB <ttyle is &«e 

^^from dio vohoiu "old bachelor" croUibetB or thai eoothliig nod deLi^itrtil 

The book u an admirable one for a preiseat, whether to young or old : and iU 
tone iH of that trusting, ninplo reality of faith, which bltis«}«, or should blea*, 
.ithQ iuuer houxt ot OTtoy Ohnrtian in the wide world. 



Vn.— MBCELLAXEOOS. 

Flovert and FiiUvaU ; or, I>frertiOTi» j'vr the Flrmil jyetfrafinn o/ Clutrehu. "By 

W. A.. JtARRerr, of St. Paul's CathedraL Ix>ndon, Oxford, and Cambridge: 

Biving^tone. 1568. 

EZTBnsALi,Y, thia ia a Tory boojitifiil and attraetive liltLe Tolutne. If, in ita 

fiOotenta, it aeetaa to carry the ides of Uoral onmmootnlioa to eomothiug lik^ 

exceas, our ccnsiin is stAyed t>y the thniight that thin ii our* of the foilinffa which 

** lotLU to rirtuo'a side ;" and that, in that " progreMtoo by antagouiKta ' which 

^gorerna small thiols and Knat, a littlf> oxoggeratioti on mm side in all hut 

I Itidisponsablo to couaterbohiooo the preralo&t neglect. !Few, we tmagiiie, 

exi.«pt thu moiit rabid of Puritao!*, w>utd soriouAly obisct to the timo-honoarM 

' huUy wliich ajipoars at dliristnias ; but it would bo dilBoiilt to plead any Rpeoial 

[jpriviUijiwit for that t«hritb to thti >>xcl union of others ; nnd unl«8S the shining fcaroa 

[laud zod bsrriee are to bo bainahed, as being the " tbiit eod" of a "ritualist ** 

riradga, or dmatmiiA ia to bo marked aa the onlj^ Mason for outward »igu» of 

1 ria^Lon, other fbettvals and other flnwoi's may fairly I'Qt lU tboir plon for like 

nouour. The TOrk of ao decorating thu bomcly village church, ot brioging 

[into that of the crowded city Htreot tho«« children of fiiir gardens and bnghc 

[,akieB, is, ut loAvt, au iunocout oi^ojiuont. Like ull olouionta of roctbotic 

■worship, it may, of course, occupy in some rmnd^ a pln.::o of uuduo prominenoe ; 

but if woduuut ojudL-mu Ihi.' " uuuiung wxrk" of tuu ?-t:ulplur or the archUooti 

the "lilioA of the field,'" in their beautj', may well be tolf'tated. 

The book bufuru us, boddoe givixig twtmty-four plates of vory graooCul and 

I woll-exocut<'d diwign.t, aupplieH UHioiil hinta for Oin onfLngi-ujeut of Sowent, 

f^booghs, and other materials, and for thoir adapttitioa to tho Mirious seasoiu dF 

^sT'btiri'h'n ymr. |{i.-<tirii-ioal iintiM <ju llii* bi.ilnry of fUiiiU decoration, oa the 

Tarious forms of crottsLd, uu tbu emblQum of our J^ord aud uf the saints, on tlio 

flowiT!) and jibiiit-s diilioitcd In aiunta, make thn lionk a. hmTuI imuiual of otit- 

of'the-wiiy iiifonauUou. Iho tloml caleuckr, c.y., Uiruws light on ctomo of the 

, popular ii(uiii.-.» of cominAn planU. or on fiiCts oonnectod with Uiuut. Thus, 

MarwM in oounected with the iVJunuuuiation ; (he Orntthjtj^itum, va Star of 

f'Bvtiuahaia. with the Kj'iphauy ; AHiuui. [the iM'k), with St. Itavitl: Herb 

' Bnunot, with St. Bum^dicta day; the White Lily with the ViiiitatioD of the 

TitKin {July 1!) ; the //yiTnrum, or St John's Wort, with St. John tho Bfiptist ; 

the Paaaioa-Uuwer, with Holy-erom day; the common Ptdma Okritii, with 

Palm Sunday; the Trefoil and thq I'iiJa tricvi'-r (Il<?art's-ca0Q), with Trinity 

Sunday. In mont coam it will bo seen that tho connection i» «inply one of 

tame. Tho plant's fiowering ooincideB roughly with the aatnfs day. There is 

no principle of eymboliam reoogniied ; and, cron as it is. the combinotion eomo- 

^"times -nrgOB os the ludiciooa, when wo Qod l^cbelors' Buttons dedicated to 

['Bt. JtaOM tho Loas, and Ursine Oarllc to St. Alphosu. 

Wc ghuUvreoommond tho book to our olcricol roadura as an appropriate gift to 
the fiur ana willing belpora who hare made their chtu-ches bright for Chnstsuut 
at tho ooit of two or throo days of hard labour in a cold church. 

The Politiait WrUin-/i uf Biehar-l CV.t(Je»i. Two Volumes. Second Edition. 
LoodoiJ : WilUam Ilulgway ; New York : D. Ajipleton & Co. 1S68. 

TtLJtT this ccdleotioQ of Ur. Cobden'a works should huve reached a eeoond 
editiou iti this country, beeidotr oito in .\mericu, proTeii, pcrbnjM^, more in ftvoar 



Notices of Books. 



3" 



'tt the unpres* whicb bi» bciticm m a puUio mui have left upou liio nLomotin 
of bia couatrymen than of the mmts of the works tliemaelTea. Uad they b«6D 
•iguvd by au uukuowu. wiitor, it aooiu* difitcult to bvlioro that luijr, oxoopi 
" 170^ and is;wi,'' and MpedaUy " How Wars ara ftat up io India," wooU havs 
obtaiii4xl thu huiiuunt uf a roptiut »o luiig aJlor pubUvatiuu, unless pwhopB ■ ceii- 
tory or two h«uoe iu soiae eoUection aiiswertiie lo that uftho" Somen xraota" 
or uis " HariaiaD Miscellauy." Xhougli ooataiuiog much of acute obaorTBtiaD, 
and just, »otaetiiii«« punjient aittumcnt, they derira in fiict their main iiiterMfc 
iroiu their bearing' on Ur. Cobaeu's own Ufo, from the etde-lighta which they 
throw ujxin thi< ttarulapnKiut nF hia uiind. Thiu the cuui who, in bin firitt 
pamphlet on " Knclajid. Iralsud, aud America," earned tho idotatrv of trade 
Ro Tdrne ii) «Tite that " onmrnerce in the fjnind penaces whioh, like aoeneficeat 
medical AiwcMTarr. will botto to inoculate with the hoolthy and aarine toate for 
ctTUtxation all the uations of the world:" that " not a bale of merchandise 
lesTee our ahoroi but it bears the oeoda of intcUi^no and fruitful thought to 
the membera of some Use onlighteaed oommuuily," gtow Latterly to denounce 
from hie place in Parliament tho " eommerejal spirit. 

The true wuy of looking' at Mr. Cobdon'i pamphlets is to view them us mere 
written spoecbee. As sudt thoy serve to illnetmte, though they are fax from 
completely exhibiting, the uotaira of the man : bonoiit. foarlon, outapokea. 
thorouKfaly doTOtod to a few mot jprindplee, yet often prejudioed and genatalty 
nairow, and of whom it may oe said that tear limTe over brought to bear a wider 
nnee of obiterTHtiou and keaner powara of reasooing '*P°'' ^ more limited stock 
of ioeaa,— oorally and intitlloctually, porhape, En^un^s hero-dupkeeper. 

Tho praaeut edition is enrickinl wirli au iiilereetrnv pnfiioe to the Americaii 
ana from the pen of Mr. W. C Bryant, the poet and jonmalist. 

Vnttntitnati't! Joxim^a ; vr, Difnr*ttfi(i/tht Modan BaMvn. By James Oue£»- 
woou. Anther of "A Ni^t m a AVorUiotue." Ac. London: Ward and 
Uok. 

Tris i» Uanily no Imppy a titto ts mi^t haTS been chnson fur this ezcelleut 
volume, Mtciiig thst it tniggMt* a mere dry. anrplie%'c<l dntnil of fitcts, BJid colls 
forth a tide of asBocialion^ alien to tliP spirit in Tvhirh it ."hould be coud. But 
Mr. (iixKrnwood, though he writes in n cfoar, untTiniipbi-d rtyle, is alwiiyt* fully 
alive to the efl^t hi.<i storieB ought to haro upon thi^ render. Ity his very reti- 
eanoe, and his honost desire to ivi hin picture speak fnr i'.svlf, Ke o^n awakens 
our sympathies more powerfully thj\n could posflbly hivvn been tho raso ha^ ho 
dona otherwise. He knows ratr};«l, wretched London thoroughly; and each 
page proTOH that " iho primf) imfucomont" toundert.ikingthc«ojouropy8wa8"a 
liking ftit the Biihject. ' Mr. Uroenwood skilfully thrown mucli of tho mattfir 
into diiilogue, most probably port rc«l, part inrentcd. It is, at all PTonts, 
uniformly true in spirit, and gives relief to hii^ dewriptions of poTi"rty and 
rafferine. and filth and aciunlor. Tho akotchc-s "Tho IIoBpitnl-OatP." "Mr. 
Itodd's I)a[<t-yanl," and •' Ou Board Citiswa B," arc Gi'st-ratc. Tho book, we 
hope, will be widely read, as it deeorvos. 

A Boot about VomiHifs (.^•■AcofutMfm). By a Uomber of the Profession. 

Edmbof^h : W. P. Nimmo. 

ftmwro/ /hivi'l Stiiw. /'till »'/<•'■ "ft>i* Tmfnfr^ St/tttm o/ Hiluoitton, By the Bar. 
William Fh-WER London: James Viabot* Oo. 

As wo shall see in a moment, tb^o is the sigmticanca of cootxast u 
coupling these hookn togotbvr. They differ from ««ch other as teaehi n g 
ana training cliffor. Oiu* dominie, though a man of Bne inaight, whoaa 
thoughts are adronced, and whose humour is as fine as it is strong and 
manly, yr-t rrg^oea in being of the old school in many things. He luu a 
salutary dislike fbr "vouug gentlemen" io jookotB; and houently "goes in" 
for dne do»cs of tho birch, or, as tho Scotch have it, the tfurse. Strant'iily 
enough, the t^utf is the only lino on which our dominie would circle round to 
meet &[r. Stow -with his training system. The tatvte not only teaches rcepoot, 
liut develujw a hoaltbful public opimon, which is just aliltlo pagan, porhapA, iu 
ite first aspect Bnt it has the effect of making a boy " try tal>ear a fluggiug 
vaU," and is tho main cause iu producing " a sight I sometimes see in our 



312 



7e Contemporary R<rciew. 



his inatnuamt of tortora. taoirt of ooorae lose tba power on acoonnt of vhich b« 
Bpholda hini. Tb* nukin rinalifi cation onr dominie Ftit;^;¥at«i for ■ tCKchsr \*, 
Ukt ha abonld knmr moiT' thui his pnptl, and hu r^'ctuninctids public kIum^ 
becaoM of the ton« of opiaion tbat preTail* there. TbouKh som«tiinea ioeon- 
utmt, u b«re, the dominie is hIvsts liroly stid instnictivfi. thtowingoat most 
TBloAbla practicml hint* in the lightMt mumer. NoriH b« withoat ftu exqtii«it« 
tottcb of p«tho«, which hen uid then Tcr:gw on tho po«tio. 

Ur. David Slow, Uie originator of the traioilig »f 8t4!ii), «0«iiig a gfMt deal of 
miMiT among' the poor of Qlaieow, eamMtlr aot biniMlf to work in ord«r to 
tma&y the evil, lie woo foana that the iflulta wan b^oad his power, and he 
then aet about gathehnf^ the children together and twtcjiipg them on Sunday*. 
Bat the ocdinair Hu&day-Mibool s^aUiin wiw uioit defoctifo. What the childiren 
Kained at echool wmt uudoue by what ther aaw at liomii. This aet Mr. Stow 
uuaking, and tho rucult was a tTvtem oomiwundod of the PMtaloKziaji aud 
Laocaatrian syKtemB, nlDiuu^th Mr. Slow had not lieord c^, or at all emnta 
bad not studied, cither. He made \hxs public opinion of the echool do th« whole 
work of puniahiiMnt, luid utilixwd Uih " Hympathy of itumb^n/' an diActplitiarv, 
in ■ moat remarkable waj, cDnadenng Iho material on which ho had to work. 
He dervloped the nionitohal Hyxlr'in, iin<l kfpt all eraployw). t>oiu« of the 
wisest and moet Ear-aeeinc' remarka on child-natnra we have ever nad are oon- 
(ainod in tbi>t volume, which is wntt«a in a aiiuplc, Htraiich I forward iiianner, 
yet not without taato and elegance. Mr. Stow in hia own pArson scenu to hare 
moHt satiKfuctoriiy Hulrod thv question, " Are works of men,-y ponible in a buay 
city life .* " 

CAfMMan Adct^dart* in South A/rint. By tho Ruv. Williax Ta YLOR. Ijondou : 
Jackeoo, Wiilford. and Uodder, 

Hr. Tayluu ta a member of the Cuuferonco in ColifuriiLii, and hoe spent ths 
last ton or (ilfivc-n yoora in making: porhaus tliu uiuat uxtvuMvo " ersiigeUstic 
toiin " that have boon placed on record In t)i)s VDl^m(^ ho relates hi« ndreo- 
tuns while truveraiog; tho Capo <.'uluny, KatEruiia, aud XutiU. between April 
and Octob<>r, IWIU. There be oamc moatlv in contact with members of the 
Wosleyiui duuuuuuutiuu: and, u« bo (.uluulatus, 7,937 huuLj " nuro brv)Ut;ht to 
Gni," Ix-in^ etLlK<r "Haved imniediut«Ly at my incotin^-t," or " saved in. tho 
dielricts in whiLli I lubourud ainiultunQuuuIy with my Kurviui-s during thu pohud. 
of Kflreii miHiUiH." Uin narrative, loi well lut Ihe fruiiLiniiM-tu^ to hia oook.afforda 
eTid(.'Qco uf thu rostlose enorgj*, eelf-ruUimi'^. &nd Hti-aif^^Utforwiu'diieaB of hia ' 
cIiaracLcr ; hi* bimyant gdod-hnmour, tniiit in I'mvidvnoi, mid gftm^ral n^ticf^noe 
oauuumiiiK Cbriiitiiuis of difTercint dc'iiominalionB. carry him through niaiiydiSl- 
OultiiH. To r<'viv« X\\r\ Kriirilic i»f prDl'iMn^d CbriKliiui* ih bi» fipi-ciiil work, rather 
than proacbiii^ to the n<>al]i(.'n, whowt luii|;uu^ bo bos not nc(j)iirt!<L As a 
apecinifu of bin miith'wl of o^arHlinii, wv print the fulloniiig ahndj^ed extract 
from hie uccouut nf wbut \w did at Uit(*ribri(fe (p. fl5) :^ 

"On Uondny I prr^ohcd in tho Wcnlcyan cb&pal. Aft^r pr«achins, I MpIaiMd Iha 
onlerof out [imyor-mi'L-tingH lui (oUowh: — A prnyrr^inHpdng iihauUI naro mere of the 
■ocial oleiuent in it than a prKwhiaK MrvJve. Wv Imvi' iwo tiiriLitiea of vrorahip in a 
prayui'-m^cUDK ;— public amgin^r in Lbg congregation altiiraaU'lv with pni>-«^, in whieli 
oni) penoTi IrtvUit nnilibly, far gonnnl wonthip. 'Jlitn, in on undcxtfino which need not 
iiiterkm wiUi the order uud ■utetnmty of tb« umiia^ wonbip, w« (pre the largest 
Uborty to indiniiiml olforta to bi-tnif bouU to Chrliit, . . The low-toned eonv«T™ation to ' 
•wikon who may bo inquiring — What iiiiul I do to be saved P — and the cantenl bjaLola- 
tory prayer of aynipnthir.ing hauirU i<K luch, do not indoiHl produce the least di^ord in 
the hannooy of iftmoral worship. Wo have nutbluf; new to introduw, but rnthcr (be 
old KtntpU) methodti of the Qoopel. Wo nrc> now r««dy to conrareo with any who UA,' 
the awuemfn^ of iho Holy Spirit, ludp you to giupiile with your dUScuIties, t«U yon'' 
how wo want through the Mime oideal of hardnGa^ darknMt, eriof, guilt, despair, Wf^ \ 
desire, fear, and the t«mble awaying between two mighty roicea, the ona attractnif ' 
tvwardK Cbriiit, the othnr rcpulling. . . . Wn tat %-ilHiic to mxnt you in any port of the 
hi>iuK' ; but wo roc'iiiimoud uU thoiM) who haw r-tolved to seek tb^i Lord now to oomo 
Airward to thii altar of prayer," 

ThoBOwho oame forward on tkcse occasioBBand made & eatisfiiotory profession I 



Notices of Books. 



313 



iir» eot duwu uh " baviug fuuiid pMen." "coHTurtB," "Bavod." Wlutther Mr. 
Tiiylor'a termiiiolug:)- h» cui-roct i* a qii(»4tioti. 'lliaL thu result of .■•nt-li a pnic-cKS 
wiut ^ood tu msny of bis hearurs wu Uu nut douht ; Imt vrv xhoulil jiri'ter Ui 
dti-tenlM it in mora mudtttt vordit. It wuiilal Ixi Ktirdly f>iir to iiinkt^ iXw Tuyl'^r 
rtiipoDsiblo fur the poruutu^tioo uf the religious fwUtigs which he imqui-atifliitibly 
«xt'it«tl in hill hivirtTB. 

Iti Natal, Ur. Taylor mut Uinhop Ooleow (p. -192); and it wao not through 
any liiickwardiisw on Mr. 'r)ivi<ii-s purt. tli«t th<.<y met only nDce. Wlidnt bIIow- 
ixxf tba jiorsoiiol good quxiUtic-i oi tho biahop, ho tppoan* tn ham fonnnd a 
d«cid<HUy iiafitvoiinildL' ripiiiioti uf hi* tcschto^, and of the imijority at' hi^ 
fwlloWDra (p. 473). 

Thurv is uuch (food mattii- ld th« diecoiu-eo (p. 3fl I ), ooasiriiug of thirty pages 
of muiU print, which ia gi?4>n bk n siMyrinicn of Mi-. Tuvlor's preaching to "taw 
hcuthwn;" butsuivly thelimitod pa^A^ers of attoutiob which such perwn^ poBsewa 
mtirt hitTO bcoii Miix-ly triod by it^ lon^h. 

Ou the whole, we commend Uu» voluiuo to roudi-ra who cuu ovltIooIe aa 
oeCAftLOnAl AODiiatioiial «tory, BOme ciigi-anugM n-hi<-h border on cooratinoss, and 
ruthor idioiitntio phrascologj', 118 voutuitiLU^^ much lo<ul iufoniiiLtiuu, combined 
with a Uvcly account of the personal expenenou of a xuiiUiu^ proacht-r. 



Vm.— GEllMAN LITERATritE. 

['l%e iattx natiftit in fAu unJ thr /oliauiitf Methu art tupjilieJ tg Mrttrn. WlLI.IAUS XStt 
NiiHOaTX, llmrirtln Ntml. nmd Meurn. Amikk St Co., Bidfnnt Slrttl, Citrtnt litirtUn.\ 

QttchickU dfT I/eaUehen Sprnelu. Von JacwB UitlMM. Leipzig. 

Tins work wa."* publi^ihwi oiiginallyin 1S18,and is too familinrto uH .sUidents 
of philology to cull for any detailed accouut. It may bo iiut<id, howo^tir, 
thai this th** thini edition ineorpomtes a couaiderttblo numbt-r of no(rt» m»do 
by Orimm himiwll" in his copy of th« w^conil. Aa n-jfunla the «izo, notwith- 
ilteldin^ tbeve additions, it i^oittatnit th^; sumo nuuiU-r of pages lui thn necuud 
■ mtSoQf and the pug*» of tho two coincido exactly, lion?, ihouj^h tho method 
of th« book, with KM iotcTOiLxturoof cumpanitivuTOCiiliuIarios of all tiio objetrta 
that etit«>r into nomad, or agricultural, or religious) life, and its trwitmi'd 011 tho 
ruLiliou.t uud I'haiigu^ uf vowcU aud couaouauu, aud its historical diMiiiib-itioiLS 
OQ the trib*'?i that modo up tlio groat DcaUeh pooiils. umv aeem somctwhut faulty 
iu olaajuillcutioij, tho groups iiru, at any ruto. wvll duliiit.-d ; and beiiide^tlia table 
of ooQtenta ^oro tn a fairly oopiovt.^ iudox, whiuh onabloa the utudont to track 
out ouy word or subjout uu which ho uiuy bo twokbg iufonuatiuii. 

TiTR ilhi^tt'iouii iiiiiriK znontionod in the above notice m<'fit.'« us imoft agaia 
in the noreoii of iJr. Tarl L. W. Orimm [wn know not whether related to 
oithvruf theBr"Bt hrolhwnt) iw th« editor of this new and very (.■"mplut" inlilion 
of Wilke's Chtvia tiui'iTrsttintiiili fbitolo^ien, whidihasoomo toitafourtliand last 
/luciruliis. Thvwlitor, on the title-pag^ and in his preface, profwM't'S hj liuve fnund 
it nooessary to mak>' u now book of it. Ho hfu ko]rt in view, more than any 
preriouti editor hnd duiio, the vanoua readiaoa of the grout M-SS., inchuliiig tho 
t>inaitio, haa paid moru attention than Wahl to illu^tratiTO pa*<agii«3 from 
elawical aathore, and to tho lunderiugn of Gret-k words in Vulgate or palristio 
Latin, h(u troatod tho piirticlon mori- fully and utcurattly th;iti Jlr»t-(i"hnfiiilfir. 
This flourish of trumpets might, porhaiWibavo bucn bL'ttvr tiparod. f.>r •'good 
wine ufiodit no bush:*' but tho work ii really goud. and s.-ums mt>™ thorough 
than that of any otlior New Testamunt loxioun with whiuh -wo aru acquainted. 
Aa being in Latiu, too, it L-ommeiid^ itaelf as arailablo fur many atudoots of 
thoology to whom a (ivrman Ivxicun would Ituvo reuduriHl but litU>:i holp. 

IFeWffftwcA 511 Pr, Martin LuVtm IMuttcftvn 3chri/ltn. Von Va. Utrrz. 

Lciipxig. 

Tnia ifl, in plain EngU^.a "Tjuthor Conoordanca" in six or eight partHof l&i 
pagM«ai:h, which iip[HHarn to u« at on<'-<j tuo narrow iuit»»cop«, luid tt>i)fatl in its 
exeoation. A dictionary of thi> Ocnn;iu at' the nixtoonth onntui-y wijuld bo ■ 
useful Doutributiou tu a full lexicon of the wholo language, on tho pbiu of 



3»4 



Thi Contemporary Review. 



BJdagJKin'ft EpgUfth oait. nnd might oAsily bo tnado on a ecalo of mneh 
OomtMcueM, and finiabej with mon diacnnuBCDL lliit to reproduro 1 
of every poMs^^ to Luthor ia wlticfa a ^^Tcn noon or Torb ooonn. bardsas 
with lualeruda of which much ik uooemttrily saperfluom, while tb« iibteiios 
»ny illuBtntion from t-arUpr. c(mtcmi>ornry, or later vritcn depriTca tu of . 
Ufnit which llioy mifibt tliruw oti LuiLtir, or LuiLit o& thmn, muI tiioden 
imm. trnong ht» inflnonoe on tlic iWigtotu or Keaeral phnaeolo^ of (lie period 
that fvUuvK. It is oofOBHEUiliad lu ut^ t>y I'mwan- ^ ilmur ms a auspk'iuout to 
Urimni'a areat " W6rt£rfaacb," and lu aa'ch it viU doubtleM find « puce in nuMt 
poblic UDd eonw privnUi libiwios. 

tmaAnlntuw} is illiie^ti-uliid lij- twt.'1vu p]utc« in fiic-tiiuilu, und will bo ta 
iifxrful to those who vant n briefi-i ni^imul tbnn the treatise of Monlfitucon. 
■A\-e« a clear account of the- t^ylosnf writing LharncterMieof diffcri'iit twnturie 
•lirfcls tlui remler to tbo cbit^f acivteihlo «xum]ilus of tliem, illiutraUj tbu trmun- j 
tioiis K'twDut) Uio uncial and tbo later tMTfivt Tenting by tjuciu^ liu chuuf 
iiK Ui«y itirtH-L Mu^ l«1t«ir of tbo nlphntx.'!, :iu<) ^\vn, Sai ire bavo vaid, htc> 
iif nuiny mnarkaWe MSS,, chiffly of the luthir type, 

Arehtt/iir n'itttnttlia/lh'cftr Erfi,r»K>iutty dt* Alttu Tr»tnmatl4. Ueno^egel 
Ton l)r. Adaluekt Ubkx. Ilalle. 
Tnin Ajxhiv ptiimiitMi to fti]ual uiy of Hk pretliK^oxwrs. IV. Filntt contributv* 
an ckbomto mimograph on ifaa ** EthnogTsphv of thf Itcbn'irs." This is 
fuUiiwed by Uu) Anthic tmimliitioii (3uiulta'ii} uf iIoni;u, irilb ii (Itfrniati vurnon 
uf Chap. J., and notuB hv Dr. t^<:hnKlcr. Br. Graf contributes Piut I. of a fail 
liiiilfirj- «jf tbw tribu of Iji-vi ; I*ivfo»<jr Bilxig, ;i f<'W vt^-mologiod iiotim on! 
biblical jiTDpur nnmoa. Thix Bvnopaut of its contfntA will ahow for what clanJ 
of nriulcrH it in luejuit, :iiid how fiit- it i» lllculy tu utnt.'t their wiuiU- It titrike*] 
UB, boworer, that onrOerroan fellnw-workcTii in thi^ liiiA of inquiry would b«1 
botttir fur r>-<^i|m>ixU»g, in iv^iurl U> tht; works of l^i;l">h UiblKnI rchnlars, 
tbo btiidr which the bitter bestow w abnndantJy on ihoin. On many points, 
f.y., in Ur. Graf'M pa]>f>r ou the taribo of 'Lo^i, iiifoniuition will bo found in 
iirtid*^ in Dr. HinitVs "Diftionaxy of the Bihie " whid) would faa%-e made ' 
t»utuic-'nt of tlie mbjpct. mom rompleto, and yot be Dcwms not evon liware of' 
tbo existeom of nach a book ;ia that whioh has. bivught before English reodon 
iJw roBolts of Gonnan and F.nglifili (icholorship. 

ftrmmnaiik der Nauyruchtn Spmehf. Von Xukodor Noluese. Leipue: 

T. I>. Woigel. 1888. 
TitK pnbliration, by bo competent a scholar aa Ndldeke, of a grammar of tht ( 
modoru ^yriac, aa fipoken by tho Nestorian* and JacobitM of the rcf*ions of' 
Turkey and Persia 1^'in;; to the northtrard of Meaopotanua, is a valuable 
oontribution to tbo lu6t<ir>- of tho Semitic languages. W» cau now iroco tba 



rathoi- than a direct roprceantativo of SiTiac proper, to which it is undoubtedly 
more olosely related than to nuy otbor i?etmtio buiguago or dialoct IL la 
unfortttnato that the eourcc^ ore very limited, and moetlv tranalationa, by lb« 
American ntiantonarioa otttablisbeit at VrmiyL'h, of Uui Uiblc, and of t'urt^fn 
Writinga of ERglisb theologj', the latLor essentially no (Uffcroiit in their point nt 
view ftwiri ariylniug Semitic, or tvou Oric^ntal, that tdionw must often be distorted 
by a trauxlabir, bowQi'er thorou^^Lty acquaiutod with thv languagfe. It io righl 
to add that Niildeke aclcnuwledgea the oennoee of Stoddard's grammar and F. 
JdiilWn vocabulary. 

0«*-AfVAfa <lfr /tmaitMtKt in Unlien, Von Jaood UOftOEnAUnT. Mit 

Illu&lTationi.-u. 
fMheiii oii'l KIM Ztit. Von Dr. ALVRfcTJ WoLTM.orx. 

\ii: re).-i^t ttmt wo ha\-a not l)oi<n abW In (fiv" Ihfjo'; book* all tho time tbey 
deaervtv Itolh nro of that kind of Gortnan works which may be aaid lo rc<]uire 
Oeman retulxiiF: and when w<f look at the carefullv-ortU'rcd bookKnnilchapIcTK, 
and the mnftsra of rpfcrcnco, oflcn to works wo navo not neon— when wk look 
oip-cr well-drawn plana und hard-and-eharp woodcuto, unattructiTO but in clear' i 
faoaimilo or true pOTKp&ctiTO— wbon, mareorer. we find capital noeonnta ojf I 



htices of Books. 



315 



fAiir own fuvotiriU) linildings »sil picturm— WB ackniTwIsdg«, tridi a hearty 

fj<Kl-vUl, that Profiaaenr Liibbo, Herr BarcUiardt, sad Dr. .AU'rcd WoUmsmi 
now a KtwA dml more of their KutnwtH tluui ve do. 
I Tho lustorv of Eonsiiennoo Arcfiiteoturo is Trritton to ooniplet« tha wrics of 
|-Kii;;lBr'« worts. Dr. Ltibko pavs a p-acefol tributs to th<> memoiy of >i writer 
Ivbo is prrhain best kiioim of atl iuroigii uuthors on iirt io this eomttiy. 
'"hii hiiitory Is su impartial viev of BeuauBano? builiiitie — there U no partisui- 
lip, cxtrtMoty nono of that hatrod (Aam) of Gothic which prorailod in Italy 
Dwaxda the eod of tho nxteenth oeotury. Now-ii-day« wo oro ail awastiitg tov 
'bhummoco of Eiighah. French, and Gt^rnun Gothic;' «nd this IomIa lUto our 
■uthor's true obocrratioD, that QotfaieuidftUarchit«vturo of tbo groat citiwwtto 
AoiQQiitic, ciTic, «nd naticiiial in its feeUns:, rather than roli^otu. " [q free 
^cUiet munioipiil prido aooka to gratify itsolf&ad oxecl \\t ncighbuunt Weomo 
at effort itt cathedral-buildiiig. Unaided dovotioii in Kubji!<:t to otuullations, 
1 dccIincH Undortitoiiiilufiuco uf civic oontributtonx and tJLXCfl." Thi«exa£tlr 
f^iaUs in with Mr. Itu-ikitrit ■tatain«iit. Uinl tlix l-'ivnch catttudi-iil tow«t« worn 
liuiU io uuiehboui'ly rivalry, mncb like thut of a criokot mutch. 

W* arft plmHEHl, in our inKMMuirily hiutty riww of this bunk, Io htnw found «» 
mcn;^ eoincidoocDB of thought botwoen our own mnntrytniin and these learned 
raud impartiul (jomuiii impiirors, who do not iwom to be awaro of hi« existence- 
rVbc iieae«Bity that a pmat architect shmild ha a anUntor or painter i.i erAduoJty 
I'Deiug imprflKHod on tu by Mr. Bunkin lit homo; and Herr BureUiarat quotes 
^Ghiberti'srRinark on Giotto to the Ramo purpoao, >* Quondo la natarn rnolo 
'fooitovdoro alcuna cosa, la concede senza veruna ararizia." Chi this ho makes a 
|o&pitAl obneiTation, to tho otfed that " Iho num^-itidodneiM of most of the earlier 
|.Brti<ts, which is quite u riddle to our ago of diriaion of labmir, waa of cxtru- 
lordinary Taloe in arcbitoclunt when architect imro aUo tculpton. 

C winters, and cnrvers in wood: accustomed to oxiireaa form in orery way." 
lur authors have n fooling; for Venico whivh roiuinOH one of Kir. Buxkin's tluid 
rork. " Venice," they say, "is almost untiivly «k'ut (in tbo oxprossion of 

?w architectural spirit about MiO) Wo' Venedig spricht, iimtm seino 

rarto fim stolsMtt^n." 

E.T two Ghapti>r» on the mouuinonlid vpirit of Italian architvcturo, and 

ltd of patrons and arehitecta, &o., the oariy llcnnioHance is tnuied to the 

iiv when it« k>vor» £ually declared agaiiut Oothio aa barbarous beyond 

^durance. There are chaptcni on \'itrann9 and the mediaaral atndy of his 

iiouthu "compositiun" of chundwi),jnlac«e,hoH]iit(Ua, bridges, una ^-iUaa: 

baths, gardens, carrinR in atone, dtionrative *rulpt»r<>, ii-on mid woodwork. 

latod pav(nDeiita,fsfiwe-))«iiutine,andBtucco. on Uuftt<^l. Oiov&uuidn I'dinu. 

id OinqQa-Cento, on lumituro and pogeanta, triumphal orch'-H, and tfaoatroH. 

Lit are lUustrutud in that clear uud workman-like miuinor of wc^d-onifravinii; 

rhieh i« mi fur l'«4 iittr:ictivo uid mi much mora rt-aDy dt^Mm.)ito than our on-n 

'eflbotiTc" stylo. Sudi Imildingn are t^electfld for exnmploH, us 8tu Maria 

sUa Orazia at Milan, the interior of ^ /.iirrjtri;i at Vctihx, uiid H. Lonmui 

! Fkovnco. Farticuljir oltcntion \a dnwn to titu chii'f cim^truciive cxoi>llenn' 

, _ the Benaiamnco, derived bom the oulheihal at rifia, or one mipbt Knr from 

,8t. Siiphin itsnif— thnuBBof the round dome (or polyKoruil roof,f»at^ta Kt.doUa 

Cn-izie} over the square substructure. Yenetiaii and other earoopbagi uro da- 

1. with two pre-eminently good iUnstratioaa— onOTOiy amoll one of tlie most 

a«QtL>d type of the later puru Oothio ^^vca ao woodarfuUy deecribtxl in the 

, volume <rf the " Storioa of Vonite,"— another of a grandly-carved Floran- 

riiiie sarcophagus in Sta Croce (pp. 383, M). Tbo work aeems to ua to deserve bo 

Eln OS carefully rend ua it is well and laboriouiily written. 

I; We bad rather lic-ar of the German Hefannauon than the Italiui Booaisnnce ; 
rand one of the earlit.-r and most imjiortaiit chaptt-Ts of Dr. AUrcd WoltmonaV 
^seoond volume of "Holbein and bifi Times." enubloa us to croaa tho Alps to 
ffiasle, and indoed to England. "Hiis book appears to u« about as well written 
Tuid iUoetimtcd aj> a book ncod h^. It him no index, but thu aiialyww at the 
la of ltd ohaptoni do nlmntrt ax w«ll. It.t three main di^-iHitinji 01*0 Ilolbein'a 
indupncv on the B^'irmntion : a Ifin^ and interostin^ account of tbo Tiuioup 
" |lan«r<tof T)iMth,"ol'whi(Oi bis^-aat freaco<iu thfleloi'rtiTw-.dlat llaale wan the 
„Tepreeentat)Te work : and the fltoryof the rest of hin life and wurkat? a. portruit- 
^amter, epeot nlmoat mitiroly in Kni'l&iid. Thi» reuch«K im nt oxactly tlio right 
time. A year ago little more was popularly known about thu Swuts niiiSer 



V 



the Contemporary "Review. 



than that be pniiitc>d a T>anoR of Death, and Tsiiutu portmitB of Henry VIII. 
We liav*" now not only (.■jitalot^iivl, biit vt"ry many nf wn hKTO •eMl,hJM principul 
works in this cniintry. tluuiki* to tho National Porlmt Exhibition, to which 
iJr. WnltmBiiii oftpti relV-n*. Wwhnvo to thiitik him in purticuUr for tho wtH"!- 
cut of a cartoun, for an uiiBiiinlieil fresco, of Koni-v VIII. and his fathtT ; Iiut 
tJiomo«t vnlnaV>le illustratiniiP«arBthi>w,< of thf* " Abln«*-h;md*l,"or Iiirtiiljecnw*- 
shopt and of Chrii^t Anco|)linp htimblo vorttliimMira and ivjooting popoa and 
(IcKlors. Mitltiplied as these verv by the prew^, they must hu.vi> l»-i>n felt ns un 
cvoi'-roBdy wuiipnii in the Iiandx nf